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  1. 1. MATI II Deliverables Instructions for accessing information from Deliverables list To access documents of interest in the listing of Deliverables, scroll down. The category heading is in large type and items within the category are coded and numbered. Thus the first item in roadmapping is labeled R1, the first item in technology transfer (which, along with Technology Sourcing and Intellectual Property Management, is under Technology Ecology) is TE/TT1. Clicking on the link under the document name will take you to the document on the web. To access a new document, return to this Word file. To aid in scrolling, a menu follows (roadmapping, technology strategy/portfolio management and each sub-category of technology ecology begin on new pages and page numbers are indicated, allowing use of the “go to” command.) The roadmapping section has a more detailed breakdown into categories because of the much larger number of documents in this area. This set of materials was prepared in Palatino and probably formats best if opened using this font. Contents Roadmapping (R) (pages 3-14) Templates and processes (R1-R5) Company roadmapping cases (R6-R8) Organizational considerations (R9-R11) Diagnostics/Checklists/Exercises/Training (includes Primer) (R12-R18) General roadmapping perspectives (R19-R31) Non-linear/Multi scenario, Foresight, Decision roadmapping (R32-R37) Industry roadmapping (R38-R39) Science roadmapping (R40) SME‟s (R41) Bibliographies (R42-R43) In-depth Reading (R44) (page 14) Futures Studies (pages 15-19) (F1-F14) Company cases (F15-F16) Task force updates (F17) Technology Strategy and Portfolio Management (TS/PM) (pages 20-27) Technology strategy (TS/PM1-TS/PM12) Portfolio management (TS/PM13-TS/PM19) 1
  2. 2. Additional and MATI I Materials (TS/PM20-TS/PM23) (pages 26-27) Bibliographies (TS/PM24-TS/PM25) Technology Ecology (pages 28-34) Technology Transfer (TE/TT) (pages 28-31) Templates and processes (TE/TT1-TE/TT7) Additional and MATI I Materials (TE/TT8-TE/TT10) (pages 29-30) In-Depth Reading (TE/TT11-TE/TT12) (pages 30-31) Technology Sourcing (TE/TS) (pages 32-33) (TE/TS1-TE/TS6) Intellectual Property Management (TE/IP) (page 34) (TE/IP1) Task force Updates (page 34) (TE1-TE2) Organizational Issues (ORG) (pages 35-36) (ORG1 –ORG4) Also see organizational issues in Roadmapping section Standards Management (S) (page 37) Templates (S1) Cases (S2) Project (S3) Technology and Marketing (T&M) (pages 38-39) (T&M1-T&M4) Technology Management -General (TM) (pages 40-43) (TM1-TM9) This section includes articles/presentations on knowledge management, tracking emerging opportunities, as well as articles on security and the general technology management field and MATI in general. 2
  3. 3. Technology Management Field (page 41) (TM10-TM11) MATI (pages 42-43) (TM12) 3
  4. 4. Deliverables Summaries and Links ROADMAPPING (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link Roadmaps, as viewed by the MATI community, are documents that reveal the key defining elements of the markets, products, and technologies for a select part of the firm. Roadmapping is the activity of creating and then communicating those roadmaps for decision making. Roadmaps are unique documents in their emphasis on time and change, rather than treating assumptions as constants. Roadmaps take those moving targets and establish their priority, extend them using forecasts, and link them across the firm and sometimes through the customer, partner, and supply chain. Templates and Processes (R1) Lucent's Product/technology Roadmapping Template with Explanations (14 slides) Overviews roadmapping, including Competitive Strategy & Differentiation, Market Share & Growth, Product Evolution Plan, Product Roadmap, Experience Curves, Product Drivers, Technology Roadmap, Component Forward-Costing Model, Software Roadmap, Manufacturing Roadmap and Technology Attack Strategy. (R2) Lucent's Product/Technology Roadmapping Template with Explanations and Sample Data (14 slides) A roadmap for Lucent using wireless handsets as an example to illustrate the format and the roadmapping process. (R3) Rockwell's Roadmapping Template (19 slides) The process is illustrated though presentation of Market Driver, Technology Enabled, Figures of Merit, Business Unit Core Competencies (driven by Core Technologies & Core Capabilities), Technology Migration, Technology Competitive Position, Potential Disruptive Impact, Roadmap Strategy, Business Unit Core Competencies, Business Initiatives, Market Dynamics, Business Interdependencies, and the Competence/Hurdle/Impact of the 6 “Most Wanted”. (R4) Siemens-Westinghouse's Roadmapping Template, Harry Morehead (9 slides) 4
  5. 5. Siemens-Westinghouse‟s Roadmapping process is described in terms of Uses, Product Line Direction, Strategic Technology Objectives, Technology Roadmap for Enabling Technology, Enabling Technology Objectives & Milestones. The role of Embryonic Technologies is described through Programs, Summary, and Status overviews. (R5) Motorola's Roadmapping Process and Template, Pat Richardson (6 slides) Motorola‟s discontinuous renewal process (heavily impacted by both people and technology), leading to emerging businesses, is described through the 4 key parts (Technology Strategy, Technology Roadmaps, Scenario Plans, and Minority Report) and illustrated through a hypothetical Audio/Visual Industry Scenario Plan and an illustration of a completed Technology Roadmap. Company Roadmapping Cases (R6) Roadmapping Applications at Lucent, Rich Albright, Albright Strategy Group (22 slides) Roadmaps (what they are, how they are structured and used) and roadmapping (the process of developing roadmaps is at least as important as the finished product). (R7) Roadmapping at Siemens-Westinghouse, Harry Morehead (6 slides) The overview of uses provides the context for Roadmaps that lead to the direction for product line technology development in the context of strategic technology objectives and culminating in a roadmap for enabling technology. (R8) Roadmapping at Motorola: Brief Outline of Roadmapping in Motorola, Paul Odlyzko, Motorola (5 slides) An overview of Motivation, Personalities, and Process, precede a summary of the current use of Technology Roadmaps. Organizational Considerations (R9) Getting Other People to Roadmap, Tom Kappel, Lucent (4 slides) The job of implementing roadmapping is really one of getting others to learn the technique, create roadmaps and then use the output in meaningful ways. A measurement scheme is needed to know how well you are implementing it. Three measures are suggested (the MATI I study using "aligned decisions"). The commonly used techniques are then discussed in terms of their effect using those measures. See “Getting Buy-In for Roadmapping”, Tom Kappel in Intra-org. Issues. 5
  6. 6. (R10) Roadmapping Behaviors, Tom Kappel, Lucent (13 slides) A summary of some findings from MATI I field research on roadmapping. Includes some basic definitions, discussion of how roadmaps are used, and how it can be measured. Tentative conclusions are presented on ideal conditions for roadmapping and the successful tactics for implementing or spreading it. (R11) Thoughts on a Systematic and Meaningful Structure for Roadmapping/Futures Studies Based on Context and Use, Mike Radnor (IBD/Kellogg), Jeff Strauss (IBD/Kellogg), Tom Kappel (Tellabs) 10 slides Stakeholders, Objectives, and Context provide the context for the level and nature of involvement in the Roadmapping process. For instance, variations in perspectives on Roadmapping are dependent on the organizational perspective. Thus, varying stakeholder perspectives have implications for the process of Roadmapping. A key issue is who should be involved in the Roadmapping process (when and how), a decision that includes consideration of individual expertise, power, personality, and balance of the team. Checklists/Exercises/Training (R12) Roadmapping Process Checklist - A list of common activities necessary to complete the roadmapping process including market drivers and technology strategy (3 pages) Technology roadmaps are the documentation of a structured process to define, analyze, and plan the development of a core product/technology. Some companies use a small group of technical experts to keep the roadmaps current. The better approach is a multi- disciplined one where experts from engineering, research, marketing, planning, etc. are involved in the process. Each company will implement the process in its own way. However, there are some common concepts that all companies deal with while implementing the roadmapping process. After the technology, product line, product, or component is identified, in general terms, as a candidate for the roadmapping process, the following activities are necessary to complete the detailed roadmapping process. The results from each activity are documented on a series of roadmapping templates for presentation, as needed. (R13) Roadmapping Benefits Diagnostic, Elliott Fan and Mike Radnor, IBD This diagnostic tool is designed to assist firms considering roadmapping to determine the benefits they are likely to obtain, given their needs and goals and the technology management processes they currently use. Background, rationale (6 slides) Summary of topics/sample questions & comments (9 slides - Open in Notes mode) 6
  7. 7. (R14) Training Exercise: Intra-Organizational Issues in Roadmapping, Elliott Fan, (IBD) (in several sections as noted) This learning exercise was successfully piloted at two MATI meetings. It involves having executives from several departments (currently technology, marketing and strategy/finance but being expanded to include manufacturing) role play in a roadmapping development team. The team is required to develop strategies and roadmaps under changing conditions, for a fictitious firm. The package of materials includes initial briefing materials for each function, materials distributed to each function as an update after initial discussion and a guide for facilitating the exercise. Guide (12 slides - OPEN IN NOTES MODE) Background handouts (3 pages each): Strategy Marketing Technology Updates (after initial discussion) (1 page each): Strategy Marketing Technology (R15) Fast-Start Technology Roadmapping, Rob Phaal, Claire Farrukh and David Probert, Cambridge University (11 pages) The paper which describes the development and application of a process for supporting the rapid initiation of technology roadmapping in manufacturing firms can be of particular interest to SMEs. The 'start-up' process comprises a series of facilitated workshops that bring together various functions in the business, including technology and marketing. The process supports understanding and communication of the relationships between market and business requirements, product and service concepts, and technological solutions. The approach encourages learning and staff involvement, and identifies key knowledge gaps, enabling a company-specific roadmapping process to be initiated quickly. In addition, theoretical aspects of technology roadmapping are discussed, in the context of managing technological knowledge. 7
  8. 8. (R16) A Short Roadmap Case: Rigid Disk Drives, Rich Albright, Albright Strategy Group (MATI Fellow) (16 PowerPoint slides) A Product-Technology Roadmap is presented as the link between Market & Competitive Strategy, Product Roadmap, Technology Roadmap, and Summary & Action Plan. The case is developed in terms of an exercise assignment and uses experience curves and market research results to form the background for the objective to turn around a 3.5” drive business. Technology Development Options provide 4 project choices to drive this turnaround. (R17) Roadmapping Primer Outline and Progress, Bob McCarthy, Roche (8 slides) Progress on the development of the Primer, targeting Roadmapping novices who want to use the tool. The Guiding Principles are to include references to advanced materials and integrate the Primer with other MATI initiatives to the extent possible. The role of Roadmapping in the New Product Development (NPD) process is to address technology-dependent product evolution, technology integration, and the leveraging of technology into new markets. The 5-stage process flow involves different people at different times in the Roadmap development process. The drivers / activities and deliverables, together with staffing, for each stage is presented. The Task Force goal is to present a member draft for the next MATI meeting. (R18) Update on Progress on Generic Product-Technology Roadmap (primer) Bob McCarthy (MATI Fellow formerly Roche) (12 PowerPoint slides) The scope of the first “primer” is limited to product-technology Roadmaps that are used to support existing product development processes. The Primer will include: 1) Introduction, 2) Pre-project phase, 3) Development phase, 4) Implementation phase, 5) Case studies, 6) Appendices. The plan is to finalize the outline for the first 3 sections immediately, with sub-groups formed to convert the outline into text & figures prior to internal review and completion of the rest of the outline. General Roadmapping Perspectives (R19) Roadmapping Overview, Richard Albright, Lucent (22 slides) Addresses what is roadmapping, Comments on Successful Roadmapping, and the Development Process from an industry perspective. (R20) Perspectives on Roadmaps: How Organizations Talk about the Future, Tom Kappel, Lucent, to appear in Journal of Product Innovation Management (11 pages PDF) 8
  9. 9. This study provides an organizational perspective on roadmapping as currently practiced, presents the experience of several organizations that have implemented it, and evaluates the results. Using a case-based, exploratory method, Kappel addresses several practical questions, such as: What are the effects of roadmapping? How are they measured? Is roadmapping always appropriate? How would an organization know if it is roadmapping well? What are the various kinds of roadmaps and how do they relate to each other? (R21) Next Generation Roadmapping: From R, D &E Management to Innovation Management, from Products & Technologies to Partners and Platforms, Ronald Jonash (Arthur D Little) (24 slides) This presentation argues that successful companies will be those that are able to continually and systematically innovate by thinking in terms growth platforms of core technologies or capabilities and the management of partners chosen strategically to facilitate rapid product development. Case examples are included. Implications for alignment of business and technology strategy, organizational structure and key processes (including, particularly, technology portfolio management and varying roadmaps) are discussed. (R22) Roadmapping Taxonomy, Richard Albright, Lucent (4 slides) A draft project description addressing Types of Roadmaps, Roadmapping Domains, and the focus of activity of 14 Roadmapping groups (including MATI). (R23) Aligning Strategy and Technology Using Roadmaps: Emerging Lessons from the NCMS 'MATI' Project", Michael Radnor and John W. Peterson (8 pages) This paper offers some insights into selected management of technology-related constructs and tools that can help integrate planning and operations for the mid-to- large size technology intensive company. The constructs and tools reflect real time lessons being learned in MATI. (R24) How to Recognize a Mature Technology Roadmap - A Field Guide for Technology Planning and Management, John Thompson, Lucent (6 pages) An easy to read introduction to roadmaps and roadmapping. (R25) Roadmapping Common Platform Part 1(16 pages) Part 2 (9 pages) Part 3 (13 pages) 9
  10. 10. This set of papers examines the differences, similarities and common platforms that exist in the roadmapping process. Can corporate-level road mapping serve as a general vehicle for evaluating, minimizing and managing risk in projects as well as ensuring effective execution of the project. (R26) Technology Planning Survey - Strategic Technology Management: Linking Technology Resources to Company Objectives, R. Phaal and C. Farrukh, Cambridge University (32 pages) This survey was conducted by the MOT group at Cambridge to establish current practice in the area of „technology planning‟, with specific reference to 'technology roadmapping' in the UK and, in the US through a „supplementary‟ survey. The following broad conclusions are drawn: 1. While technology planning is an important business activity across industry sectors and company types, there is little commonality in terms of perceptions, approaches and tools. There is a need for improved frameworks and tools, with a desire for simple, structured, robust, flexible and integrated tools and processes. These findings support the need for the development of a tool catalogue. 2. The survey demonstrated that technology roadmapping can be used successfully for supporting technology strategy and planning, although its adoption represents a challenge in terms of both initiating and sustaining the process. There is considerable interest in the development of the fast-start TRM process. (R27) Technology Road Mapping: The Issues of Managing Technology Change, David Probert and Noordin Shehabuddeen, University of Cambridge (5 pages) Technology roadmapping has emerged as a key management tool in formulating the link between technological resources and the exploitation of market opportunities. A powerful aid to strategy formulation and communication, the technique has the major advantage of bringing many functions within a business together around a common plan. Although there is no definitive guide to roadmapping practice, the application in many different businesses has revealed a number of generic aspects. A major common factor is that technology road maps are concerned with the introduction of technology change into an organization. (R28) Value Chain/ Value Creation Roadmapping, Rich Albright, Albright Strategy Group (MATI Fellow) (16 slides, pdf) Viewing the business as a “system” provides the structure to develop a Roadmap with the objective to create shareholder value. This concept combines the push and pull aspects of Know-why (market & competitive strategy), Know-what (Product Roadmap), Know-how (Technology Roadmap), and To-Do (Summary and Action Plan) in the 10
  11. 11. context of Know-when (Time). The insight that Roadmapping is just good planning provides the basis for reviewing traditional Shareholder Value and associated Value Drivers. The GE decomposition of value is combined with Porter‟s Value Chain to present summary analyses of Motorola and Kraft from their annual reports as case examples. (R29) Linking Business Strategy and Technology Roadmaps, Sujeet Chand, Rockwell Automation (30 slides,pdf) Using the experience of Rockwell, current practice of technology roadmaps and business strategy reviews are described. With shorter product life cycles more applicable commercial technology, the internet as both an enabler and a disrupter, and global / regional standards driving markets, business has become more intense. Complex competitive, partnering, and customer relationships establish that a proactive technology planning process is crucial for business success. Key success factor identified were: 1) world-class integration, 2) applications support for strategic applications, and 3) product specifications tailored to customer needs. Gaps are identified and a process for improving the linkage between Roadmaps and business strategy is presented. This improvement is focused on customer value propositions tied to business objectives and key success factors, a common front end to both processes. (R30) Using Text Mining with Technology Roadmapping, Alan Porter (Georgia Tech), April 5-9, 2000 30 slides Building on the premise that increasingly accessible electronic information resources comprise a fantastic resource, the challenge remains how best to analyze and present information derived from a variety of sources. The Technology Opportunities Analysis (TOA) process begins with information search and ends with presentation of information products that inform effectively. Examples of foci of activity, mapping specific research topic clusters, trend analysis of publications, innovation indicators, are used in innovation tracking & forecasting, for market, technology, and competitors. The link to Roadmapping is through technology drivers and trends, including competitive analysis. Issues of TOA as a product / service include how to package the results, with “on time” delivery (21% within the day, 45% within the week, 24% with the month) showing the gap between industry needs and the traditional academic process. Seven suggestions to enhance Roadmapping utility are advanced. (R31) Product Technology Roadmap (roadmap evolution) Rich Albright, Albright Strategy Group 1 slide A pictorial representation of the various components of a product-technology roadmap. Multi Scenario/Non-Linear, Foresight and Decision-based Roadmapping 11
  12. 12. Multi Scenario/Non-Linear (R32) Knowledge Management-based Multi-Scenario Roadmapping for Dynamic Environments Jeffrey Strauss (IBD/Kellogg): in two parts: 1. Changing Ba of Roadmapping (4 slides) Applying Nonaka‟s concept of Ba, a contextual framework is presented which considers how roadmapping has moved from a focus primarily on enhancing the voice of technology & R&D in strategic planning to including a range of business units and functions and, gradually, suppliers. As a response to rapidly changing and uncertain conditions extension of the roadmapping context to explicitly consider multiple scenario variations (more so than is currently done) is suggested. 2. Multi-Scenario Roadmapping (12 slides in Word) Details rationale and issues and then suggests steps for specifying variations in roadmapping tasks for different scenarios and planning for potential transition from one scenario to another. (R33) Plotting and Navigating a Non-Linear Roadmap: Knowledge-Based Roadmapping for Emerging and Dynamic Environments, Jeff Strauss, Mike Radnor and John Peterson (29 pages) Figures for the above paper (on separate Power Point file, 9 slides) A review of the complementary tools of roadmapping and scenario planning provides the context a two new methodology joining these techniques. Two new methodologies are introduced that could provide the complementing conceptual and practical implementation guidelines needed to overcome inherent limitations and maximize the contribution to knowledge management of the above two toolset. It may also bridge disparate organizational, environmental, industry, product life cycle and knowledge type contexts. (R34) On Creating New Horizons: Integrating Non-Linear Considerations To Better Manage the Present From the Future, John Anderson, Mike Radnor and John Peterson - November, 1998 (9 pages) In a departure from arduous formal scenario planning, a futures approach based upon NASA‟s Horizon Mission Methodology adapted to the emerging “MATI” model of the technology intensive firm will be presented. It has the virtues of being an informal, flexible, and adaptable planning technique which can easily become an embedded 12
  13. 13. management skill. Although not a cure-all for business problems, it does provide a framework for creating context and integrating vision, solutions and alternatives. Foresight Roadmapping (R35) Roadmaps to Improve Technology Foresight (23 pages pdf) This presentation discusses constraints to innovation in organizational culture and, using examples from the pharmaceutical industry, suggests a variation on roadmapping to systematically consider the impact of trends and discontinuities. Decision-based Roadmapping (R36) Enterprise-wide Requirements and Decision Management with Strategic Roadmap Planning, Gary DeGregorio (Motorola) 1. Since recast in Motorola as a distinct process separate from roadmapping, this article provides an overview of Motorola‟s decision system to enable improved organization-wide decision making and roadmapping (13 slides PDF) 2. The complete exposition (38 slides PDF) (R37) Decision Based Roadmapping: Progress and MATI Opportunity Gary Degregorio, (Motorola) (21 slides PDF) Beginning with the provocative heading “Roadmaps are the Answers, so what are the Questions?” an agenda of progress leads to a MATI Opportunity. Current process of decision-making is characterized as ad hoc, disconnected, non-compatible, and non- actionable, with fuzzy, duplicated, non-compatible requirements feeding independent Roadmaps that are disconnected from real decision making. Since Decisions Create the Future™, they should be linked both to requirements and roadmaps. A process of Roadmap Planning as well as Decision Driven Design are described, making the point that decisions are central to the process. A structured approach to capture and record the various elements has been used by teams from strategy through marketing to technology. This approach managed complexity, accelerated end-end design convergence, captured thinking and decision rationale while providing an efficient collaboration framework and laying the foundation for implementation success. The opportunity for MATI lies in creating a market for Roadmapping and decision-based processes, methods, and tools. Industry Roadmapping (R38) Industries of the Future: Creating a Sustainable Technology Edge, Kenneth Friedman, US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology 13
  14. 14. Presents the concept of cooperative, pre-competitive research, highlighting the role of Industry Roadmapping. Completed industry visions for Forest Products, Steel, Metalcasting, Glass, Aluminum, Chemicals, Agriculture, and Mining are presented, with examples of consortia-developed "research that produced results". (Note: These slides are very graphic- intensive): part 1 (30 slides - 5.3 mb) part 2 (7 slides - 3.5 mb) part 3 (8 slides - 4.4 mb) (R39) Biotech/Bio-information Roadmapping: Reports and Plans; Potential Use of Roadmapping in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Bob McCarthy (Roche), Jodi Flax (Motorola) (34 slides) Explicating the drug discovery value chain provides the ability to identify key bottlenecks in the process as the first step to identifying technologies with the potential to modify each bottleneck. The Roadmap provides the venue to develop the characteristics required of new technologies as well as assess the alignment of current technologies and needs. An example is presented of Millennium Technologies and the problems that combinatorial chemistry brought to traditional approaches to toxicological characterization. Science Roadmapping (R40) Using Text Mining with Technology Roadmapping, Alan Porter, Georgia Institute of Technology (30 slides) Beginning with the premise that full internal and external information, made more accessible by electronic sources, leads to the question of how best to analyze and present derived information. This presentation focuses on the field of Science roadmapping. SMEs (R41) Application of Roadmapping to SMEs, Jack Bishop (Kingsbury/IBD) (9 slides) Small- and Medium- sized Enterprises (SMEs) as suppliers are major sources either for new technology and/or for cheaper prices and better service. SMEs are fast growing customers. Either way, SMEs are attractive business partners for established businesses. However, SMEs operate under significant constraints, including cultural differences with large companies. Roadmapping may be an effective means of enhancing communication between SMEs and their larger hosts, addressing such issues of what technology when and what resources when to synchronize capabilities and 14
  15. 15. expectations. To achieve the potential of enhancing the SME / Large Company interaction, Roadmapping must be self-administered (web based?), simple (Roadmapping Lite™), and robust (Roadmapping Tuff™). Roadmapping Lite would use standard tools & templates to focus on Product / Technology Roadmaps. A program for development of the concept within MATI was proposed. Bibliographies (R42) Short roadmapping bibliography, Michael Radnor, IBD (2 pages) Bibliography illustrating MATI contribution (R43) Roadmapping Bibliography, Michael Radnor, IBD (21 pages) Extracted for MATI II from ONR bibliography In-depth Reading (R44 – also listed as TE/TT8) What's an Organizational Routine? ‘Unpacking Knowledge Management’, Daniel Levin, Discussion of success factors in technology roadmapping and technology transfer (53 pages) By focusing on the specific and crucial technology roadmapping (planning) and transfer processes ( defined and described in more detail below), this research grounds the theories and concepts of knowledge and learning in what actually goes on in organizations. In 14 cases at four large companies, it may not be enough for organizational learning to take place if there is only an ability to absorb new knowledge and a high degree of comfort in doing so. Rather, supporters had to have the power and influence in the organization for knowledge flow to happen and overcome inertia. The paper shows how two critical, knowledge-intensive organizational routines (technology roadmapping and the intra-company technology transfer) operate in practice in multiple companies. It is based on a cross-case comparison at multiple firms. 15
  16. 16. FUTURES STUDIES (F1) Process for Formulating an R&D Strategy by Integrating Business Directions with Technology Foresight and Capabilities, Ralph Wood, United Technologies (27 slides) The process begins with a discussion of Desired Outcomes. This is presented in the context of a Strategic Technology Outlook, including the perspective/role of: Current Business Environment, Future Business Scenarios, Issues Shaping the Future, 5 Scenarios (illustrated), Key Strategic Drivers, Role of Emerging Technologies, Scenarios (e.g. Enterprise Productivity, Product, Customer Service) and Longer Range Emerging Technologies. This work leads to an exposition of the Importance of Technology Capabilities to each Business Unit and the Technology Capabilities Portfolio & Strategy. (F2) Disruptive Technology: A New Paradigm for the ‘Attacker’s Advantage’, Bob McCarthy, Roche (31 slides) Discussion of strategic implications of Clayton Christiansen‟s (Innovators Dilemma) analysis of anticipating and preparing for technology variations that may undercut or alter competitive positioning (derived from Christiansen workshops and writings.) (F3) Role of Futurists, Andy Hines, Kellogg and Denise Chiavetta, Coca-Cola (19 slides) Jumping the chasm from fuzzy futures to running a business, the challenges for internal futurists provides the basis for suggesting 6 ways to meet those challenges. (F4) A Closer Look at the Future, Denise Chiavetta, Coca-Cola and Ralph Wood, United Technologies (31 slides) Four tips for smoothing the way to using futures research to help business management. These are (amphibious links, mental models, 360 view, clarify the "problem"), tools & methods (lead user, scenarios, roadmapping, data mining) provide for a discussion of the overview of trends leading to examples of process as well as sources of data. The examples for the use of scenarios to create plausible views of the future provide a basis for development of robust strategies. (F5) Report on Futures Studies, Denise Chiavetta (The Coca-Cola Company), Ralph Wood (United Technologies) (10 slides) The Futures Perspective deals with influences beyond immediate business environment, categorizable by social, environmental, technological, political, and economic aspects. The search for fundamental changes conceptually follows the business vision and is an input to corporate strategy. The Task Force began with 16
  17. 17. identifying “futures tools” before preparing quantitative and qualitative taxonomy to lead to an assessment of available methods and tools so that gaps can be identified. (F6) Using Futures Studies and Roadmapping to Discover Gamechangers, Ralph Wood (United Technologies) (3 slides) Panelists describe the application of several methods and tools to discover „gamechangers.‟ The first part of the session illustrates where to look for gamechangers; the second part, how to recognize gamechangers. The methods and tools involve Future Studies (innovation drivers, advanced inventing, scenario planning for emerging technology) and Roadmapping (industry, product, and technology roadmaps). (F7) Tales of the Future - Brief Expedition into Executives' Experiences with the Future, Jae Engelbrecht, Toffler Associates (22 slides) A series of examples are presented intended to illustrate the aligning leadership teams and resources, scanning for technology development, understanding environment, avoiding surprise while seeing opportunities, and seeing new innovations and business models. The case is made for the evolution of the Agrarian Age (1st Wave) through the Industrial Age (2nd Wave) to the current Information Age (3rd Wave). Challenges for management include the different goals of old (2nd Wave) and new (3rd Wave) objectives. Future focused leaders tend to use four kinds of tools: 1) Futures processes, 2) Strategy & opportunity creation, 3) Investment methods, and 4) Innovation approaches, but data is insufficient for executives. (F8) Thinking About the Future: Lessons from Education and Training, Peter Bishop, Institute for Futures Research, University of Houston - Clear Lake (25 slides) The standard model of change is continuous progress interrupted by short pauses, however a more accurate model (punctuated equilibrium) posits continuous progress interrupted by transformations. The futurist‟s role is to identify such transformations to help ensure that corporate organizational skills remain aligned with changing environmental demands. To accomplish this, the Futurist must be a lookout for signs of impending external change and facilitator of internal change to meet evolving needs. To help Futurists in their job, a community of practice evolved together with the collection of tools and techniques, including thinking skills. (F9) Identifying Promising Technologies, Glover Ferguson, Accenture (11 slides) The process for identifying promising technologies requires both accurately predicting the future and predicting the timing correctly. Since the future is here today and is shaped by the application of inexorable forces, solutions seeking problems to solve is an appropriate technique. Such an approach requires combining the attributes of entrepreneur with those of researcher. 17
  18. 18. (F10) Letting Go: A Case Study in the Use of Futures Studies to Select a New Technology, Ralph Wood (United Technologies) (18 slides) The issue for a business was the potential existence of a better technology base, since incremental changes led to unsatisfactory results. The challenge was to cut cost by 50%, increase reliability and life, and provide comparable or better performance. The S Curve indicated further significant cost reductions could not be expected. A trend analysis of 7 candidate technologies revealed that the best was not distinguishable from modified existing technology. Advanced tools were used to develop a detailed business case for two contenders. Data and the President overcame internal resistance to adoption of an emerging technology candidate, leading to a totally renewed business with large upside potential. Lessons Learned include: 1) tight focus, 2) lead customer involvement, 3) S-curve analysis, 4) awareness of emerging technologies, 5) Technology trend analysis, 6) TRIZ, 7) target costing with process-based cost modeling, 8) progressive refinement, 9) system simulation, 10) executive involvement. The tipping point of the study was the foresight, wisdom, courage, and direction of leadership. (F11) Mind Mapping: A Path to the Future, David Grossman ( GM) (14 slides) While Technology Roadmaps describe performance characteristics over time, Domain Maps describe the dimensions of competition within the domain of the firm and provide a framework for opportunity search activities. Mind Maps provide themes that radiate from the central image as branches composed of key words. Whereas Roadmaps plot technology development and application, Domain Maps stretch thinking and Mind Maps allow the visualization of complex future space for strategy development. (F12) Intersection of Futures and Roadmapping: Competitive Technical Intelligence", Dottie Moon, United Technologies 10 slides Competitive Technical Information (CTI) alerts business professionals to opportunities and threats from emerging technologies. The 4 step process moves from 1) focus through 2) gather and 3) analyze to 4) application Identifying CTI opportunities include assessing emerging technologies, product / process challenges, and external forces using both internal and external information. (F13) Futures Module: Folding Technology Driven Alternative Futures into Business Strategy (futures studies primer strawman) John Peterson, Strategy Augmentation Group (formerly of Lucent) (12 slides) The Three dimensions of the Primer are Case Studies, Critical Technologies in context of achieving strategic intent, and Business Specific Critical Technologies. Many futures need to be studied since no single future currently is forecast-able. Since multiple 18
  19. 19. macro-environmental drivers change over time, the business environment and values change. Traditional approaches attempt to isolate drivers and bracket future space as a prelude to monitoring the environment for changes. Since the process of attempting to deal with alternative futures exercises participants to deal with the unexpected, a “New Event Horizons” approach can fold technology-driven alternative futures into business strategies. Such an approach would involve explicating technology value chains, projecting dissonance creating technologies, and assessing uncertainty and risk as a first step. The second step would attempt to specify the sources and timing of critical technologies, managing their evolution. Company cases (F14) An Approach to New Business Creation (Corning approach to using Futures studies) Paul Marx, Rochester Plotonics (25 slides) A “lot of luck” and “great „sweat‟” is required in addition to strong core competencies and a focus on information. On approach is scenario initiated new business creation as an alternative to businesses initiated by customer needs or technology opportunities. Such an approach is built on a market & technology vision of the future embodying implied needs and technology roadmaps. This process leads to business scenarios with an associated early investment strategy. A 9 step stage 1 innovation process is described including scenarios of the world in 25 years. Scenarios include official (baseline), hard times, paradigm change, and visionary. The process includes a late- stage screening process to ensure that the concept is real, big, and winnable, leading to a traditional business plan. This business plan, provides the basis for presentation to management and negotiation of a contract with a sponsor. Thus, scenario-initiated new business creation is a process for business futuring. Task Force Updates (F15) Futures Studies Task Forces: Status, Ralph Wood, United Technologies (8 PowerPoint slides) The objectives of forecasting over an extended horizon, considering influences beyond the immediate business environment, and searching for deeper patterns than most business thinking set the goals for the Task Force. The strategy includes developing a taxonomy and collecting experiences to develop a primer. The content of the taxonomy was established and a primer outline was developed. A call for additional case studies was issued to add further “meat” to the subject. (F16) Futures Interest Group, Denise Chiavetta, The Coca-Cola Company (8 slides, August 14-15, 2001) 19
  20. 20. With Futures conceptually between the Mission and corporate Strategy, the Task Force developed a conceptual Roadmap for development of a “one stop shop” for identification, assessment, and development of futures tools and methodologies for application to technology management. The first step, a taxonomy, provides a big picture of the intersection of when with what and a glossary of terms provides a common language. The program includes a Primer or MATI recommended approaches, case studies (with lessons learned), and tool development. MATI 2 Futures Task Force Glossary (Futures Studies related terms) (7 pages), From Alignment to Wildcards Futures Taxonomy (framework for task force activity) (3 Excel sheets) Bibliography (F17) Technology Forecasting Bibliography (3 pages) 20
  21. 21. TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY, PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT and INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link The role of knowledge and intellectual capital as key drivers of innovation and strategic thinking and the technology management tools required for implementation have become a central focus for MATI work in the strategy area. The MATI task-force’s working definition views portfolio management as involving a collection of intellectual property rights, technologies, processes, products and/or projects that are controllable and managed (explicitly or implicitly) by a technology-intensive firm to maximize/optimize the total value of the innovation mix over a given timeframe in order to meet its longer term strategic objectives. The task-force .is exploring "state of the art" practices, particularly in terms of dimensions used, general approach, what does and does not work and the influence of "industry clock speed" (product life cycles). Questions being asked include whether all industries should handle portfolio management in the same manner, what are best practices for portfolio valuation, cash flow, turns, option theory and strategic fit and determining the interplay between portfolio management and other practice areas. (TS/PM1) Mining the Techno-Infrastructure, John Peterson, Lucent, (19 slides) Moving from the premise that discontinuities cause changes in priorities, the rationale is set to develop software to mine patent literature for loci of innovation. A war scenario provides the illustration of a MATI technique of mapping the future back to the present, evaluating the Innovation Competency Distribution (academic, commercial and defense), and leads to the MATI I model of mining technology, exploration domains and technology assumptions. Translating to business concepts (business and technology value chains) shows how Roadmaps recognize and illustrate linkages. Using these techniques, specific technologies can be isolated to map the state-of-the-art and innovator relationships, suggesting virtual consortia and raising the question if core competency lies in creating and sustaining coalitions. The MATI I lesson of Strategic Alignment is overlaid with the concept of Scenarios to anticipate discontinuities. (TS/PM2) Distributed Knowledge Creation and Management: Transition to the Almost Virtual Enterprise, John Peterson, Lucent (32 slides) With "old think" dominated by financial expectations, "new think" asserts that Time/Tempo/ Innovation drives business & financial performance. Since the Business 21
  22. 22. Value Chain is inefficient, a change in perspective is necessary and MATI is an emerging meta-structure for developing the business in which technology deals with innovation by redefining markets. A contextual view of strategy is presented in which creation of the "new think" growth engine is supported by roadmapping and recognizing actionable technology clusters. (TS/PM3) Knowledge Management: A MATI Perspective, Jack Bishop, Mike Radnor (IBD) (11 slides) Knowledge Management is characterized as integrated, interdisciplinary, and with a strategic intent, but is neither computers, data bases, nor information technology. Not only is the complexity of knowledge management overwhelming, but also practical tools are lacking. Proposed activities include characterizing the state-of-the-art, seeking out tools by surveying MATI members before identifying alternative action plans. (TS/PM4) Creating Technology Centered Advantage: A Strategic View from the Knowledge Battlespace. John W. Peterson (9 pages) Strategy, a military term that has been adapted for use in the business environment, is a very powerful concept that is both directional and temporal. It exists in concept space bound by system-specific, renewable, knowledge-based resources which include a knowledge-creation infrastructure, technological capability, a dynamic network for access to capital and organizational will and intellect. Unfortunately, strategic context is also a shared virtual space. The competition lives there too. Survival for large technology intensive companies requires improved situational awareness and a carefully crafted context shaping capability. Also required is contextual strategic decision congruity and a flexible meta-structure to create, dissolve and later recreate teaming arrangements that leverage multiple firms capabilities. The author suggests a framework for defining a credible future end-point and a tool set for developing the strategies and capabilities necessary to get there, particularly during times of structural stress and technological discontinuity. (TS/PM5) Valuing and Protecting Technology: First Conceptual Steps, John Peterson (Lucent) 19 slides Given the objective to sustain a strategic balance in program / project deployment, a strategy in entropic time is described. The assertion that “context drives capability” suggests that a real options approach to normative futures is indicated. Intellectual capital strategies are provided a context of other elements of the corporation value chain, with the warning that technology must be licenses and litigated… or lost. Intellectual property should be viewed in both offensive and defensive contexts along the way. The conclusion is that intellectual capital is a valuable asset that should be protected, grown, and leveraged. 22
  23. 23. (TS/PM6) Creating Intellectual Capital Advantage: Really Leveraging Innovation, John Peterson, Lloyd Eriksen and Kevin A. Greer (Lucent) (12 pages) A methodology is presented for a process to better manage intellectual capital (later defined as explicit technical knowledge). The findings concern the alignment of business strategy, organizational learning as part of the product technology roadmapping process and aggressive management of the technology attack strategies. Intellectual capital, as an integral part of the business strategy and requiring decision considerations that come from the perspectives of the creator, the owner/manager and the user(s), are central. Moreover, the transfer of intellectual capital must be recognized as not necessarily a Tofflerian second wave zero-sum-game. Intellectual capital management becomes a strategic means of generating funding for enterprise growth through market shares (accelerating product introductions and dominant designs), technology licensing and transfer fees, leveraging multi-company competencies and capabilities and supply chain barter. (TS/PM7) Knowledge Creation and Information Management in the Technology Intensive Enterprise: Strategic Fabric Not Infrastructure, John Peterson and Michael Radnor (will be posted shortly with link) Although the relationships between technical expertise and management decision processes remain a strategic issue, information management has become a political solution answering, at least in part, how, functional expertise in a technology intensive organization can be integrated to create intellectual capital, product, market and business advantages. Major best-in-class technology intensive companies are beginning to recognize that success in the new millennium will depend on the ability of the enterprise to create and apply knowledge in ways that fit dynamic and ever increasingly complex global markets and changing corporate environments. They understand that global pressures will no longer allow the response time for restructuring to force the alignment of new hierarchies and under-performing organizations. This work-in-process will introduce several new concepts that begin to address the traditional boundary between technical expertise and management decision processes. The new methodologies help bridge disparate functional environments, enabling technology life cycles, and the balancing of disruptive and sustaining technologies. (TS/PM8) Knowledge Sharing Overview: The Siemens Knowledge Sharing System, Randall Sellers (Siemens Westinghouse) (46 pages, pdf) Knowledge management is the engine that transforms ideas into business values. Siemens ShareNet was implemented to link employees in different locations. Success Factors identified were: 1) Aligning knowledge & business targets, 2) Building a global initiative, 3) Providing incentives & Reward for Knowledge Sharing, 4) Managing intellectual capital through virtual teams, 5) Establishing knowledge management into business processes, 6) Changing traditional knowledge flows, 7) Providing a common / 23
  24. 24. compatible knowledge platform, and 8) Maintaining top management support. Examples of the Knowledge Management process provided illustration of the concept providing “The right answers at the right time in the right context to the right people.” (TS/PM9) Speed as a Critical Factor for the Utilization of Technology Analysis: Semi- Automated Text Mining for Technology Intelligence, Alan Porter, Georgia Tech (23 slides) A Technology Analysis Utilization Model, based on experience, literature, and MOTI / CIMS research, includes four focal factors: 1) User factors, 2) Technology information product characteristics, 3) Respect / credibility, and 4) Communication. The Action component includes timely (2/3 want results within a week), useful, transparent, readily communicated materials. Data bases (inspect, EI Compendex, COS) were mined with VantagePoint software to generate “innovation indicators, with a scripted process. The resultant analyses provide “hot tech” profiles from over 10 million abstracted papers from a 16 question template and targeted 1 day generation of 50-100 emerging technologies. (TS/PM10) Technology Tools and Processes as Potential Engines of Sustained Corporate Growth: MATI I Findings. John Peterson and Michael Radnor (will be posted shortly with link) The management gurus proclaim that „state-of-the-art‟ product technology is a critical corporate asset and a formidable strategic weapon for achieving competitive advantage. Unfortunately, the „financial engineers‟ who dominate capital markets continue to place a premium, not on intellectual capital and innovation capabilities, but on near-term share-of-market-capitalization growth. The unintended but immediate result is executive emphasis on reduced and more focused short-term low-risk incremental investment and a longer-term reduction in the ability to generate disruptive technological innovation. This paper critically analyzes a generic model of the technology intensive firm based upon the value chains that underlie the model‟s relative competitive capability. Demonstrated is the direct linkage of technology, multiple value chains to business goals and objectives. Manipulation of the value chain elements results in the quantum leaps in speed (to market), efficiency (margin and price) and quality (differentiation) that can help reestablish the strategic role of investment in technology in the mind of the financial engineers/analysts. The MATI I processes and tools provide an internal engine for generating sustained growth. (TS/PM11) Content Value Management for Business Improvement, Patrick Hogan, Cedar Inc. (40 slides) The goal is to visualize data to extract further knowledge. The knowledge management pipeline captures, envisages, and disseminate information to “do things better.” The goal is to automate (un)structured data into a “knowledge portal” to generate a filtered 24
  25. 25. list with access to information relevant to a query. The automatic visualization of thousands of documents are enhanced with themes linked to key performance indicators to develop new relationships. The process is illustrated with examples of managed content “tool kits” for chemical synthesis, marketing campaigns, and technology development. (TS/PM12) Why Choose a Web-Enabled Project Portfolio Manager ?, Clive Coady, (DSM Desotech) (16 slides) Current project planning techniques reached limitations in attempting to meet the demands of the global business with dispersed research teams. A web-enabled project planning process was developed that includes: 1) project office defines the generic process and creates individual project databases, 2) project management uses tools to manage a project, 3) tools are held in a single database, 4) many projects are consolidated into a single portfolio, and 5) providing senior management with the ability to review progress of an entire program at a glance. The program provides a 2-D analysis of all projects in a program, including resource scheduling and planning capabilities. Success factors included upper management sponsorship, a clearly defined R&D process, phased roll-out of key system functionality, and full user acceptance of the new system. Portfolio Management (TS/PM13) Technology Management Processes, Heather Rayle (Rohm & Haas) (14 slides) A discussion of the key issues in project/portfolio management lays the foundation for presentation of the project and portfolio management approaches. R&D Project information provides data for the risk assessment model. The steps in assembling and presenting technology portfolios are provided, including a research focus view as well as a project "bubble chart" assessed by technical and market success prospects. (TS/PM14) Evolving Technology Portfolios, John Peterson (Lucent) (23 slides) Three critical portfolio issues are discussed: 1. how will the enterprise leverage technology to create value; 2. where will the enterprise invest to create value, and 3. how will the enterprise balance and communicate the knowledge created from technology investment? The discussion sets the scene for development of a case that includes the knowledge that creation of technology may be limited by the market/customer needs. The value of the content of the market basket of technology varies over time and that a mix of technologies to support multiple business options will drive positive financial contributions. 25
  26. 26. (TS/PM15) R&D Portfolio Planning: The Westinghouse Experience, William J. McAllister (Siemens Westinghouse) (55 slides PDF) Two methodologies for managing R&D portfolios are described. The first explicitly links R&D to strategy objectives. Importance rankings are converted into weights using Rank Order Centroids, then re-aggregated across objectives to provide normative guidance for funding allocation. The second uses real options pricing theory to value R&D projects. Options methods treat decision flexibility and uncertainty in a manner more appropriate to R&D than NPV methods, providing a cost-effective tool for portfolio optimization. (TS/PM16) Technology Portfolio -A Business Perspective (report on company and literature survey), Jack Bishop (IBD/CTIM/Kingsbury) (7 slides) A survey (in process) has the goal to characterize current practices. Purpose: Share information and decision tool. Audience: R&D, Marketing / Manufacturing clients, business management, top management. Portfolio process had the Overall Goals of: 1) communication, 2) allocation of resources, 3) development of strategy. An example of one operating process used the format of “basic ability to compete” vs. “prospects for future profitability” with the area proportional to current sales. The goal of the process was communication and decisions were not based on matrix positions, but were influenced by them… sometimes simplicity exists for a reason. The challenge for a technology portfolio is how to impact the business. (TS/PM17) Developing a R&D Portfolio Management Process" (case study) Ken Slepicka (Baxter) (20 slides) R&D Portfolio management is faced with a changing environment that is being pushed to be a more rigorous, fact-based process with management commitment. The Baxter program started in January 2000 and moved to a pilot May 2000 and was expanded to other R&D area by December. A cross-division approach started in early 2001 and was integrated with a corporate initiative Qtr 2 and finalized a year later. A scoring model includes the probabilities of technical and market success, fit with business strategy, and rewards. The Portfolio Map depicted project by enabling technology vs. customer value perception, with areas proportional to forecast project expense. The program includes sensitivity analysis for 1) revenue drivers, 2) cost drivers, 3) sales channel investment, 4) first to market, 5) delay / acceleration in launch, 6) regulatory approval. A “tornado diagram” provides means to characterize a project by commercial value given development success vs. a number of variables. The corporate initiative provides an integrated approach, consistency, and is the first step of financial evaluation. The program includes decision trees using a standard stage/gate process. Complex decision trees, with multiple commercial values, are analyzable through real options valuation processes. Next steps in the development process include: 1) finalize the 26
  27. 27. financials, 2) development of a corporate portfolio decision process, and 3) implementation of a software / web-based system. (TS/PM 18) Portfolio Management: An Overview and Proposed Agenda for MATI, Bill McAllister (Siemens Westinghouse) (48 slides PDF) R&D Portfolio Management, a dynamic decision process, has grown through 3 stages 1.R&D as Overhead – pre 1960, 2. R&D as Strategy – 60s-80s, 3. Market-driven R&D – 90s) before the current Emerging Options Paradigm where R&D creates real value. Projects, ranging from new product through process and acquisition to capability building and basic investigation, may be aggregated to provide fewer entities to analyze at the risk of homogenization. A multi-attribute approach would assess the decision maker‟s utility function after defining both goals and project attributes. Project valuation techniques include qualitative, scoring, ranking, and valuation, but should 1) encourage strategic thinking, be easy to apply, use defensible metrics, be zero-based, enforce a clear set of decision points, minimize gaming, and be theoretically sound. After providing illustrations of each set, the concept of “option pricing” is advanced as a better means of project valuation. The commercial value is modeled as a call option on a real asset while the technical uncertainty and strategic fit are modeled as a compound option using a decision tree. (TS/PM19) A Process View of a Corporation and the Role of Portfolio Management, Rich Albright, Albright Strategy Group (MATI Fellow) (16 slides, pdf) The business process view of the corporation includes the product development and marketing / sales process. The portfolio view of the corporation suggests analysis of the various portfolios (market, product, technology) depends on the focus of the corporation. Additional and MATI I Materials (TS/PM20) Valuation of R&D Projects Using Options Pricing & Decision Analysis Models – Theory and Application, R. K. Perdue, W. J. McAllister, P. V. King and B. G. Berkey (18 pages) See TS/PM 14 for annotation. (TS/PM21) Creating Third Wave Advantage: Reasserting the Strategic Role of Technology Management, John Peterson and Michael Radnor Presentation to Lucent Knowledge Sharing Summit, October, 1999 (20 slides) Starting with the prerequisite direction, MATI I provided an alignment process leading to a "third wave" business model. The "operationalized solutions" learning from MATI I provided the context for the use of scenarios to anticipate discontinuities and 27
  28. 28. developing roadmapping as a core process to deal with intellectual capital and technology leverage. However, creating the linkages (e.g. between Voice of the Customer and Enabling Technologies) is a political process. This political process requires addressing business strategies in the context of both technology and markets and the use of scenarios to deal with technology evolution. The resultant functional business model suggests a third wave, technology-intensive enterprise will be faced with an influx of knowledge and technology, acting as an innovation stimulus and creating a new, self-adaptive organization. (TS/PM22) Development of a Structured Approach to Assessing Technology Management Practice, David Probert, Rob Phaal, Clare Farrukh, Cambridge (13 pages) The development of a practical technique for the assessment of technology management practices is described. Based on a process model of technology management, it provides a means whereby manufacturing companies can assess the effectiveness of the technology management activities critical to their business, and identify areas for improvement or transfer of good practice. This paper describes the development of a practical technique for the assessment of technology management practices. Based on a process model of technology management, it provides a means whereby manufacturing companies can assess the effectiveness of the technology management activities critical to their business and identify areas for improvement or transfer of good practice. The procedure comprises three levels, spanning the full range of technology management activities, linking broad strategic concerns to detailed operational activities, in the format of a series of facilitated workshops. (TS/PM23) Aligning National Policy and Technology: Of Tofflerian Waves and Strategic Technologies. John W. Peterson and Kenneth O. Wofford (10 pages) Redistribution of state assets (socio-political power, intellectual capital and economic investment) has serious economic, political, social and security consequences. Unfortunately, macro economics remains the real driver of national priorities, even though it seldom links directly to innovation, business strategy, and the technology driven management and operational practices that are the primary drivers of localized second order socio-political(national technology) considerations. A parallax approach championing an innovation infrastructure to create & leverage regional growth engines and knowledge based competitive entities is presented. Bibliographies (TS/PM24) MATI II Initial Cut at Portfolio Management Bibliography, John Peterson (Lucent) (43 pages) 28
  29. 29. (TS/PM25) Technology Portfolio Management Bibliography, Jack Bishop (IBD) (32 pages) –in development Annotated with added comments 29
  30. 30. TECHNOLOGY ECOLOGY Recognizing important interdependencies, the Technology Ecology Task Force was formally created at the March 1-2, 2001 MATI meeting. It combines and replaces the former Technology Transfer Task Force and the Technology Sourcing and Intellectual Property Management Interest Group. 1. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link The MATI Technology Transfer focus has been on the analysis of existing methods and the development of new/alternative methods to achieve efficient transmission and receipt of product and/or process knowledge between departments of the corporation and between the corporation and it's suppliers and customers. Templates and Processes (TE/TT1) Technology Transfer, Product Development and Manufacturing at Ford, David Stirsman (Ford) (7 slides) Ford‟s technology transfer template is described. (TE/TT2) Ford Advanced Manufacturing Deployment Process, Ed Abbott (Ford) (15 slides) The role of Ford‟s Manufacturing Technology Council and forums and the portfolio development steps and rationale of the firm‟s technology transfer process is described. (TE/TT3) Technology Transfer at Baxter, Ken Slepicka (Baxter) (6 slides) A presentation of Baxter‟s Renal division and PEPe process – product development and technology transfer template. (TE/TT4) Technology Transfer Process, Alec McMillan (Rockwell Automation) (24 slides) The Rockwell template and the practices that have been evolved to enhance technology transfer in the context of other processes are presented and analyzed. (TE/TT5) Technology Transfer) Global Focus on Advanced Manufacturing, Dave Stirsman (Ford) 34 slides 30
  31. 31. Action Item #1 for the Manufacturing Technology Council was to develop a process to create a global focus on advanced manufacturing with all brands and units, establishing the lead organization. This was accomplished through a 4 point program: 1) Forum process to capture manufacturing technology development at all locations by sharing databases, 2) Develop a process to establish lead responsibility for each technology, 3) Establish a model for global manufacturing R&D interaction and communication, and 4) Develop world-wide technology metrics and reporting processes. (TE/TT6) Technology Transfer (Technology Ecology) Task Force Project Status Report, Jack Bishop (IBD/Kingsbury) 18 slides Task Force goals were 1) characterize MATI company practices, 2) provide practical lessons for improvement, and 3) develop a practical context for research. The Baxter process was characterized as lacking complexity, with Ability to Absorb technology, while at industry standards, was the weakest aspect. Further analysis revealed that 1) averages don‟t tell much of a story, 2) structure suggests both cause and effect, and 3) statistical analysis can provide estimates of the importance of factors, for instance that “comfort” lowers the ability to meet objectives while increasing the ability to meet budget and schedule targets. The imbalance of respondents (few from management or marketing) and small sample limits the ability to draw firm conclusions. (TE/TT7) Underlying Elements of Successful Technology Transfer: From MATI I, Daniel Levin, IBD/Rutgers University. Summary presented at MATI II September Level Set meeting (14 slides) 14 case studies (names disguised) examine technology transfer in the context of the ability to absorb, comfort and structure dimensions. In the context of structure, incentives, culture, strategy, and environment, these factors suggest the ability to achieve better outcomes. (For more detail, see Levin dissertation summary in For In- depth Reading section). Additional and MATI I Materials (TE/TT8) Smoothing the Path from Product Conception to Delivery - A 1998 MATI paper by J. Thompson Lucent) and G. Lundquist with a discussion of Technology Transfer and the Value Chain (10 pages PDF) A model is proposed that integrates six phases of technology transfer into each step along the value chain form initial concept through manufacturing to products in customer hands. Management of each phase for each step leads to greater control, higher efficiency, and lower costs and frustration in the movement of technologies within product development. Indeed, the model leads to a true quality management system. 31
  32. 32. (TE/TT9) Transferring Knowledge in the R&D Arena: Links, Loops and Learning in the Technology Transfer Process - A 1998 paper by Daniel Levin and Tom Kappel with a discussion of required elements of successful Technology Transfer (34 pages) The paper seeks to answer the question of how knowledge transfer actually works. For this, a different kind of methodology is required, one that allows the researcher to look inside the "black box" of knowledge transfer and to generate theory that is grounded in what people inside organizations are thinking and doing. It looks inside the "box" of organizational learning and knowledge transfer to show contextually how an organizational routine and the process of transferring a technology from research and development (R&D) to a business unit operates in practice. (TE/TT10) What's an Organizational Routine? ‘Unpacking Knowledge Management’, Daniel Levin, Discussion of success factors in technology roadmapping and technology transfer (53 pages) By focusing on the specific and crucial technology roadmapping (planning) and the technology transfer processes, as defined and described in more detail below, this research is able to ground the theories and concepts of knowledge and learning in what actually goes on in organizations. In 14 cases at four large companies, it may not be enough for organizational learning to take place if there is only an ability to absorb new knowledge and a high degree of comfort in doing so. Rather, supporters had to have the power and influence in the organization to make the knowledge flow happen, to overcome inertia. The paper shows how two critical, knowledge-intensive organizational routines (the technology roadmapping/planning process and the intra- company technology transfer process) operate in practice in multiple companies. It is based on a cross-case comparison at multiple firms. For In-depth Reading (TE/TT11) An introduction to technology transfer and summary of the related MATI I findings from Daniel Levin’s doctoral thesis on this subject, Daniel Levin, IBD & Rutgers University (49 pages), While the ability to absorb knowledge is vital, this ability is not always enough for the process to work well if project participants are too uncomfortable or if project supporters have too little power. To make these three concepts of ability, comfort and power more concrete, the study carries out an in-depth examination of each. It examines technology transfer as a management process (i.e., a repeated set of related activities) rather than as an event or as a strictly technical matter. However, rather than taking a reengineering approach of focusing on all of the specific tasks and various steps in the process, this study looks for central, underlying, theoretical elements of the process; i.e., what makes it "tick." 32
  33. 33. The main finding from this study is that, while the ability to absorb knowledge is important and has even received the bulk of attention in the organizational learning literature, this ability is not always enough for the process to work well. The problem occurs if project participants are too uncomfortable or if project supporters have too little power. Following an in-depth description of the three key ability, comfort and power elements of the technology transfer process, the study compares across eight MATI cases to see the effect that these had on the technology transfer outcomes. (TE/TT12) Technology Transfer Case Summary, Daniel Levin (7 pages) This report describes the cases studied by Levin during MATI I. It provides an assessment in terms of ability to absorb knowledge, comfort level and power dynamics as these played out in the eight cases studied. 33
  34. 34. 2. TECHNOLOGY SOURCING, including Make vs Buy (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link The initial focus in this sub-area has been on benchmarking best practices and recognizing technology gaps. The make versus buy issue is being explored as part of a broader systems perspective with respect to technology sourcing. It is intended that technology sourcing be considered in relation to other organizational functions and processes including particularly strategic planning, portfolio management and roadmapping. (TE/TS1) Technology Sourcing Perspectives from Siemens-Westinghouse, Harry Morehead (Siemens-Westinghouse) (11 slides) Presents an overview of Siemens-Westinghouse (SWPC) particularly the Advanced Turbine System Technologies, details the process SWPC used to obtain and apply thermosonic imaging technology from Wayne State University, and identifies lessons learned about finding, licensing and further developing technology. Not evident in the slides but clear from discussion is the importance of personal relationships and internal championing in sourcing. (TE/TS2) Technology Sourcing at Kraft, Susan Gaud (Kraft) (10 slides) Provides an overview of technology sourcing needs and the approach in development at Kraft. Technology sourcing is growing in importance as the firm becomes more technology concerned. The presentation discusses the processes and strategies evolving in this area, in comparison with the approaches that have been used in the company, heretofore. (TE/TS3) Technology Foresight as a Key Element in Make-or-Buy Strategy, David Probert, Laura Cáñez, Rob Phaal, Cambridge University (6 pages) This paper discusses the need to foresee technology requirements and trends when undertaking a make-or-buy analysis. Decisions that seem "right" today may not be right for the future. Technology analysis requirements for make or buy strategy are reviewed and the contribution of current and emerging technology foresight techniques. (TE/TS4) Technology Sourcing: The Link to Make-or-Buy, Laura Cáñez and David Probert, University of Cambridge (5 pages) This paper discusses different options for technology sourcing following a strategic make-or-buy analysis. Selling, licensing-out, creating alliances, licensing-in and acquisitions are some of the possible options presented. Industrial cases are used to illustrate technology sourcing alternatives. 34
  35. 35. (TE/TS5) Scouting for New Technology- Approaches for Going Beyond the Obvious, Bob Levi, Technology Sourcing International (7 slides) Technology Scouting involves scanning and monitoring new technical development to channel information to appropriate experts within the company and may assist in acquiring or transferring technology from external sources, including buying a company or hiring key people. A key reason for a formal scouting program is saving the money and time to develop something already developed somewhere else, and new products or processes may be found along the way. In addition to three case examples, types of events to attend and databases were illustrated. While consultants and vendors are obvious sources of technology, competency, knowledge base, and honesty can be sought, but creativity can only be encouraged. The example at Baxter of a failure rate of 99.8% still yielded a ROI of 350% for the million dollar (annual) program. (TE/TS6) MATI Technology Sourcing Survey, Jack Bishop (CTIM/IBD/Kingsbury) (26 slides) Technology Sourcing includes topics of technology valuation, make / buy for research, Internet-based tools (including technology exchanges) and a Benchmarking Survey to assess current practices in these areas. The MATI survey covered 16 respondents from 11 of the 17 MATI companies, reporting that the sourcing process begins with a technological opportunity and proceeds through a formalized (generally continuous) process. Potential sources of technology are varied with none standing out, but most use only one traditional source and two Internet sources (at least one a generalized search engine). The success of the process was self-rated 4 (1-7 scale where 7 is high). The lack of measures of performance (3 none, 4 informal) constrains the ability to improve effectiveness. Telephone interviews were completed with representatives of 31 of Industry Week best managed 100 technical firms. Over the past 2 years, the respondents reported from 2 to 20,000 incidents of technology sourcing (median 25) with a median success rate of 5. Case studies (26 successful, 17 unsuccessful, 24 indeterminate projects) provide a view of the technology sourcing process. Since the time from initiation to endpoint for successful projects was half the time for unsuccessful ones, success may be measured by speed in today‟s corporate environment. Mentioned practices provide an idea of what was done, 35
  36. 36. 3. IP MANAGEMENT (TE/IP1) Intellectual Property – Prerequisite Competence and Competitive Capabilities for the Next Millennium: A View from the Business Unit, John Peterson (Lucent) (21 slides) This presentation describes in summary form the central components and functional requirements of an IP system of protection (patents, copyrights, etc.). The discussion allows discussion of the assessment, strategies and execution requirements that link IP strategy and innovation drivers and the resulting IP values, in terms of alignment, leverage and returns; the exhibits go on to show how these considerations play out in the corporate battle-space. The strategic importance of aligning strategy and the intellectual capital of the technology to be leveraged to produce corporate returns is also described. Such analysis can then be fed into the construction of IP and operational roadmaps. TECHNOLOGY ECOLOGY TASK FORCE UPDATES (includes updates of previously independent Technology Transfer, Technology Sourcing and IP Management task forces) (TE/TT5) Technology Transfer Task Force Report, Mike Scharf & Jack Bishop, April 5-9, 2000, 9 slides Three projects formed core activities of the technology transfer task force. The “Baxter” project focused on characterizing, through interviews and an e-mail survey, the IV Systems product stage-gate development process. The “Rockwell” project highlighted one or two key success factors from five completed programs through interviews with both supplier and recipient of the technology. The Rockwell project was left with pending participation in a MATI Benchmarking Survey. Participation in the benchmarking survey was the initial activity of the Siemens project. A special Task Force meeting was convened to hear a description of the Ford Motor Company Forum system to manage the introduction of new technology into the manufacturing process. (TE/TT6) Technology Transfer task force report: Practices at Baxter, Ford, Rockwell Automation and Siemens Westinghouse 27 slides, October 24-25, 2000 The Task Force focus was on intra-firm transfer of technology from R&D to Manufacturing with goals to complete an internal assessment of member firms to a) identify best practices, b) identify opportunities for improvement, and c) document results. The process at Baxter was characterized by both surveys and interviews, focusing on three aspects of the process leading to specific outcomes: 1) ability to absorb technology, 2) comfort, 3) Power & Influence. The Rockwell process reviewed 5 programs but were unable to proceed either to interviews or surveys. Siemens focused 36
  37. 37. on the transfer between SWPC and external organizations, from government agencies to consumers and suppliers. ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES (Unless otherwise noted, “slides”are in Power Point, “pages”are in Word). To access documents, click on the link The Organizational Issues task-force is working on such issues as: Enhancing the "voices" of customers and technology within the organization; achieving buy-in for MATI processes from upper management and key groups; forming appropriate working teams for roadmapping, scenario planning, etc.; integration with strategic, marketing and other processes; developing and achieving internal organizational standards including dealing with changes; defining the role and position of a "standards unit" and integrating standards thinking with other management processes; developing a taxonomy of variables in organization cultures and structures (culture, structure, knowledge) significantly impacting on technology management processes (product development, innovation, etc.). (ORG1) Getting Buy-In for Roadmapping, Tom Kappel (Lucent) (2 slides) There is sometimes trouble starting roadmapping in one part of the business or reviving it after it has stalled. This is discussed as a problem of at least two factors: buy-in and skills. The buy-in problem is proposed as a research topic with unique contributions to organizational behavior and practical deliverables to industry. A second proposed project involves the way corporate information is used (and ignored) by roadmap teams. Are the boxes and arrows we draw about information flow really true? See also organizational issues in Roadmapping section. (ORG2) Development of an Integrated New Product Development Process at Roche Molecular Biochemicals, Bob McCarthy (Roche) (16 pages, pdf) The foundation for the current process was laid with the implementation of a stage-gate process in 1989. The process was improved over the years, leading to development of a portfolio management process (1998). The process improved understanding between business and technical components of the organization while revealing a scarcity of new ideas to develop breakthrough products. (ORG3) Knowledge Management Across IBM, Tom Luin (IBM) (58 pages, pdf) The challenge of Knowledge Management is illustrated by 22 terabytes of data on the web added to 11 terabytes on corporate file servers. Employees, Partners, Customers, etc. all have too much information to be either efficient, responsive, or innovative. A portal is presented as the basis for connecting people to content, applications, and other people. The key factors are: 1) Connecting to all constituencies using multiple devices, 2) Creating and leveraging shared pools of knowledge, 3) personalizing content, and 4) 37
  38. 38. dynamic response to evolving business conditions. Examples of the IBM intranet provide illustrations of the reduction to practice. (ORG4) E-Business Security: Protecting Yourself, Your Networks, and Your Customer's Information, Tom Luin (IBM) (34 pages, pdf)'s_e-Business_Security_for_MATI.pdf Security needs for e-business are stated in terms of Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability (CIA) dimensions. These needs are addressed from a set of seven Security Principles: 1) Deploy and manage trusted credentials and I&A protocols, 2) Control access to stored information consistent with roles, responsibilities, and privacy policies, 3) Control access to, and use of, systems and processes consistent with roles and responsibilities, 4) Protect information stored, or in transit, consistent with information classification control and flow policies, 5) Assure the correct and reliable operation of components & services, 6) Defend against attacks, and 7) Defend against fraud. The Method for Architecting Secure Solutions (MASS) was developed to deliver a security architecture that is complete, comprehensive, and closely tied to business requirements as well as give enhanced design efficiency, reduced cost, and shortened time scales. 38
  39. 39. STANDARDS MANAGEMENT (Unless otherwise noted, “slides”are in Power Point, “pages”are in Word). To access documents, click on the link Excellence in strategic global standards management, which cuts across many corporate functions and the technology and business value chain, has become a vital component of competitiveness but its tools, practices and training resources are highly under-developed. MATI, in collaboration with key industry and standards associations and players, is encouraging the development of this field and the practices and structures required to perform at the level needed. Templates (S1) The Global Challenge of Strategic Standardization Management, Alec McMillan, Rockwell (20 slides) Overview of standards management including a flow chart illustrating standards considerations in for different functions, standardization across the supply chain, the interplay of standards and product and industry roadmaps and issues for global standards development and corporate standards management. Product marketability and standards opportunities and the impact of culture on standards are also discussed. Rockwell templates are presented. Cases (S2) Global Standards Management - summary of Kellogg student study (16 slides) Study included interviews with 9 companies (Baxter, GE Medical Systems, Kellogg, Lucent, Motorola, Roche, Rockwell, 3Com and United Technologies) as well as a review of literature and standards related organizations. Initial conclusions and recommendations Project (S3) Project to Enhance Instruction on Strategic Global Standards Management, Kellogg School of Management (3 pages) Abstract of proposal for project funded by the US Department of Education to increase attention to standards management and sophistication in companies and, particularly, US business schools. Project elements include case and training/teaching materials development ands piloting, a website, an industry-faculty roundtable and a faculty workshop. 39
  40. 40. TECHNOLOGY AND MARKETING Consideration of requirements, issues and opportunities for technology management in the market-driven firm and general issues concerning technology-marketing relations. (T&M1) Roadmapping in a Marketing vs. Technology Culture… Continuing the Discussion, Denise Chiavetta (Coca-Cola) (6 slides) Presentation of likely differences in applying roadmapping in a marketing driven vs. a technology/engineering-driven company. Slides have been revised to incorporate ensuing discussion among MATI companies. (T&M2) Marketing with Pocket Protectors" (Technology Innovation in a Marketing- driven Firm), Dennis Braswell (Coca-Cola) (16 slides), A marketing-driven company technology innovation can be found in the product, what the customer sees and touches and in infrastructure. At such companies, technology innovation generally comes in at the last two and so starts disadvantaged. In Coca-Cola, the main product is over 100 years old and not targeted for change. In a marketing driven company innovation implies: 1) focusing on new products (or features), selling channels, promotions, and advertisements, 2) no aroma of technology, 3) instant results - marketers then move on to the next thing (not, ostensibly, a recipe for technology), and 4) that trade puffery is OK, indeed, exalted. Keys to technology success are credibility; understanding the business by knowing the company‟s vision and how everyone contributes to it; getting out of the lab (what ís going on the street as well as in the world of technology; strong relationships and good communications; and being creative about technology sourcing. (T&M3) Use of Roadmapping in Marketing-Driven Companies, Parul Anand (CTIM) (8 pages) Beginning with a discussion of technology management needs, the use of Roadmapping as a prospective solution is developed. Beyond a presentation of the underlying philosophy of Roadmapping, various types of Roadmaps are described. The development of the concept of customizing the Roadmapping process for marketing- driven companies is a work-in-process. (T&M4) The Marketing-Technology Connection, Sarah Shoblaski (CTIM) (15 PowerPoint slides) 40
  41. 41. Strategic intelligence involves the process of “getting close to your market” to identify significant market changes, promote fresh insights about strategic issues, and leveraging potential strategic intelligence contributors. 41