Developing Taxonomies
                          Tools for Navigating the Uncharted
                                  Seas ...
Setting the Stage


     Information overload
     Users don’t know what terms to use for searching
     Individuals use m...
What is a Taxonomy?

  A controlled vocabulary
  Relationships are one step broader or narrower
            Genus/Species
...
The Controlled Vocabulary Spectrum


Word list                                           Taxonomy                         ...
Taxonomy Considerations

      Avoid duplicating a vocabulary that already exists
      Construction methods
      Dimensi...
Developing a Taxonomy


           Determine                                        Identify                              ...
Determine Requirements

     Scope                                                                  Determine
            ...
Identify Concepts

     Identify source materials                                               Determine
                ...
Develop Draft Taxonomy


    Establish common rules                                                   Determine
          ...
Review with Users and SMEs

                                                                            Determine         ...
Refine Taxonomy

                                                                            Determine                 Ide...
Apply Taxonomy to Content

                                                                             Determine         ...
Manage and Maintain Taxonomy

      Establish ownership                                                    Determine
     ...
Keeping the Taxonomy Up-to-Date


     Review taxonomy periodically for currency
     Create a “candidate” list of terms f...
Testing the Taxonomy


     Does the taxonomy provide appropriate search
     results
     Does the taxonomy match user ex...
Qualitative Methods for Testing


     Demonstrate to SMEs
     Conduct user satisfaction survey
     Perform usability st...
Quantitative Methods for Testing

      How evenly does the taxonomy divide the content?

      How well does the taxonomy...
Engaging People

     Find a strong sponsor and champion
     Build a multi-disciplinary team
               Terminology d...
Process Flow for Term Suggestions




Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved.   Internet Librarian 2007
            ...
Taxonomy Governance Processes


     Taxonomy Team reports to a Change Board
     Implement a comment handling process
   ...
Governance Flow

                                                Major
                                                cha...
Taxonomy Documentation


     Editorial rules and guidelines
     Training materials
     Processes and workflows
     Mar...
Taxonomy Implementation Drivers

      Search inefficiencies
      Bottom line impacted by inability to find information
 ...
Taxonomy Strategy

    Assimilate with business strategy
    Incorporate with search functions
    Leverage strategically ...
Value of Taxonomies

      Provides consistent terminology
      Improves search and discovery of relevant
      informati...
Productivity Benefits


     More time for analysis
     Less duplication of effort
     Fewer poor decisions
     More fo...
Searching Benefits

     Creates structure in unstructured content
     Facilitates navigation among terms
     Provides p...
Business Benefits


     Reflects scope of your business
     Assists learning in the domain
     Supports business goals
...
Taxonomies and ROI Considerations

      Building and maintaining a taxonomy is a cost
      Tagged content must be availa...
Taxonomy ROI Examples


     Increased sales through improved access to online
     product catalog
     Improved efficien...
Best Practices

     Find a strong sponsor and champion
     Establish a team to manage taxonomies
     Start with an over...
Things to Avoid


     Do not use corporate lingo
     Do not use departmental names
     Do not use undefined acronyms
  ...
Critical Success Factors (1)

      Understand target audience, requirements
      Develop strong stakeholder and user rel...
Critical Success Factors (2)


     Understand how tools and technology play
     Build, buy and re-use
     Build in flex...
Questions?



          Kathryn Breininger
                              kathryn.r.breininger@boeing.com
          Mary Wh...
Back-up Slides




Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved.        Internet Librarian 2007
                          ...
Sample Taxonomy Team Charter (1)


     Purpose
               Develop and maintain taxonomies
     Scope
               R...
Sample Taxonomy Team Charter (2)


     Responsibilities
               Review and manage requests for changes to the Taxo...
Sample Taxonomy Team Charter (3)

     Membership
               Members must have expertise in vocabulary management
    ...
Sample Change Board Charter (1)

     Purpose
               Reviews and resolves issues related to the Taxonomy that are ...
Sample Change Board Charter (2)

      Responsibilities
                 Address and resolve issues on which the Taxonomy ...
Sample Change Board Charter (3)

     Authority
               Change Board receives its authority from management
     Ac...
Sample Advisory Board Charter (1)

      Purpose
                 Provide strategic direction and promote the taxonomy
   ...
Sample Advisory Board Charter (2)


     Membership
               Voting members must understand use and value of control...
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  1. 1. Developing Taxonomies Tools for Navigating the Uncharted Seas of Information Kathryn Breininger, The Boeing Company kathryn.r.breininger@boeing.com and Mary Whittaker, The Boeing Company mary.s.whittaker@boeing.com BOEING is a trademark of Boeing Management Company. Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Setting the Stage Information overload Users don’t know what terms to use for searching Individuals use multiple ways of organizing No control over terminology with full text searching Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt |2
  3. 3. What is a Taxonomy? A controlled vocabulary Relationships are one step broader or narrower Genus/Species Instance Whole/part Browsable hierarchical structure May include equivalent relationships Used to consistently categorize information Provides search terms for the user Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt |3
  4. 4. The Controlled Vocabulary Spectrum Word list Taxonomy Ontology Synonym Ring Thesaurus Less Level of complexity More Ambiguity control Ambiguity control Ambiguity control Ambiguity control Ambiguity control Synonymous relationships Synonymous Synonymous relationships Synonymous relationships Hierarchical relationships Hierarchical relationships relationships Associative relationships Associative relationships Hierarchical Complex relations (rules and axioms) relationships Machine readable Based on ANSI Z39.19-2005 Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt |4
  5. 5. Taxonomy Considerations Avoid duplicating a vocabulary that already exists Construction methods Dimensions of a taxonomy Size of taxonomy Facets Intended use of taxonomy Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt |5
  6. 6. Developing a Taxonomy Determine Identify Develop draft requirements concepts taxonomy Review with Apply Manage and Refine Users and taxonomy to maintain taxonomy SMEs content taxonomy Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt |6
  7. 7. Determine Requirements Scope Determine requirements Identify concepts Develop draft taxonomy Purpose Format of content Review Apply Manage Subject or facet coverage with Users and SMEs Refine taxonomy taxonomy to content and maintain taxonomy Depth Type of content Volume of content Target audience User needs Any technology requirements Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt |7
  8. 8. Identify Concepts Identify source materials Determine requirements Identify concepts Develop draft taxonomy Gather concepts Analyze search logs Review Apply Manage Refine and with Users taxonomy maintain Inventory content and SMEs taxonomy to content taxonomy Analyze content Determine content types Interview SMEs Identify existing taxonomies Extract candidate terms Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt |8
  9. 9. Develop Draft Taxonomy Establish common rules Determine requirements Identify concepts Develop draft taxonomy Reconcile terminology issues Use concepts universally Review with Users and SMEs Refine taxonomy Apply taxonomy to content Manage and maintain taxonomy Start broad, not deep Develop upper levels of structure Work from bottom up and top down Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt |9
  10. 10. Review with Users and SMEs Determine Identify Develop draft Provide draft for review requirements concepts taxonomy Conduct usability studies Review Apply Manage Build consensus with Users and SMEs Refine taxonomy taxonomy to content and maintain taxonomy Keep a history of decisions Involve stakeholders, SMEs and users Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 10
  11. 11. Refine Taxonomy Determine Identify Develop draft Incorporate refinements requirements concepts taxonomy Review and refine cycle Review Apply Manage Know when to quit with Users and SMEs Refine taxonomy taxonomy to content and maintain taxonomy Don’t overbuild Low level of detail vs. value at the leaf node Establish test criteria Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 11
  12. 12. Apply Taxonomy to Content Determine Identify Develop draft requirements concepts taxonomy Provide guidelines for use Deploy Review with Apply Manage Refine and Navigate web sites Users and SMEs taxonomy taxonomy to content maintain taxonomy Tag content Integrate with existing applications Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 12
  13. 13. Manage and Maintain Taxonomy Establish ownership Determine requirements Identify concepts Develop draft taxonomy Establish governance processes Create change control processes Review Refine Apply Manage with Users and taxonomy maintain and SMEs taxonomy Develop maintenance plan to content taxonomy Review content for new concepts Develop user feedback process for new concepts Maintain lifecycle (version control) Review success criteria Provide documentation Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 13
  14. 14. Keeping the Taxonomy Up-to-Date Review taxonomy periodically for currency Create a “candidate” list of terms for consideration Analyze items returned in error Sample newly added content Consider terms used excessively or infrequently Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 14
  15. 15. Testing the Taxonomy Does the taxonomy provide appropriate search results Does the taxonomy match user expectations Evaluation criteria Should support Taxonomy purpose Testing methods Heuristic evaluation (experts evaluate) Affinity modeling (card sorting) Usability testing (overall system) Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 15
  16. 16. Qualitative Methods for Testing Demonstrate to SMEs Conduct user satisfaction survey Perform usability studies Analyze items returned in error Tag sample content Test relevancy Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 16
  17. 17. Quantitative Methods for Testing How evenly does the taxonomy divide the content? How well does the taxonomy match the content? How well does the taxonomy cover the field? Is the indexing repeatable? Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 17
  18. 18. Engaging People Find a strong sponsor and champion Build a multi-disciplinary team Terminology decisions – Information professionals (librarians, archivists) Technology decisions – IT Subject matter experts from across the company End users Task IT with maintenance of the software Give SMEs, content owners and librarians responsibility for taxonomy Obtain end user buy-in Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 18
  19. 19. Process Flow for Term Suggestions Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 19
  20. 20. Taxonomy Governance Processes Taxonomy Team reports to a Change Board Implement a comment handling process Provide an appeals process Use issue logs Develop a communication plan Announcements of enhancements, releases, Board activities, etc. Apply a release schedule Create governance documentation Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 20
  21. 21. Governance Flow Major changes, Communicate unresolved changes issues Taxonomy Team Taxonomy Change Advisory Board Board Provides strategic Develops and Reviews and approves direction for the maintains the major changes to Taxonomy. Taxonomy content and structure. Promotes the Reviews and approves Taxonomy in the changes to strategy enterprise. and functionality, and Makes elevates to Advisory recommendations to Board. the Change Board Change approval, Strategic direction, issue resolution recommendations Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 21
  22. 22. Taxonomy Documentation Editorial rules and guidelines Training materials Processes and workflows Marketing materials Presentation materials Conflict resolution process Taxonomy metrics ROI analysis Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 22
  23. 23. Taxonomy Implementation Drivers Search inefficiencies Bottom line impacted by inability to find information IT pressured to find solutions Content Management Systems Knowledge Management initiatives Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 23
  24. 24. Taxonomy Strategy Assimilate with business strategy Incorporate with search functions Leverage strategically into applications Integrate multiple corporate taxonomies Embed into the information life cycle Use to tag content at creation Plan for extensibility over time Owned by those who do classification Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 24
  25. 25. Value of Taxonomies Provides consistent terminology Improves search and discovery of relevant information Shows relationships among terms Organizes content on web sites, file shares, desktops Provides navigational structure for websites Leads users to most specific terms in a particular domain Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 25
  26. 26. Productivity Benefits More time for analysis Less duplication of effort Fewer poor decisions More focus on information as a strategic asset More internal knowledge sharing Better understanding of terminology Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 26
  27. 27. Searching Benefits Creates structure in unstructured content Facilitates navigation among terms Provides powerful browse capabilities Provides standardized access Organizes fragmented content Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 27
  28. 28. Business Benefits Reflects scope of your business Assists learning in the domain Supports business goals Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 28
  29. 29. Taxonomies and ROI Considerations Building and maintaining a taxonomy is a cost Tagged content must be available and used Technology costs are associated with building a taxonomy Taxonomies must integrate with applications for maximum return on investment Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 29
  30. 30. Taxonomy ROI Examples Increased sales through improved access to online product catalog Improved efficiencies in Help or Call Centers Knowledge worker productivity Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 30
  31. 31. Best Practices Find a strong sponsor and champion Establish a team to manage taxonomies Start with an overall framework Use automatic approaches to facilitate manual development – need human review Develop taxonomies for multiple facets Establish quality control measures and metrics Implement a phased rollout Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 31
  32. 32. Things to Avoid Do not use corporate lingo Do not use departmental names Do not use undefined acronyms Avoid over thinking Avoid over-engineering Avoid developing unneeded sections Avoid using a proprietary system for taxonomy management Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 32
  33. 33. Critical Success Factors (1) Understand target audience, requirements Develop strong stakeholder and user relationships Assign responsibility for ownership and maintenance Research lessons learned from other companies Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 33
  34. 34. Critical Success Factors (2) Understand how tools and technology play Build, buy and re-use Build in flexibility Differentiate between the taxonomy and the metadata scheme Develop metrics on value and relevance of the taxonomy Plan for long term – have a vision and strategy Plan for maintenance resources Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 34
  35. 35. Questions? Kathryn Breininger kathryn.r.breininger@boeing.com Mary Whittaker mary.s.whittaker@boeing.com Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 35
  36. 36. Back-up Slides Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 36
  37. 37. Sample Taxonomy Team Charter (1) Purpose Develop and maintain taxonomies Scope Review, approve, and implement changes Deliverables Process documentation Documentation of decisions and meeting minutes Documentation regarding authoritative standards used, guidelines and best practices User interface to the taxonomy The taxonomy itself!! Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 37
  38. 38. Sample Taxonomy Team Charter (2) Responsibilities Review and manage requests for changes to the Taxonomy Maintain a change log to track requests for changes Work with subject matter experts Communicate implemented changes Educate users and projects about the Taxonomy Develop and maintain the Taxonomy web site Evaluate and recommend back-end taxonomy management tools Attend meetings prepared to discuss items on the agenda Complete assigned responsibilities in a timely manner Promote Taxonomy activities in the enterprise Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 38
  39. 39. Sample Taxonomy Team Charter (3) Membership Members must have expertise in vocabulary management Authority Team receives its authority from Library Management Accountability Team is accountable to Library Management and the Taxonomy Change Board Voting Team strives for understanding, acceptance and support Decisions reached by consensus whenever possible When voting, each member has one vote and all will abide by the outcome. A quorum is required for voting. Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 39
  40. 40. Sample Change Board Charter (1) Purpose Reviews and resolves issues related to the Taxonomy that are not resolved at the Taxonomy Team level. Reviews and approves major changes to the Taxonomy Scope Reviews and approves major changes to content and structure of the Taxonomy. Reviews and approves changes to strategy and functionality. Elevates issues to Advisory Board for guidance. Deliverables Process documentation for Change Board activities Documentation for Taxonomy strategy and approach Documentation of Change Board decisions and meeting minutes Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 40
  41. 41. Sample Change Board Charter (2) Responsibilities Address and resolve issues on which the Taxonomy Team is unable to come to consensus Review and approve major content changes (for example new facets and high level structural changes) Communicate implemented changes to the Advisory Board Interface with Advisory Board members about the Taxonomy Attend meetings prepared to discuss items on the agenda Complete assigned responsibilities in a timely manner Promote Taxonomy activities in the enterprise Educate users and potential customers about the Taxonomy Membership Voting members must have expertise in vocabulary management Representatives from business functions (non-voting) Taxonomy Team representatives (3 members) Management Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 41
  42. 42. Sample Change Board Charter (3) Authority Change Board receives its authority from management Accountability Accountable to management Voting Change Board strives for understanding, acceptance and support Decisions reached by consensus whenever possible When voting, each member has one vote and all will abide by the outcome. A quorum is required for voting. Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 42
  43. 43. Sample Advisory Board Charter (1) Purpose Provide strategic direction and promote the taxonomy Scope Provide guidance on strategy and functionality Serve as a conduit between business and the team Deliverables Documentation of Advisory Board minutes Responsibilities Provide future strategic direction Promote and support taxonomy in the enterprise Act as a conduit between potential customers, users, and the taxonomy team Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 43
  44. 44. Sample Advisory Board Charter (2) Membership Voting members must understand use and value of controlled vocabularies. Should be opinion leaders in information management Able to clearly communicate and promote the Taxonomy Should be five members with representatives from the business units and one Library representative. Selection based on Advisory Board recommendations Meet quarterly Authority The Advisory Board receives its authority from the Libraries Copyright © 2007 Boeing. All rights reserved. Internet Librarian 2007 Developing Taxonomies.ppt | 44
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