MATI Deliverables


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MATI Deliverables

  1. 1. MATI II Deliverables Instructions for accessing information from Deliverables list To access documents of interest in the listing of Deliverables, scroll down. The category heading is in large type and items within the category are coded and numbered. Thus the first item in roadmapping is labeled R1, the first item in technology transfer is TT1. Clicking on the link under the document name will take you to the document on the web. To access a new document, return to this Word file. To aid in scrolling, a detailed menu follows (roadmapping, technology strategy/portfolio management and technology transfer begin on new pages and page numbers are indicated, allowing use of the “go to” command.) The document was prepared in Palatino and probably formats best if opened using this font. Contents Roadmapping (R) (pages 3-10) Core Documents Tools, templates and processes & cross-company comparisons (R1-R8) Company roadmapping cases (R9-R11) Organizational considerations (R12-R14) Additional materials (pages 6-10) General roadmapping perspectives (R15-R24) Non-linear/Multi scenario roadmapping (R25-R27) Industry roadmapping (R28) Science roadmapping (R29) Bibliographies (R30-R31) In-depth Reading (R32) (page 10) Technology Strategy and Portfolio Management (TS/PM) (pages 11-16) Core Documents Technology strategy and futures studies Technology foresight (TS/PM1-TS/PM4) New Perspectives (TS/PM5-TS/PM11) Portfolio management (TS/PM12-TS/PM14) Additional and MATI I Materials (TS/PM15-TS/PM-18) (pages 15-16) Bibliographies (TS/PM19-TS/PM21) Technology Transfer (TT) (pages 17-19) Core Documents 1
  2. 2. Tools, templates and processes (TT1-TT4) Presentations and papers (TT5) Additional and MATI I Materials (TT6-TT8) (page 18) For In-Depth Reading (TT9-TT10) (pages 19) Technology Sourcing (TS) (page 20) (TS1-TS5) Organizational Issues (ORG) (page 21) (ORG1) Also see organizational issues in Roadmapping section Standards Management (S) (pages 22) Templates (S1) Cases (S2) Project (S3) Technology and Marketing (T&M) (pages 22-23) (T&M1-T&M2) Intellectual property (IP) (page 24) (IP1)) Technology Management (TM) (pages 25) (TM1-TM2) 2
  3. 3. Deliverables Summaries and Links ROADMAPPING (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link Roadmaps, as viewed by the MATI community, are documents that reveal the key defining elements of the markets, products, and technologies for a select part of the firm. Roadmapping is the activity of creating and then communicating those roadmaps for decision making. Roadmaps are unique documents in their emphasis on time and change, rather than treating assumptions as constants. Roadmaps take those moving targets and establish their priority, extend them using forecasts, and link them across the firm and sometimes through the customer, partner, and supply chain. 1. Core Documents Tools, Templates and Processes & Cross Company Comparisons (R1) Lucent's Product/technology Roadmapping Template with Explanations (14 slides) Overviews roadmapping, including Competitive Strategy & Differentiation, Market Share & Growth, Product Evolution Plan, Product Roadmap, Experience Curves, Product Drivers, Technology Roadmap, Component Forward-Costing Model, Software Roadmap, Manufacturing Roadmap and Technology Attack Strategy. (R2) Lucent's Product/Technology Roadmapping Template with Explanations and Sample Data (14 slides) A roadmap for Lucent using wireless handsets as an example to illustrate the format and the roadmapping process. (R3) Enterprise-wide Requirements and Decision Management with Strategic Roadmap Planning, Gary DeGregorio (Motorola) 1. Overview of Motorola’s decision system to enable improved organization-wide decision making and roadmapping (13 slides PDF) 2. The complete exposition (38 slides PDF) (R4) Rockwell's Roadmapping Template (19 slides) 3
  4. 4. The process is illustrated though presentation of Market Driver, Technology Enabled, Figures of Merit, Business Unit Core Competencies (driven by Core Technologies & Core Capabilities), Technology Migration, Technology Competitive Position, Potential Disruptive Impact, Roadmap Strategy, Business Unit Core Competencies, Business Initiatives, Market Dynamics, Business Interdependencies, and the Competence/Hurdle/Impact of the 6 “Most Wanted”. (R5) Siemens-Westinghouse's Roadmapping Template, Harry Morehead (9 slides) Siemens-Westinghouse’s Roadmapping process is described in terms of Uses, Product Line Direction, Strategic Technology Objectives, Technology Roadmap for Enabling Technology, Enabling Technology Objectives & Milestones. The role of Embryonic Technologies is described through Programs, Summary, and Status overviews. (R6) Motorola's Roadmapping Process and Template, Pat Richardson (6 slides) Motorola’s discontinuous renewal process (heavily impacted by both people and technology), leading to emerging businesses, is described through the 4 key parts (Technology Strategy, Technology Roadmaps, Scenario Plans, and Minority Report) and illustrated through a hypothetical Audio/Visual Industry Scenario Plan and an illustration of a completed Technology Roadmap. (R7) Roadmapping Process Checklist - A list of common activities necessary to complete the roadmapping process including market drivers and technology strategy (3 pages) Technology roadmaps are the documentation of a structured process to define, analyze, and plan the development of a core product/technology. Some companies use a small group of technical experts to keep the roadmaps current. The better approach is a multi- disciplined one where experts from engineering, research, marketing, planning, etc. are involved in the process. Each company will implement the process in its own way. However, there are some common concepts that all companies deal with while implementing the roadmapping process. After the technology, product line, product, or component is identified, in general terms, as a candidate for the roadmapping process, the following activities are necessary to complete the detailed roadmapping process. The results from each activity are documented on a series of roadmapping templates for presentation, as needed. (R8) Roadmapping Benefits Diagnostic, Elliott Fan and Mike Radnor, IBD - In development. This diagnostic tool is designed to assist firms considering roadmapping to determine the benefits they are likely to obtain, given their needs and goals and the technology management processes they currently use. Background, rationale (6 slides) 4
  5. 5. Summary of topics/sample questions & comments (9 slides - Open in Notes mode) Company Roadmapping Cases (R9) Roadmapping Applications at Lucent, Rich Albright (22 slides) Roadmaps (what they are, how they are structured and used) and roadmapping (the process of developing roadmaps is at least as important as the finished product). (R10) Roadmapping at Siemens-Westinghouse, Harry Morehead (6 slides) The overview of uses provides the context for Roadmaps that lead to the direction for product line technology development in the context of strategic technology objectives and culminating in a roadmap for enabling technology. (R11) Roadmapping at Motorola: Brief Outline of Roadmapping in Motorola, Paul Odlyzko, Motorola (5 slides) An overview of Motivation, Personalities, and Process, precede a summary of the current use of Technology Roadmaps. Organizational Considerations (R12) Getting Other People to Roadmap, Tom Kappel, Lucent (4 slides) The job of implementing roadmapping is really one of getting others to learn the technique, create roadmaps and then use the output in meaningful ways. A measurement scheme is needed to know how well you are implementing it. Three measures are suggested (the MATI I study using "aligned decisions"). The commonly used techniques are then discussed in terms of their effect using those measures. See “Getting Buy-In for Roadmapping”, Tom Kappel in Intra-org. Issues. (R13) Roadmapping Behaviors, Tom Kappel, Lucent (13 slides) A summary of some findings from MATI I field research on roadmapping. Includes some basic definitions, discussion of how roadmaps are used, and how it can be measured. Tentative conclusions are presented on ideal conditions for roadmapping and the successful tactics for implementing or spreading it. (R14) Training Exercise: Intra-Organizational Issues in Roadmapping, Elliott Fan, IBD (in several sections as noted) – In development. While still in development, this learning exercise has already been successfully piloted at two MATI meetings. It involves having executives from several departments (currently technology, marketing and strategy/finance but being expanded to include manufacturing) role play in a roadmapping development team. The team is required to develop strategies and roadmaps under changing conditions, for a fictitious firm. The package of materials includes initial briefing materials for each function, materials 5
  6. 6. distributed to each function as an update after initial discussion and a guide for facilitating the exercise. See also Intra-organizational issues section Guide (12 slides - OPEN IN NOTES MODE) Background handouts (3 pages each): Strategy Marketing Technology Updates (after initial discussion) (1 page each): Strategy Marketing Technology 2. Additional Materials General Roadmapping Perspectives (R15) Roadmapping Overview, Richard Albright, Lucent (22 slides) Addresses what is roadmapping, Comments on Successful Roadmapping, and the Development Process from an industry perspective. (R16) Perspectives on Roadmaps: How Organizations Talk about the Future, Tom Kappel, Lucent, to appear in Journal of Product Innovation Management (11 pages PDF) This study provides an organizational perspective on roadmapping as currently practiced, presents the experience of several organizations that have implemented it, and evaluates the results. Using a case-based, exploratory method, Kappel addresses several practical questions, such as: What are the effects of roadmapping? How are they measured? Is roadmapping always appropriate? How would an organization know if it is roadmapping well? What are the various kinds of roadmaps and how do they relate to each other? 6
  7. 7. (R17) Next Generation Roadmapping: From R, D &E Management to Innovation Management, from Products & Technologies to Partners and Platforms, Ronald Jonash (Arthur D Little) (24 slides) This presentation argues that successful companies will be those that are able to continually and systematically innovate by thinking in terms growth platforms of core technologies or capabilities and the management of partners chosen strategically to facilitate rapid product development. Case examples are included. Implications for alignment of business and technology strategy, organizational structure and key processes (including, particularly, technology portfolio management and varying roadmaps) are discussed. (R18) Roadmapping Taxonomy, Richard Albright, Lucent (4 slides) A draft project description addressing Types of Roadmaps, Roadmapping Domains, and the focus of activity of 14 Roadmapping groups (including MATI). (R19) Aligning Strategy and Technology Using Roadmaps: Emerging Lessons from the NCMS 'MATI' Project", Michael Radnor and John W. Peterson (8 pages) This paper offers some insights into selected management of technology-related constructs and tools that can help integrate planning and operations for the mid-to- large size technology intensive company. The constructs and tools reflect real time lessons being learned in MATI. (R20) How to Recognize a Mature Technology Roadmap - A Field Guide for Technology Planning and Management, John Thompson, Lucent (6 pages) An easy to read introduction to roadmaps and roadmapping. (R21) Technology Planning Survey - Strategic Technology Management: Linking Technology Resources to Company Objectives, R. Phaal and C. Farrukh, Cambridge University (32 pages) This survey was conducted by the MOT group at Cambridge to establish current practice in the area of ‘technology planning’, with specific reference to 'technology roadmapping' in the UK and, in the US through a ‘supplementary’ survey. The following broad conclusions are drawn: 1. While technology planning is an important business activity across industry sectors and company types, there is little commonality in terms of perceptions, approaches and tools. There is a need for improved frameworks and tools, with a desire for simple, structured, robust, flexible and integrated tools and processes. These findings support the need for the development of a tool catalogue. 2. The survey demonstrated that technology roadmapping can be used successfully for supporting technology strategy and planning, although its adoption represents a 7
  8. 8. challenge in terms of both initiating and sustaining the process. There is considerable interest in the development of the fast-start TRM process. (R22) Fast-Start Technology Roadmapping, Rob Phaal, Claire Farrukh and David Probert, Cambridge University (11 pages) The paper which describes the development and application of a process for supporting the rapid initiation of technology roadmapping in manufacturing firms can be of particular interest to SMEs. The 'start-up' process comprises a series of facilitated workshops that bring together various functions in the business, including technology and marketing. The process supports understanding and communication of the relationships between market and business requirements, product and service concepts, and technological solutions. The approach encourages learning and staff involvement, and identifies key knowledge gaps, enabling a company-specific roadmapping process to be initiated quickly. In addition, theoretical aspects of technology roadmapping are discussed, in the context of managing technological knowledge. (R23) Technology Road Mapping: The Issues of Managing Technology Change, David Probert and Noordin Shehabuddeen, University of Cambridge (5 pages) Technology roadmapping has emerged as a key management tool in formulating the link between technological resources and the exploitation of market opportunities. A powerful aid to strategy formulation and communication, the technique has the major advantage of bringing many functions within a business together around a common plan. Although there is no definitive guide to roadmapping practice, the application in many different businesses has revealed a number of generic aspects. A major common factor is that technology road maps are concerned with the introduction of technology change into an organization. (R24) Roadmapping Common Platform Part 1(16 pages) Part 2 (9 pages) Part 3 (13 pages) This set of papers examines the differences, similarities and common platforms that exist in the roadmapping process. Can corporate-level road mapping serve as a general vehicle for evaluating, minimizing and managing risk in projects as well as ensuring effective execution of the project. Non-linear/Multi Scenario Roadmapping (R25) Knowledge Management-based Multi-Scenario Roadmapping for Dynamic Environments Jeffrey Strauss (IBD/Kellogg): in two parts: 8
  9. 9. 1. Changing Ba of Roadmapping (4 slides) Applying Nonaka’s concept of Ba, a contextual framework is presented which considers how roadmapping has moved from a focus primarily on enhancing the voice of technology & R&D in strategic planning to including a range of business units and functions and, gradually, suppliers. As a response to rapidly changing and uncertain conditions extension of the roadmapping context to explicitly consider multiple scenario variations (more so than is currently done) is suggested. 2. Multi-Scenario Roadmapping (12 slides in Word) Details rationale and issues and then suggests steps for specifying variations in roadmapping tasks for different scenarios and planning for potential transition from one scenario to another. (R26) Plotting and Navigating a Non-Linear Roadmap: Knowledge-Based Roadmapping for Emerging and Dynamic Environments, Jeff Strauss, Mike Radnor and John Peterson (29 pages) Figures for the above paper (on separate Power Point file, 9 slides) A review of the complementary tools of roadmapping and scenario planning provides the context a two new methodology joining these techniques. Two new methodologies are introduced that could provide the complementing conceptual and practical implementation guidelines needed to overcome inherent limitations and maximize the contribution to knowledge management of the above two toolset. It may also bridge disparate organizational, environmental, industry, product life cycle and knowledge type contexts. (R27) On Creating New Horizons: Integrating Non-Linear Considerations To Better Manage the Present From the Future, John Anderson, Mike Radnor and John Peterson - November, 1998 (9 pages) In a departure from arduous formal scenario planning, a futures approach based upon NASA’s Horizon Mission Methodology adapted to the emerging “MATI” model of the technology intensive firm will be presented. It has the virtues of being an informal, flexible, and adaptable planning technique which can easily become an embedded management skill. Although not a cure-all for business problems, it does provide a framework for creating context and integrating vision, solutions and alternatives. Industry Roadmapping (R28) Industries of the Future: Creating a Sustainable Technology Edge, Kenneth Friedman, US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology 9
  10. 10. Presents the concept of cooperative, pre-competitive research, highlighting the role of Industry Roadmapping. Completed industry visions for Forest Products, Steel, Metalcasting, Glass, Aluminum, Chemicals, Agriculture, and Mining are presented, with examples of consortia-developed "research that produced results". (Note: These slides are very graphic- intensive): part 1 (30 slides - 5.3 mb) part 2 (7 slides - 3.5 mb) part 3 (8 slides - 4.4 mb) Science Roadmapping (R29) Using Text Mining with Technology Roadmapping, Alan Porter, Georgia Institute of Technology (30 slides) Beginning with the premise that full internal and external information, made more accessible by electronic sources, leads to the question of how best to analyze and present derived information. This presentation focuses on the field of Science roadmapping. Bibliographies (R30) Short roadmapping bibliography, Michael Radnor, IBD (2 pages) Bibliography illustrating MATI contribution (R31) Roadmapping Bibliography, Michael Radnor, IBD (21 pages) Extracted for MATI II from ONR bibliography 3. In-depth Reading (R32 – also listed as TT8) What's an Organizational Routine? ‘Unpacking Knowledge Management’, Daniel Levin, Discussion of success factors in technology roadmapping and technology transfer (53 pages) By focusing on the specific and crucial technology roadmapping (planning) and transfer processes ( defined and described in more detail below), this research grounds the theories and concepts of knowledge and learning in what actually goes on in organizations. In 14 cases at four large companies, it may not be enough for organizational learning to take place if there is only an ability to absorb new knowledge and a high degree of comfort in doing so. Rather, supporters had to have the power and influence in the organization for knowledge flow to happen and overcome inertia. The paper shows how two critical, knowledge-intensive organizational routines (technology roadmapping and the intra-company technology transfer) operate in practice in multiple companies. It is based on a cross-case comparison at multiple firms. 10
  11. 11. TECHNOLOGY STRATEGY AND PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link The role of knowledge and intellectual capital as key drivers of innovation and strategic thinking and the technology management tools required for implementation, including those related to technical and contextual foresight, have become a central focus for MATI work in the strategy area. The MATI task-force’s working definition views portfolio management as involving a collection of intellectual property rights, technologies, processes, products, and/or projects, that are controllable and managed (explicitly or implicitly) by a technology-intensive firm to maximize/optimize the total value of the innovation mix over a given timeframe in order to meet its longer term strategic objectives. The task-force .is exploring "state of the art" practices, particularly in terms of dimensions used, general approach, what does and does not work and the influence of "industry clock speed" (product life cycles). Questions being asked include whether all industries should handle portfolio management in the same manner, what are best practices for portfolio valuation, cash flow, turns, option theory and strategic fit and determining the interplay between portfolio management and other practice areas. 1. Core Documents Technology Strategy and Futures Studies 1. Technology Foresight (TS/PM1) Process for Formulating an R&D Strategy by Integrating Business Directions with Technology Foresight and Capabilities, Ralph Wood, United Technologies (27 slides) The process begins with a discussion of Desired Outcomes. This is presented in the context of a Strategic Technology Outlook, including the perspective/role of: Current Business Environment, Future Business Scenarios, Issues Shaping the Future, 5 Scenarios (illustrated), Key Strategic Drivers, Role of Emerging Technologies, Scenarios (e.g. Enterprise Productivity, Product, Customer Service) and Longer Range Emerging Technologies. This work leads to an exposition of the Importance of Technology Capabilities to each Business Unit and the Technology Capabilities Portfolio & Strategy, (TS/PM2) Disruptive Technology: A New Paradigm for the ‘Attacker’s Advantage’, Bob McCarthy, Roche (31 slides) Discussion of strategic implications of Clayton Christiansen’s (Innovators Dilemma) analysis of anticipating and preparing for technology variations that may undercut or alter competitive positioning (derived from Christiansen workshops and writings.) 11
  12. 12. (TS/PM3) Role of Futurists, Andy Hines, Kellogg and Denise Chiavetta, Coca-Cola (19 slides) Jumping the chasm from fuzzy futures to running a business, the challenges for internal futurists provides the basis for suggesting 6 ways to meet those challenges. (TS/PM4) A Closer Look at the Future, Denise Chiavetta, Coca-Cola and Ralph Wood, United Technologies (31 slides) Four tips for smoothing the way to using futures research to help business management. These are (amphibious links, mental models, 360 view, clarify the "problem"), tools & methods (lead user, scenarios, roadmapping, data mining) provide for a discussion of the overview of trends leading to examples of process as well as sources of data. The examples for the use of scenarios to create plausible views of the future provide a basis for development of robust strategies. 2. New Perspectives (TS/PM5) A Discussion about Futures, Ralph Wood, United Technologies (8 slides) Presentation intended to stimulate discussion of MATI’s orientation and future by considering changing the current “inside-out “orientation to “outside-in” value generation targeting potential customer needs, reaching out to form communities of practice and establishing a distribution mechanism currently lacking in MATI. Included in the presentation are provocative questions of MATI’s “ideal” product and “brand”. (TS/PM6) Mining the Techno-Infrastructure, John Peterson, Lucent (19 slides) Moving from the premise that discontinuities cause changes in priorities, the rationale is set to develop software to mine patent literature for loci of innovation. A war scenario provides the illustration of a MATI technique of mapping the future back to the present, evaluating the Innovation Competency Distribution (academic, commercial and defense), and leads to the MATI I model of mining technology, exploration domains and technology assumptions. Translating to business concepts (business and technology value chains) shows how Roadmaps recognize and illustrate linkages. Using these techniques, specific technologies can be isolated to map the state-of-the-art and innovator relationships, suggesting virtual consortia and raising the question if core competency lies in creating and sustaining coalitions. The MATI I lesson of Strategic Alignment is overlaid with the concept of Scenarios to anticipate discontinuities. (TS/PM7) Distributed Knowledge Creation and Management: Transition to the Almost Virtual Enterprise, John Peterson, Lucent (32 slides) 12
  13. 13. With "old think" dominated by financial expectations, "new think" asserts that Time/Tempo/ Innovation drives business & financial performance. Since the Business Value Chain is inefficient, a change in perspective is necessary and MATI is an emerging meta-structure for developing the business in which technology deals with innovation by redefining markets. A contextual view of strategy is presented in which creation of the "new think" growth engine is supported by roadmapping and recognizing actionable technology clusters. (TS/PM8) Creating Technology Centered Advantage: A Strategic View from the Knowledge Battlespace. John W. Peterson (9 pages) Strategy, a military term that has been adapted for use in the business environment, is a very powerful concept that is both directional and temporal. It exists in concept space bound by system-specific, renewable, knowledge-based resources which include a knowledge-creation infrastructure, technological capability, a dynamic network for access to capital and organizational will and intellect. Unfortunately, strategic context is also a shared virtual space. The competition lives there too. Survival for large technology intensive companies requires improved situational awareness and a carefully crafted context shaping capability. Also required is contextual strategic decision congruity and a flexible meta-structure to create, dissolve and later recreate teaming arrangements that leverage multiple firms capabilities. The author suggests a framework for defining a credible future end-point and a tool set for developing the strategies and capabilities necessary to get there, particularly during times of structural stress and technological discontinuity. (TS/PM9) Creating Intellectual Capital Advantage: Really Leveraging Innovation, John Peterson, Lloyd Eriksen and Kevin A. Greer, Lucent (12 pages) A methodology is presented for a process to better manage intellectual capital (later defined as explicit technical knowledge). The findings concern the alignment of business strategy, organizational learning as part of the product technology roadmapping process and aggressive management of the technology attack strategies. Intellectual capital, as an integral part of the business strategy and requiring decision considerations that come from the perspectives of the creator, the owner/manager and the user(s), are central. Moreover, the transfer of intellectual capital must be recognized as not necessarily a Tofflerian second wave zero-sum-game. Intellectual capital management becomes a strategic means of generating funding for enterprise growth through market shares (accelerating product introductions and dominant designs), technology licensing and transfer fees, leveraging multi-company competencies and capabilities and supply chain barter. (TS/PM10) Knowledge Creation and Information Management in the Technology Intensive Enterprise: Strategic Fabric Not Infrastructure, John Peterson and Michael Radnor (will be posted shortly with link via email) 13
  14. 14. Although the relationships between technical expertise and management decision processes remain a strategic issue, information management has become a political solution answering, at least in part, how, functional expertise in a technology intensive organization can be integrated to create intellectual capital, product, market and business advantages. Major best-in-class technology intensive companies are beginning to recognize that success in the new millennium will depend on the ability of the enterprise to create and apply knowledge in ways that fit dynamic and ever increasingly complex global markets and changing corporate environments. They understand that global pressures will no longer allow the response time for restructuring to force the alignment of new hierarchies and under-performing organizations. This work-in-process will introduce several new concepts that begin to address the traditional boundary between technical expertise and management decision processes. The new methodologies help bridge disparate functional environments, enabling technology life cycles, and the balancing of disruptive and sustaining technologies. (TS/PM11) Technology Tools and Processes as Potential Engines of Sustained Corporate Growth: MATI I Findings. John Peterson and Michael Radnor (will be posted shortly with link via email) The management gurus proclaim that ‘state-of-the-art’ product technology is a critical corporate asset and a formidable strategic weapon for achieving competitive advantage. Unfortunately, the ‘financial engineers’ who dominate capital markets continue to place a premium, not on intellectual capital and innovation capabilities, but on near-term share-of-market-capitalization growth. The unintended but immediate result is executive emphasis on reduced and more focused short-term low-risk incremental investment and a longer-term reduction in the ability to generate disruptive technological innovation. This paper critically analyzes a generic model of the technology intensive firm based upon the value chains that underlie the model’s relative competitive capability. Demonstrated is the direct linkage of technology, multiple value chains to business goals and objectives. Manipulation of the value chain elements results in the quantum leaps in speed (to market), efficiency (margin and price) and quality (differentiation) that can help reestablish the strategic role of investment in technology in the mind of the financial engineers/analysts. The MATI I processes and tools provide an internal engine for generating sustained growth. Portfolio Management (TS/PM12) Technology Management Processes, Heather Rayle, Rohm & Haas (14 slides) A discussion of the key issues in project/portfolio management lays the foundation for presentation of the project and portfolio management approaches. R&D Project information provides data for the risk assessment model. The steps in assembling and presenting technology portfolios are provided, including a research focus view as well as a project "bubble chart" assessed by technical and market success prospects. 14
  15. 15. (TS/PM13) Evolving Technology Portfolios, John Peterson, Lucent (23 slides) Three critical portfolio issues are discussed: 1. how will the enterprise leverage technology to create value; 2. where will the enterprise invest to create value, and 3. how will the enterprise balance and communicate the knowledge created from technology investment? The discussion sets the scene for development of a case that includes the knowledge that creation of technology may be limited by the market/customer needs. The value of the content of the market basket of technology varies over time and that a mix of technologies to support multiple business options will drive positive financial contributions. (TS/PM14) R&D Portfolio Planning: The Westinghouse Experience, William J. McAllister (55 slides PDF) Two methodologies for managing R&D portfolios are described. The first explicitly links R&D to strategy objectives. Importance rankings are converted into weights using Rank Order Centroids, then re-aggregated across objectives to provide normative guidance for funding allocation. The second uses real options pricing theory to value R&D projects. Options methods treat decision flexibility and uncertainty in a manner more appropriate to R&D than NPV methods, providing a cost-effective tool for portfolio optimization. Additional and MATI I Materials (TS/PM15) Valuation of R&D Projects Using Options Pricing & Decision Analysis Models – Theory and Application, R. K. Perdue, W. J. McAllister, P. V. King and B. G. Berkey (18 pages) See TS/PM 14 for annotation. (TS/PM16) Creating Third Wave Advantage: Reasserting the Strategic Role of Technology Management, John Peterson and Michael Radnor Presentation to Lucent Knowledge Sharing Summit, October, 1999 (20 slides) Starting with the prerequisite direction, MATI I provided an alignment process leading to a "third wave" business model. The "operationalized solutions" learning from MATI I provided the context for the use of scenarios to anticipate discontinuities and developing roadmapping as a core process to deal with intellectual capital and technology leverage. However, creating the linkages (e.g. between Voice of the Customer and Enabling Technologies) is a political process. This political process requires addressing business strategies in the context of both technology and markets and the use of scenarios to deal with technology evolution. The resultant functional business model suggests a third wave, technology-intensive enterprise will be faced with an influx of knowledge and technology, acting as an innovation stimulus and creating a new, self-adaptive organization. 15
  16. 16. (TS/PM17) Development of a Structured Approach to Assessing Technology Management Practice, David Probert, Rob Phaal, Clare Farrukh, Cambridge (13 pages) The development of a practical technique for the assessment of technology management practices is described. Based on a process model of technology management, it provides a means whereby manufacturing companies can assess the effectiveness of the technology management activities critical to their business, and identify areas for improvement or transfer of good practice. This paper describes the development of a practical technique for the assessment of technology management practices. Based on a process model of technology management, it provides a means whereby manufacturing companies can assess the effectiveness of the technology management activities critical to their business and identify areas for improvement or transfer of good practice. The procedure comprises three levels, spanning the full range of technology management activities, linking broad strategic concerns to detailed operational activities, in the format of a series of facilitated workshops. (TS/PM18) Aligning National Policy and Technology: Of Tofflerian Waves and Strategic Technologies. John W. Peterson and Kenneth O. Wofford (10 pages) Redistribution of state assets (socio-political power, intellectual capital and economic investment) has serious economic, political, social and security consequences. Unfortunately, macro economics remains the real driver of national priorities, even though it seldom links directly to innovation, business strategy, and the technology driven management and operational practices that are the primary drivers of localized second order socio-political(national technology) considerations. A parallax approach championing an innovation infrastructure to create & leverage regional growth engines and knowledge based competitive entities is presented. Bibliographies (TS/PM19) MATI II Initial Cut at Portfolio Management Bibliography, John Peterson, Lucent (43 pages) (TS/PM20) Technology Portfolio Management Bibliography, Jack Bishop, IBD (32 pages) –in development Annotated with added comments (TS/PM21) Technology Forecasting Bibliography (3 pages) 16
  17. 17. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link The MATI Technology Transfer Task Force is focused on the analysis of existing methods and the development of new/alternative methods to achieve efficient transmission and receipt of product and/or process knowledge between departments of the corporation and between the corporation and it's suppliers and customers. 1. Core Documents Tools, Templates and Processes (TT1) Technology Transfer, Product Development and Manufacturing at Ford, David Stirsman, Ford (7 slides) Ford’s technology transfer template is described. (TT2) Ford Advanced Manufacturing Deployment Process, Ed Abbott, Ford (15 slides) The role of Ford’s Manufacturing Technology Council and forums and the portfolio development steps and rationale of the firm’s technology transfer process is described. (TT3) Technology Transfer at Baxter, Ken Slepicka, Baxter (6 slides) A presentation of Baxter’s Renal division and PEPe process – product development and technology transfer template. (TT4) Technology Transfer Process, Alec McMillan, Rockwell Automation (24 slides) The Rockwell template and the practices that have been evolved to enhance technology transfer in the context of other processes are presented and analyzed. Presentations and Papers (TT5) Underlying Elements of Successful Technology Transfer: From MATI I, Daniel Levin, IBD/Rutgers University. Summary presented at MATI II September Level Set meeting (14 slides) 14 case studies (names disguised) examine technology transfer in the context of the ability to absorb, comfort and structure dimensions. In the context of structure, incentives, culture, strategy, and environment, these factors suggest the ability to achieve better outcomes. (For more detail, see Levin dissertation summary in For In- depth Reading section). 2. Additional and MATI I Materials 17
  18. 18. (TT6) Smoothing the Path from Product Conception to Delivery - A 1998 MATI paper by J. Thompson Lucent) and G. Lundquist with a discussion of Technology Transfer and the Value Chain (10 pages PDF) A model is proposed that integrates six phases of technology transfer into each step along the value chain form initial concept through manufacturing to products in customer hands. Management of each phase for each step leads to greater control, higher efficiency, and lower costs and frustration in the movement of technologies within product development. Indeed, the model leads to a true quality management system. (TT7) Transferring Knowledge in the R&D Arena: Links, Loops and Learning in the Technology Transfer Process - A 1998 paper by Daniel Levin and Tom Kappel with a discussion of required elements of successful Technology Transfer (34 pages) The paper seeks to answer the question of how knowledge transfer actually works. For this, a different kind of methodology is required, one that allows the researcher to look inside the "black box" of knowledge transfer and to generate theory that is grounded in what people inside organizations are thinking and doing. It looks inside the "box" of organizational learning and knowledge transfer to show contextually how an organizational routine and the process of transferring a technology from research and development (R&D) to a business unit operates in practice. (TT8) What's an Organizational Routine? ‘Unpacking Knowledge Management’, Daniel Levin, Discussion of success factors in technology roadmapping and technology transfer (53 pages) By focusing on the specific and crucial technology roadmapping (planning) and the technology transfer processes, as defined and described in more detail below, this research is able to ground the theories and concepts of knowledge and learning in what actually goes on in organizations. In 14 cases at four large companies, it may not be enough for organizational learning to take place if there is only an ability to absorb new knowledge and a high degree of comfort in doing so. Rather, supporters had to have the power and influence in the organization to make the knowledge flow happen, to overcome inertia. The paper shows how two critical, knowledge-intensive organizational routines (the technology roadmapping/planning process and the intra- company technology transfer process) operate in practice in multiple companies. It is based on a cross-case comparison at multiple firms. 3. For In-depth Reading 18
  19. 19. (TT9) An introduction to technology transfer and summary of the related MATI I findings from Daniel Levin’s doctoral thesis on this subject, Daniel Levin, IBD & Rutgers University (49 pages), While the ability to absorb knowledge is vital, this ability is not always enough for the process to work well if project participants are too uncomfortable or if project supporters have too little power. To make these three concepts of ability, comfort and power more concrete, the study carries out an in-depth examination of each. It examines technology transfer as a management process (i.e., a repeated set of related activities) rather than as an event or as a strictly technical matter. However, rather than taking a reengineering approach of focusing on all of the specific tasks and various steps in the process, this study looks for central, underlying, theoretical elements of the process; i.e., what makes it "tick." The main finding from this study is that, while the ability to absorb knowledge is important and has even received the bulk of attention in the organizational learning literature, this ability is not always enough for the process to work well. The problem occurs if project participants are too uncomfortable or if project supporters have too little power. Following an in-depth description of the three key ability, comfort and power elements of the technology transfer process, the study compares across eight MATI cases to see the effect that these had on the technology transfer outcomes. (TT10) Technology Transfer Case Summary, Daniel Levin (7 pages) This report describes the cases studied by Levin during MATI I. It provides an assessment in terms of ability to absorb knowledge, comfort level and power dynamics as these played out in the eight cases studied. 19
  20. 20. TECHNOLOGY SOURCING, including Make vs Buy (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link The initial focus of this interest group has been on benchmarking best practices and recognizing technology gaps. The make versus buy issue is being explored as part of a broader systems perspective with respect to technology sourcing. It is intended that technology sourcing be considered in relation to other organizational functions and processes including particularly strategic planning, portfolio management and roadmapping. (TS1) Technology Sourcing Perspectives from Siemens-Westinghouse, Harry Morehead, Siemens-Westinghouse (11 slides) Presents an overview of Siemens-Westinghouse (SWPC) particularly the Advanced Turbine System Technologies, details the process SWPC used to obtain and apply thermosonic imaging technology from Wayne State University, and identifies lessons learned about finding, licensing and further developing technology. Not evident in the slides but clear from discussion is the importance of personal relationships and internal championing in sourcing. (TS2) Technology Sourcing at Kraft, Susan Gaud, Kraft (10 slides) Provides an overview of technology sourcing needs and the approach in development at Kraft. Technology sourcing is growing in importance as the firm becomes more technology concerned. The presentation discusses the processes and strategies evolving in this area, in comparison with the approaches that have been used in the company, heretofore. (TS3) Technology Foresight as a Key Element in Make-or-Buy Strategy, David Probert, Laura Cáñez, Rob Phaal, Cambridge University (6 pages) This paper discusses the need to foresee technology requirements and trends when undertaking a make-or-buy analysis. Decisions that seem "right" today may not be right for the future. Technology analysis requirements for make or buy strategy are reviewed and the contribution of current and emerging technology foresight techniques. (TS4) Technology Sourcing: The Link to Make-or-Buy Laura Cáñez and David Probert, University of Cambridge (5 pages) This paper discusses different options for technology sourcing following a strategic make-or-buy analysis. Selling, licensing-out, creating alliances, licensing-in and acquisitions are some of the possible options presented. Industrial cases are used to illustrate technology sourcing alternatives. 20
  21. 21. ORGANIZATIONAL ISSUES (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link The Intra-organizational task-force is working on such issues as: Enhancing the "voices" of customers and technology within the organization; achieving buy-in for MATI processes from upper management and key groups; forming appropriate working teams for roadmapping, scenario planning, etc.; integration with strategic, marketing and other processes; developing and achieving internal organizational standards including dealing with changes; defining the role and position of a "standards unit" and integrating standards thinking with other management processes; developing a taxonomy of variables in organization cultures and structures (culture, structure, knowledge) significantly impacting on technology management processes (product development, innovation, etc.). (ORG1) Getting Buy-In for Roadmapping, Tom Kappel, Lucent (2 slides) There is sometimes trouble starting roadmapping in one part of the business or reviving it after it has stalled. This is discussed as a problem of at least two factors: buy-in and skills. The buy-in problem is proposed as a research topic with unique contributions to organizational behavior and practical deliverables to industry. A second proposed project involves the way corporate information is used (and ignored) by roadmap teams. Are the boxes and arrows we draw about information flow really true? See also organizational issues in Roadmapping section. 21
  22. 22. STANDARDS MANAGEMENT (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link Excellence in strategic global standards management, which cuts across many corporate functions and the technology and business value chain, has become a vital component of competitiveness but its tools, practices and training resources are highly under-developed. MATI, in collaboration with key industry and standards associations and players, is encouraging the development of this field and the practices and structures required to perform at the level needed. Templates (S1) The Global Challenge of Strategic Standardization Management, Alec McMillan, Rockwell (20 slides) Overview of standards management including a flow chart illustrating standards considerations in for different functions, standardization across the supply chain, the interplay of standards and product and industry roadmaps and issues for global standards development and corporate standards management. Product marketability and standards opportunities and the impact of culture on standards are also discussed. Rockwell templates are presented. Cases (S2) Global Standards Management - summary of Kellogg student study (16 slides) Study included interviews with 9 companies (Baxter, GE Medical Systems, Kellogg, Lucent, Motorola, Roche, Rockwell, 3Com and United Technologies) as well as a review of literature and standards related organizations. Initial conclusions and recommendations Project (S3) Project to Enhance Instruction on Strategic Global Standards Management, Kellogg School of Management (3 pages) Abstract of proposal for project just funded by the US Department of Education to increase attention to standards management and sophistication in companies and, particularly, US business schools. Project elements include case and training/teaching materials development ands piloting, a website, an industry-faculty roundtable and a faculty workshop. 22
  23. 23. TECHNOLOGY AND MARKETING Consideration of requirements, issues and opportunities for technology management in the market-driven firm and general issues concerning technology-marketing relations. (T&M1) Roadmapping in a Marketing vs. Technology Culture… Continuing the Discussion”, Denise Chiavetta, Coca-Cola (6 slides) Presentation of likely differences in applying roadmapping in a marketing driven vs. a technology/engineering-driven company. Slides have been revised to incorporate ensuing discussion among MATI companies. (T&M2) Marketing with Pocket Protectors" (Technology Innovation in a Marketing- driven Firm), Dennis Braswell, Coca-Cola (16 slides), A marketing-driven company technology innovation can be found in the product, what the customer sees and touches and in infrastructure. At such companies, technology innovation generally comes in at the last two and so starts disadvantaged. In Coca-Cola, the main product is over 100 years old and not targeted for change. In a marketing driven company innovation implies: 1) focusing on new products (or features), selling channels, promotions, and advertisements, 2) no aroma of technology, 3) instant results - marketers then move on to the next thing (not, ostensibly, a recipe for technology), and 4) that trade puffery is OK, indeed, exalted. Keys to technology success are credibility; understanding the business by knowing the company’s vision and how everyone contributes to it; getting out of the lab (what ís going on the street as well as in the world of technology; strong relationships and good communications; and being creative about technology sourcing. 23
  24. 24. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY The MATI focus in this area is on the strategic management and valuation of the intellectual property portfolio, IP roadmapping and related issues. (IP1) Intellectual Property – Prerequisite Competence and Competitive Capabilities for the Next Millennium: A View from the Business Unit, John Peterson, Lucent (21 slides) This presentation describes in summary form the central components and functional requirements of an IP system of protection (patents, copyrights, etc.). The discussion allows discussion of the assessment, strategies and execution requirements that link IP strategy and innovation drivers and the resulting IP values, in terms of alignment, leverage and returns; the exhibits go on to show how these considerations play out in the corporate battle-space. The strategic importance of aligning strategy and the intellectual capital of the technology to be leveraged to produce corporate returns is also described. Such analysis can then be fed into the construction of IP and operational roadmaps. 24
  25. 25. TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT (Technology Management Field) (Unless otherwise noted, “slides” are in Power Point, “pages” are in Word). To access documents, click on the link MATI’s objective in the Technology Management field is to keep abreast of developments and key players and to develop and maintain useful relationship and alliances. (TM1) Overview of Cambridge Institute for Manufacturing, Centre for Technology Management, David Probert, University of Cambridge (42 slides), The Institute for Manufacturing conducts education and research programs using networking and dissemination. The Centre’s research and practice programs are built on mapping, development and application phases. (TM2) Technology Management: The State of the Field and Mutually Beneficial Practitioner/Academic Collaboration”, Dundar Kocaoglu, Portland State University (35 slides) Brief overview of the growth of the technology management field as reflected in the number of journals and school programs. Introduction to Portland State University’s degree program as an example of industry-academic collaboration. Discussion of the increased practitioner in the IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management (Kocaoglu is the editor) and PICMET conference: invitation to contribute. 25