CSR Strategy and Social Business


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CSR Strategy and Social Business

  1. 1. CSR Str te a So i l Bu n ss a gy nd ca si e Keko Yokoy m i a a Contents 1. Introduction 2. Re w the concept of CSR strate vie gy 3. Approac to CSR strategy f ove oming CSR issue h or rc s 4. CSR strate based on the ide of soc busine gy a ial ss 5. Conclusions Abstract As approac s to CSR be ame pervasive,studie to disc he c s uss the role of CSR strategyhave be increasing.This paper f en irst summarizes the CSR strate studie and the se gy s npropose an approac to CSR strate f s h gy rom a ne pe w rspe tive This pape also c . ridentifies issues that a company may f e whe implementing CSR and sugge ac n stsapproac s to CSR strate to ove he gy rcome the issues.To overcome the CSR issue se s,thepaper discusse ( ) a f s 1 ramework f re ognizing the c or c ontribution that CSR activitymake to c s orporate pe ormanc and ( ) approache to CSR strate f resolving rf e, 2 s gy ortrade f inhe nt to the CSR ac of s re tivity. This paper proposes that a company design its CSR activity so that it expands thecompanys stakeholde re rs, sourc and c es apabilities. Se ondly be ause the impac of c , c tCSR activity occurs both through external f tors,such as legitimacy and reputation, acand through internal factors,suc as imple ntation and le h me arning,e f f orts to stimulatethe proc sse are disc e s ussed.Lastly,base on the above c d onsiderations,the outcome ofCSR, corporate pe ormanc and the resolution of trade f inherent to CSR are rf e of sfurthe examine This pape conc r d. r lude by pointing out that, f s rom the perspective of東海大学紀要政治経済学部 第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 337
  2. 2. Keiko YokoyamaCSR strategy is most important f a c ,it or ompanyto impleme CSR activityregarding ntit as a soc business, base on a c ial d aref re ul view of its core business. 1. Introduction1 1 Di f c ty i CSR and the ne d f str gy . . f i ul n e or ate The intentions of companie that work on CSR are varie s d.Some companies take a reactive approac to CSR in response to c h hanges in the corporate environme or nt,e rnal pressure to introduc CSR, or as a me xte e ans of hedging risk. Othe c r ompaniestake a more active approac atte h, mpting to gain a competitive advantage throughdif e ntiation and branding by introduc f re ing CSR. To put it simply CSR is nothing but corporate ef orts to e , f nsure that corporateactivities do not cause negative e f cts ( fe harm)but bring highe values ( r ) contribute tosoc ty Howeve while se mingly simple the c ie . r, e , orporate activitie and society that sne d to be addre d in CSR c e sse ontain the whole conte and proc nt esse of corporate sactivity as we as all the site assoc , ll s iate with the activity and stakeholde d rs.CSR issaid to c e all sphe s of manage nt,and is also said to e onc rn re me mbodythe manage nt meitse .Furthe lf rmore,CSR require a company to c s onsider the whole of soc ty and the iestakeholde that are af e d by c rs f cte ompanies,as we as the achie ll veme of corporate ntgoals and the survival of the company The dif ic . f ulty is sometime expre d as a s ssedilemma betwee the societys de n mand f CSR f or rom a company,and the shareholdersdemand f the maximization of prof in the short- rm ( or its te Porter and Kramer,20 2) 0 .Upon furthe conside r ration,the dif icultie assoc f s iate with the imple ntation of CSR d mec be broken down into the f an ollowing two main areas. The first dif ic f ulty is to recognize the ef ec of CSR activity on soc f t iety and thecompany Eve if CSR is vie . n wed as an investme if the ef ec is not re ognize by nt, f t c dsoc ty and the c ie ompany it is me ly c , re onside d as a c re ost. In this case,CSR activityis only regarded as a means to cope with external pressure and the e f , f orts to imple-me CSR would be re nt garded as re tive and passive and limite to the minimum. ac , d Theref ,the is a nee to de ore re d velop a framework in which CSR activity positivelyaf ec socie and the c f ts ty ompany,and in whic its ef ec can be re ognize h f ts c d.As in otherbusine strate s, it is ne ssary to c ss gie ce larif the theme and targe of CSR ac y s ts tivity,examine the cost performance carry out the planning and run the Plan- - c - , Do Che k338 東海大学紀要政治経済学部
  3. 3. CSR Strategy and Soc Business ialAction c c to e y le nsure the ef e of CSR activitie on the soc ty Howe r, it is f ct s ie . vedif ic to re ognize and observe the main e f c of CSR on the c f ult c f e ts ompany.This is whya lot of CSR s bene its f the c f or ompany are intangible in the long term. The second dif ic f ulty is in the imple ntation of CSR be ause CSR ac me c tivity itselfcontains many trade f For a company the sc of s. , ope of society is ve broad. Whe ry nthe societyis viewed as stakeholders,the can be c y lassif d into two ty ie pes based on thede e of the re gre ir lationship with the company The primary stake . holders are thosewho are important f the c or ompany to survive and who have business re , lationshipswith the company,while the remaining ones are the se ondarystake c holders.CSR mustbe impleme d also giving due c nte onsideration to the se ondarystake c holders.CSR is anactivity to pursue the ultimate,ide state where higher ec al onomic,social and environ-mental value are to be evenly provide to all stake s d holde Howe r, the c rs. ve ompanyand stakeholders will e ounte trade f situations e ry nc r of ve whe with re re gard to thevalue to be provide For example providing value to one stake s d. , s holde may negate rvalue to anothe stake s r holder.Trade f may oc ur be en corporate prof and the of s c twe iteconomic, soc and e ial nvironmental be f re e d by the primary and se ondary ne its c ive cstakeholde if the CSR ac rs tivity is not strate ally de gic signed. Theref ,a c ore ompany ne ds to re e cognize who the stakeholde are ir rs ,develop a mapshowing its relationships with each stakeholde f r rom the perspective of CSR, andimple nt the ac me tivity with all stakeholde in mind.It is also re ommended to re ine rs c fand place priority on the targe stakeholde and values whe ve any CSR ac t rs ne r tivity isconsidered (Carroll and Buchholts, 2 0 ) 02.1 2 The pur .. pose and contents of thi paper s Ac omplishing CSR in an ide f c al ashion is quite challenging.This is why de loping vethe conce and sc pt enario,or strate , is absolutely ne essary gy c .From the perspectiveof the previouslymentione f d actors that make the ac omplishme of CSR partic c nt ularlydif ic f ult, the following ne ds c be addre d: ( ) a f e an sse 1 ramework that recognizescorporate pe ormance in CSR ac rf tivity,and ( )an e 2 xamination of the conce of CSR ptstrate f gy rom the perspective of resolving trade f inhe nt to CSR. of s re The purpose of this paper is to prese the c nt once of CSR strate f pt gy rom theperspe tive of ( ) the f c s 1 ramework f e or xamining corporate pe ormanc in CSR rf eactivity and ( ) the resolution of trade f inhe nt to CSR. , 2 of s re第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 339
  4. 4. Keiko Yokoyama We ide y the standpoint of this research questions through the re ntif view of thepre eding study in the sec c ond section. In the third se tion,the f c ramework in orde to renric e h nvironme inside and outside the c nt ompany is pre nted. This f se rameworkwould recognize corporate performance in CSR activity In the f . ramework, we con-sider two processes (the e rnal f tor and the internal f tor) in orde to enric xte ac ac r henvironme inside and outside the c nt ompany CSR strategy in this paper is to de . signthe CSR activity whic make the two proc sse revitalize as a result of the above h s e swork. The forth section examine the way of thinking to de s sign CSR activity as asoc business base on the rec ial d onsideration of prof see it king busine ( e ,c ss i. . ompanyscore busine ) through a c ss ase study in orde to re r solve tradeof s inhe f rent to the CSRactivity as we as to make the two proc sse revitalize ll e s . 2. Re w the c vie oncept of CSR strategy2 1 Studi s on CSR str gy be ee the 19 9 0 s and the e l 2000 s .. e ate tw n ar y CSR strategy is a strate whic aims at the maximization of prof f both the gy h its orcompany and the soc ty and the maximization of values f stakeholde in and ie or rsoutside of the company. Le us re w the pre t vie vious studie c erning CSR strate . s onc gy Among studies c e onc rning CSR, there are studie of strate s gic philanthropy thatf us on philanthropy M any of the studie in the 1 oc . s 990 s explain the reasons andcontext f why c or orporate philanthropy was redef d in strate ine gic terms. Strategic philanthropy ref rs to activity that links soc e ial assertion and socialbehavior to corporate goals and busine s. Its re se sse pre ntative methods include cause- late marke re d ting(CRM ) strate , gic sponsorship licensing, community trade,employ e volunte rs and non- e e monetary donations ( - in kind donations) (Carroll,1 ; Yankey 1 996 , 996; Adkin, 1 , 999; Post, e al. 1999; Stec t kel, et al. 1 ) While , 999 .soc tys de ie mands f c or orporate donations have inc ase the c re d, ompetitive environ-me surrounding companie has be ome harsher, re nt s c sulting in a low growth rate forcorporate donations. The justification f c or orporate philanthropy began to be discus-se under the dif ic c d f ult orporate environment. In orde to balanc donations with the r ecorporate bottom-line and shareholde prof r its, a c e of philanthropy as a soc onc pt ialinvestment in society and busine was disse ss minate f d rom the me conce of philan- re ptthropy as charity ( ndardi, 1992;Smith, 1 ;Buc Ste 994 hholts et al. 999;Ste ;1 ckel, et al. ;340 東海大学紀要政治経済学部
  5. 5. CSR Strategy and Soc Business ial1 ) Furthermore a de 999 . , crease in traditional donations and the growth of CRM havesupporte strate d gic philanthropy (Simon, 1 ;Marx, 1 ) . 995 996 In the articles by Logsdon,Reiner and Burke (1990)and Post and Waddoc ( k 1995),the ne ds f ( ) introduc e or 1 ing a strategic proce into soc ac ss ial tivities suc as dona- htions,and ( )linking social ac 2 tivitie to c s orporate goals,are discusse as an advanc d d eform of strategic philanthropy. - re In addition to the enlighte d self inte st that has c ne onventionally bee pointe n dout, the e f ts of strate f ec gic philanthropy on corporate goals may include marketinge f cts and improve nts in the work environme fe me nt. Additionally c , ost pe ormance rfc be me an asured to some degree by using a method of strategic philanthropy such asCRM . Howe r, the methods of strategic philanthropy may possibly be c ve onside d rehy ritic poc al,de nding on the way in whic the are imple nted.In that case pe h y me ,thereis a possibility that e n the e f t of traditional enlighte d se - ve f ec ne lf interest cannot be xpe ted (e c Yokoy 0 ) ama, 2 03 . Authors suc as Free h man ( 98 ) and Ansof ( 990 have disc 1 4 f 1 ) ussed the nee f d orintegrating CSR with corporate strate .Burke and Logsdon ( 996)pre nte a more gy 1 se dspe if c ept of strate c ic onc gic social responsibility disc , ussing social responsibility-relate programs and me d thods that would enable a company to inc ase prof and re itsme t the social ne e eds of stakeholde Martin ( 0 ) explaine plainly what CSR rs. 20 2 dstrate is.In soc ac gy ial tivity c ,a ompany may voluntarily choose to follow the law andprevailing soc norms to conf ial irm to these norms,while in othe c s a c r ase ompanymaybe mandatorily require to f d ollow the law. According to Martin ( 0 ) the is 20 2 , reanothe c r ase whe a company cre s its own social ac re ate tivity ( e , activity in a ne i. . ware ) whic improve both soc ty we are and the share a h s ie lf holders profits. This isconsidered as strategic behavior. Soc ac ial tivity in a ne are that doe not lead to w a sincreased shareholders prof is classif its ied as structural behavior. These studie strongly pre nted the ne d f and the dire tion of CSR strate ; s se e or c gyhowe r, the were y t to addre any spe if and e f tive guide ve y e ss c ic f ec lines.Although thestudies in the 1990 s and the early 2 00 s discusse the importance of the strate 0 d gicde lopme of CSR, the did not f ve nt y ully examine the role or the conte of CSR ntstrate . gy第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 341
  6. 6. Keiko Yokoyama2 2 Eme ge e of the study of CSR str gy by str gi .. r nc ate ate sts Sinc 2 06 e 0 ,apply the knowle ing ir dge,business strate e rts have propose more gy xpe dspe if strate s c e c ic gie onc rning CSR strate . In particular, an artic by Porter and gy leKrame ( 0 )pre nted a spec ic guideline f a compre nsive CSR strate whic r 20 6 se if or he gy hwas derived from the strategic philanthropythe ir orypublished in 20 2. The artic by 0 lePorte and Kramer ( 0 2)mere pre nte the philanthropy guide r 20 ly se d line f c or ompaniesto improve their competitive environme by apply Porte diamond mode ( nt ing rs l 1990). This paper explains that, whe imple nting a CSR strate , a c n me gy ompany ne ds to eidentif ,se c and f us on the soc issue that be f both societyand the c y le t oc ial s ne it ompany.This pape also proposes to use the f r rameworks of the value chain (Porter 198 )and 5the diamond model from the perspe tive of rec c ognizing meaningf soc issue that ul ial sacompany should work on f its CSR strate . The e f t of corporate ac or gy f ec tivity(value chain)on soc ty c be rec ie an ognized by using a value chain chart.The use of thediamond mode e l nable us to unde s rstand the ef e of soc ty on a c f ct ie ompanyscompetitive ss. The f ne se rameworks enable a company to clarif its c y orporate activ-itie f s rom the perspe tive of CSR with re c - nef gard to a mutually be icial relationshipbetwee the c n ompany and soc ty The point out that, f ie . y rom the ac se tivitie the s,company should se c an ac le t tivity that brings signif ant advantage to both the ic scompanyand society,and c entrate its manage nt re onc me sourc s on that ac e tivity.Theyexplain that this is a true CSR strate . gy Furthermore,theyre er to the c f ase of Nestles milk business in developing countries.The point out that if the inve y stme in the c nt ompetitive environme is c nt onsiste with ntthe activitie of the value chain, the distinc s tions betwee CSR and the c n ompanysroutine operations would no longer exist.Suc cases are also e h xamples of the develop-me of the BOP ( nt base of the economic pyramid) market, whic Brugmann and hPrahalad ( 00 ) e 2 7 xplains. Brugmann and Prahalad ( 0 ) e 20 7 xplains a busine mode ss lthat develops the BOP marke whic exists at the bottom of the ec t, h onomy.2 3 The f .. ocus of thi pape s r Brugmann and Prahalad s ( 0 ) study f use on deve 20 7 oc s loping CSR activitie as a sbusine and explains c s of such busine models.If a soc issue c be re ss, ase ss ial an solvedthrough business means,this would then be ome a quite me c aningf solution.Howe r, ul vethe are many CSR activitie that c re s annot be de loped as a busine The inc ve ss. se lude342 東海大学紀要政治経済学部
  7. 7. CSR Strategy and Soc Business ialthe role of CSR on the value chain in the existing busine and philanthropic e ss nviron-ment. For example Yokoy , ama ( 0 3 2 0 ) c 2 0 , 0 6 lassif s CSR strate ie gies using the two axesshown in Figure 1: Characteristics of CSR activity ( ial ac soc tivity) and methodsof CSR activity The c . lassif ation ac ording to the charac ic c teristic of CSR activity is smade in terms of whe r the ac the tivity is engage in a prof - e d it se king business or a non-prof busine From the perspe it ss. ctive of Carrolls ( 991) py 1 ramid of CSR,economic,legal and ethic re al sponsibilitie are rele s vant to the running of a prof se king it ebusine and the are c ss, y lassif d in the f ie orme cate r gory Philanthropy is c . lassif d as iethe latte cate r gory Classif . ication according to methods of CSR activity is ac om- cplishe in two way d s:working on CSR in the existing system,or working on CSR as ane busine w ss.Base on the above c d ombinations,CSR strategies can be classif into iedthe following four ty s:( )strate social responsibility ( )strategic philanthropy pe 1 gic , 2 ,( )soc busine as a prof see 3 ial ss it king business,and ( )soc busine as a non- 4 ial ss profitbusine ( ss NPO busine ) Among these,a c ss . ompany also nee to work on ( )strate ds 1 -gic social responsibility and ( ) strategic philanthropy whic doe not re 2 , h s quire thede lopme of a ne business. Developing a business ( ve nt w social busine ) is not e ry ss ve -thing about CSR strate . gy Figure 1:The four ty s of CSR strate s pe gie Characteristics Prof - it making business Aside from a prof - it makingMethods of CSR activity businessIn existing structure Strategic soc ial Strategic philanthropy responsibilityIn ne struc w ture ( w enter- Prof - king social ne it see NPO businessprise or organization) business Yokoyama ( 0 3 p. 0 ) 20, 23 Meanwhile Porte and Krame ( 0 ) reacknowledges CSR issue in terms of the , r r 2 06 snumerous social issue that surround a c s ompany,and pre nt a f se ramework that helpsto ide y the soc issue that c benef both the company and soc ty The ntif ial s an it ie . ypre nt a prac al tool that c se tic ontribute to raising aware ss of the c s ne ompany forac ving both c hie orporate competitive ss and resolution of social issue Howe r, ne s. veCSR is a broad activity theme that involve e ry s ve thing about manage nt. It is mene essary not only ( )to f us on and se ct social issue that e c 1 oc le s nable the company to第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 343
  8. 8. Keiko Yokoyamaac ve c hie orporate competitive ss and create c ne ommon value with society as the s , ypoint out, but also ( ) to e 2 xamine e h CSR ac ac tivity in detail and devise a plan toimple nt the ac me tivities. In addition to the prac al f ir tic ramework, it should be meaningf to pre nt a ul seperspe tive that e c nables us to ( )obse 1 rve the corporate pe ormance realize by CSR rf dactivity,and ( ) re 2 solve trade f inhe nt to CSR,whic are disc of s re h usse in this pape d r,f promoting CSR in a broad manne Put anothe way this pape e or r. r , r xamine the spoints to be note regarding CSR strate f d gy rom othe perspe r ctives than their practicaltools f re ognizing and se c or c le ting soc issues whe planning CSR. An approach to ial nplanning a future CSR strategy is then presented. As previously mentioned,the purpose of this paper is to pre nt the c ept of CSR se oncstrate f gy rom the following two perspectives of ove oming CSR issues:( )A f rc 1 rame-work f obse or rving corporate performanc re e alized by CSR activity and ( ) the , 2resolution of trade f inhe of s rent to CSR. 3. Approac to CSR strategy f ove h or rcoming CSR issues3 1 A oac to CSR str . . ppr h ategy CSR strategy is a strate that aims at maximizing prof f both a c gy it or ompany andsoc ty and maximizing prof f stake ie its or holde in and outside of the c rs ompany In .this section, a framework f obse or rving corporate pe ormanc realize by CSR rf e dactivity is pre nted.Figure 2 illustrate the e me to be conside d whe designing se s le nts re na CSR strategy. To ac ve the CSR strate ( balanc it with c hie gy to e orporate goals,in particular) the ,following two approac s are require he d. ⑴ CSR activity and the environme inside and outside a company nt With CSR activity f , avorable changes nee to be produce both within and outside d dthe corporate environment. The favorable inf nc inside and outside the corporate lue eenvironme me nt ans two ty s of pe ormanc [1] ial pe ormance of the CSR itse pe rf e: soc rf lf [ ] orporate pe ormancand 2 c rf e. A company ne ds to positive e f ct CSR activity in its c e ly f e ore busine ( ss profitse king busine )in a broad se ,and pursue its corporate goals by 1 attaining the e ss nse [ ]soc perf ial ormance of CSR itself utilizing its core business resourc and c es apabil-344 東海大学紀要政治経済学部
  9. 9. CSR Strategy and Soc Business ial Figure 2:Analy f sis ramework:The results of CSRities,and stakeholde [ ] signing CSR ac rs,as well as 2 de tivity so that its resourc s eand capabilitie and ⒝ stakeholde c be e s, rs an xpanded. ⑵ The process that links CSR activity to the environme inside and outside a ntcompany In terms of the proce that disse ss minate to 1 the soc ty ( rf s [ ] ie pe ormance of CSRactivity itse )and 2 the c lf [ ] ompanys core busine ( ss prof - king busine ) namely it see ss ,the process that aims at expanding both and , two processe involving the sfollowing ne to be c ed onsidered: ① External f tors ( ac legitimacy,outside scrutiny andreputation) and ② Inte , rnal f tors ( arning and growth through practic ) ac le e.3 2 CSR ac vi and the envi onme i de and outsi a c .. ti ty r nt nsi de ompany The above approaches re le some of the logical knowle f ct dge state below.They are dexplained in due order.[1] Influence on soc ty = Pe ormance of the CSR activity itse ie rf lf The ef ec on the society is c f t onside d as the perf re ormance of the CSR activity.Thepe ormanc of an organization c be me rf e an asured by its e f c f e tive ss. Ef e tive ss ne fc neindic fe t f iciency in ac ving the stated goal ( e f r and Slancik, ates the e f c and e f hie Pf f e第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 345
  10. 10. Keiko Yokoyama 97 )1 8.[2] Influence on the company = Contribution to the corporate performance Corporate strategy is to design mutually be f ial relationships be ne ic twee the c n om-pany and the environment inside and outside the company.The are various way to re sunderstand the environme inside and outside the company The well- nt . knownapproac s include analy he zing the internal environment,e rnal e xte nvironment,generalenvironment, task environment, value chain and competitive context. This paperapplie the c ept of the stakeholde approach and resourc s- s onc r e base the d ory to under-stand the corporate environme in re nt lation to CSR. The stakeholde approac c r h on-siders the corporate sy m as a dy ste namic system of inf nc or of a nexus of lue econtrac (M itc ll, Agle and Wood, 1997; Free ts. he man, 198 Sve 4; ndon, 1 ) The 998 .resource - s based theoryconside the c rs ompanyas a bundle of resource ( s Penrose 959; ,1We rf 98 ) rne elt, 1 4 . To conside the CSR strate ,the re r gy lationships betwe the c en ompany and society asa whole, whic inc h lude the inte sts of sec re ondary stakeholde and non- onomic rs ecaspec ne to be addressed. At the same time re ts, ed , sourc s and c e apabilitie whic s, hcannot be understood by the relationships alone also ne d to be c , e onsidered. In otherwords,strate management theory ac ording to the re gic c sourc - es base approac is not d hsuf ic nt to unde f ie rstand the e rnal environme and it may ove xte nt, rlook the relation-ships be e the c twe n ompanyand various stakeholders.M eanwhile,byunderstanding thecorporate sy m through the stake ste holde approach ( strate r in gic manage nt the me -ory , the inside e ) nvironment c only be understood by analy an zing the employ es and emanagers;abstract elements, such as resource and c s apabilities, may be overlooked.The f , the environme both inside and outside the c re ore nt ompany must be understoodfrom the perspective of both stakeholders and resourc / apabilitie Base on the es c s. dabove the inf nc me , lue e asurement variable were de s termined whic re se vari- h pre ntables that measure the recognize c d hange inside and outside the c s orporate environ-me due to the CSR ac nt tivity . Measure nt of the e me nvironment inside and outside the company = Influencemeasure nt variable of the c me s ompany Resourc s and organizational c e apabilitie ( re te capabilitie ) s he af r, s Main constitue within stakeholde ( re te stake nt rs he af r, holde ) rs346 東海大学紀要政治経済学部
  11. 11. CSR Strategy and Soc Business ial Stakeholde c rs an be classif d into the internal stakeholde c ie rs onsisting of thecompanys internal constituents, and the external stakeholde c rs onsisting of thecompanys e rnal c xte onstituents, in addition to the broad primary and se ondary cstakeholde classif r ications. The f ,in any analy of the c re ore sis hange in the stakehol- sde c rs, hanges in the internal stakeholders ne ssarily ove ce rlap with the category ofresource and c s apabilities.3 3 Pr e that lnks CSR ac vi to the e r . . oc ss i ti ty nvi onment i de and outsi the c nsi de ompany CSR activity produc various c es hanges ( e , change in the inf nc me i. . s lue e asure nt mevariables) in the environment inside and outside the company through internal ande rnal f xte actors. Figure 3 is an example that is conside d the inf re luence on thecompany in Figure 2. Figure 3:Inf nc on a Company lue e ⑴ Proce s involving e rnal f tors ( sse xte ac external e es and evaluation) y This is a proce whereby the stake ss holders vie on the c ws ompany are alte d as a reresult of CSR, inf nc lue ing its resourc s and c e apabilities, and stakeholders.Previous studies have ref rre to this proce as earning the legitimacy and goodwill e d ssof the stakeholders. By earning legitimac and goodwill f y rom the environment(stakeholde ) surrounding the c rs ompany both , resourc s and c e apabilities, andstakeholde will c rs hange For example the f . , ollowing changes may occur. ・Strengthe d trusting re ne lationships with stakeholders第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 347
  12. 12. Keiko Yokoyama ・Possibility of ne - orme relationships with the sec wly f d ondary stakeholders ・Improved morale and motivation among employ s ee ・Positive inf nc on sale and re lue e s cruitment ・Strengthe d re ne lationships with customers ⑵ Proce s involving inte sse rnal factors (growth by implementation) This is a proce that involve change resulting f ss s s rom the implementation of CSRactivity.Although many studie on social re s sponsibility have discusse the advantage d sof e rnal f xte actors,internal f tors have re eive limite atte ac c d d ntion in the literature. This pape c r onside the inf rs luenc of both f tors. Example of the c e ac s hange in sresource and c s apabilities,and stakeholde resulting f rs rom the implementation andlearning include the following: ・Resourc in the company are stimulate or re es d vitalized. ・Learning opportunitie inc ase due to increased c s re ontac with soc ty ts ie . ・Network of ne stake w holde assoc rs iate with the busine is develope d ss d. ・A see f ne business c be f d or w an ound:ne business, produc developme w t nt. ・Enhance task e d nvironment in the company( c ie e spe if d nvironme that is dire tly nt c or potentiallyassociate with organizational goals,marke d t,technologyor compet- itive environme that is important f c nt or onducting the companys core busine ) ss ・Quality assuranc of busine ac e ss tivity Taking philanthropy as an example in the c , ase of monetary support, ( ) e rnal 1 xtef tors ge rally have a lot more inf nc than ( ) internal f tors on the f dbac ac ne lue e 2 ac ee kproce f c ss or orporate performanc , though it de e pends on the approac Conve ly h. rse ,with regard to philanthropy promote by employ s in coope d ee ration with variousoutside organizations, the f e e dbac proc ss is c k e onside d to involve not only ( ) re 1e rnal f tors, but also ( ) inte xte ac 2 rnal f tors. ac Theref , the CSR strategy c ore onside not only the pe ormanc of CSR itse , but rs rf e lfalso the two proc sse involving ( )e rnal f tors,and ( )inte e s 1 xte ac 2 rnal factors to designa CSR activity that ultimate expands the c ly ompanys resource and capabilitie s s,and stakeholders.348 東海大学紀要政治経済学部
  13. 13. CSR Strategy and Soc Business ial3 4 Sti ati the pr ss that contr bute to cor ate pe f mance . . mul ng oce i s por r or Ac ording to the f c ramework in Figure 2 e f ctive CSR activity not only ac om- , fe cplishe the f tional strategy whic aims at the e f c and e f ie y of CSR itse , s unc , h fe t f ic nc lfbut also stimulate proc sse involving ( ) e rnal f tors, and ( ) internal f tors. s e s 1 xte ac 2 acIf the proce s involving ( ) and ( ) are stimulate to f sse 1 2 d unction more strongly the ,f dback to ee resourc s and capabilitie and e s, stakeholders will also be improved,and this will have a favorable impac on both CSR and the company t .Base on this,let dus discuss the approac to CSR activity that would stimulate the proc h esse involving s( ) and ( ) 1 2. ⑴ To stimulate proc sse involving external f e s actors In terms of philanthropic activity the f , ollowing are re [ ] cognize quire to be 1 re d dand value by othe ( e. se d rs i. , cure justic e e, arn goodwill and earn reputation) : ・Attract attention ( hieve good CSR pe ormanc ) ac rf e ・Sizable soc impac ( e ,resolution of soc issue with a high le l of urge y ial t i. . ial s ve nc and ne ds) e ・Signif ance of the companys involve nt ( e , story re ic me i. . , lation with mission) ・Ef e tive and f manner of involve fc air ment ・Uniqueness, innovation, initiative and continuation ( ) nurture of CSR activity ⑵ To stimulate the proce involving inte ss rnal factors Meanwhile to stimulate the proce assoc , ss iate with the imple ntation of CSR d meactivity,suc as 2] e f ct of learning,the f h [ the f e ollowing approac s should be de he signedso that the e f cts of le fe arning and dissemination from CSR activity are enhanc d: e ・Conside designing CSR activity that is re r late to core busine and manage d ss rial resourc s e ・Design CSR activity that he to le lps arn technology relate to c d ore business,know -how and manage nt me ・Arrange the interaction with other organizations and communitie to e s nric their h own task environment ・M easures that can c ate c ulation betwe n CSR ( re irc e ) philanthropy and core business第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 349
  14. 14. Keiko Yokoyama r urthe examine the approac to CSR strate ( This pape f r s h gy strategic philanthropy)from both perspe tive of stimulating proce c s sses involving ( )e rnal f tors,and ( ) 1 xte ac 2internal f tors, and re ac solving tradeof s inhe nt to CSR. Base on the two pe f re d rspec-tives,an approac that conside CSR activity and philanthropy as a soc h rs ial businessc be propose an d.Now,le us e t xamine the significance of the approac to CSR strate h gy( ) strategic philanthropy as a soc business based on the re ial consideration of profitse king business ( ompanys c e c ore business). 4. CSR strate base on the idea of social busine gy d ss4 1 Ide of soc al busi .. a i ness and CSR Re ntly the conce ce , pts of soc e rprise and soc busine have be ial nte ial ss come wide-spread. A soc e rprise c be e ial nte an xplained in terms of thre e ments:soc - e le ial issueresolution(soc ty , social business ( ie ) business) and social innovation (innovation)(Tanimoto,2 06 .Social busine me 0 ) ss ans to conduct busine that involve eleme of ss s ntssoc ty ie ,busine and innovation,and does not ne ssary be prof se ss ce it eking.ConsideringCSR activity that include philanthropy as a soc s ial busine a c ss, ompany needs tode lop a busine sy m in an innovative f ve ss ste ashion and to imple nt soc me - aning- ially mef ac ul tivity on a continuous basis. Additionally onc rning philanthropythat is not prof - king busine ( ompanys ,c e it see ss ccore busine ) it is also important to give c f c ss , are ul onsideration to the companyscore business. Below, the signif ance of c ic onsidering CSR, whic inc h lude philan- sthropy,a soc business base on the re onside ial d c ration of prof - eking business ( ore it se cbusine ) is e ss xamined from the perspe tive of the resolution of trade f in CSR, c s of sand the ide of the f a ramework shown in Figure 2. For example in strate , gic philanthropy linking to the c , ompanys core businessmeans mainly the utilization of its manage nt re me sourc s.It is e c e spe ially desirable toutilize its core resourc s, whic are the basis of c e h ompetitiveness, to attain socialpe ormanc and provide f edbac to its c rf e e k ore business. As the ne ste howe r, it is ne ssary to broade the ide of prof se king xt p, ve ce n a it ebusine ( e , c ss i. . ompanys core business) itself.From the perspe tive of CSR,both the cbe f ( e , values, mee ne its i. . ting societys ne ds e )and c e tc. osts ( e. burdening society i. , ,causing soc problems etc ) whic a c ial ., h ompanys core busine brings to soc ty are ss ie350 東海大学紀要政治経済学部
  15. 15. CSR Strategy and Soc Business ialaddresse Although the value of e is of n disc d. fr te usse as a part of strate d gic manage-me it is also important to make e f nt, f orts f providing solutions to the social issue or sthat industries and companies ge rate ( ne have) With the re . solution of the soc issue ial sge rate in mind, CSR strategy ( ne d including strate ) gic philanthropy nee to be dsde loped so that a c ve ompany implements social business as eithe a prof - e r it se kingbusine or a non- ss prof busine ( it ss philanthropy . ) Among trade f inherent to CSR,the value and social issues ge rated by busine of s s ne s-se and industrie are to be resolve with high priority Thus, when conside s s d . ring CSRor philanthropy it is important f a company to at f , or irst make ef orts to re f solve thesoc issues that the c ial ompanyis associated.If a companyc develop a soc busine an ial ssthat links the resolution of soc issue ( ial ) s CSR activity to the value of er of its c f orebusine both proce ss, sses involving ( ) external f tors and ( ) inte 1 ac 2 rnal factors willsurely be stimulated.4 2 Case study .. Le us look at a c t ompanyin the pet industry.PETsM art,the large US spe ialtypet st cretail chain, has ac ve rapid growth by bec hie d - oming a one stop provide of pet rgrooming needs. The company has se the manage nt princ t me iple of animal andenvironmental protection, and acquire the broad support of pe love One of its d t rs.activities has bee the e n stablishment of a fostering and adoption ce r c d Love nte allea Pet. With the cooperation of animal protection groups, humane soc ties and ievolunteers in the region, the company helps to find foste pare r nts f unwante or dpuppie kitte stray dogs and c s, ns, ats. Although this is a philanthropic activity ople ,pewho became foster parents through the cente are said to have be r come the companysregular customers. In 1 , an NPO organization, PETsM art Charity was f 994 , ounde as an inde nde d pe ntorganization of PETsMart to prof ssionally promote a pe adoption ac e t tivity called Love a Pe and various ac t, tivities base on animal protec d tion, and activities toproduc good re e lationships betwee pe n ople and pe PETsMart is the large sup- ts. stporte of PETsMart Charity In partne r . rship with this NPO, PETsMart imple nts mephilanthropy that not only donates mone but also utilizes its c y ore business. Thecompanyprovide the PETsMart Charitywith re s sourc nec ssaryf the c es e or are of pets,suc as plac f the adoption c nter and pe f h es or e t ood. The adoption c nter curre e ntly第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 351
  16. 16. Keiko Yokoyamaoperate unde the name of PETsMart Charity Adoption Cente In c s r r. ollaborationwith loc animal prote tion groups,the company of e an in- al c f rs store adoption c nte e rin more than 8 0 PETsM art store 4 s. Because of the aging soc ty with f ie ewe children, c r hanges in family structure andsoc tal change ie s,pe are now re ts garded almost as equivale to f nt amily members.Thepe industry has grown into an indispe t nsable industry in soc ty ie .Meanwhile,consider-ing the aspe t of se c lling live this industry is in a busine whe s, ss re lif is merchand- eized.When animals become inventoryor unwante bythe c d onsume who bought the rs m,the are tre y ated like trash, and this has become a maj issue. Through a f or orm ofphilanthropy PETsMart has cre d a sy m that gene , ate ste rate a f s avorable c ulation ircbetwee the c n ompanys core busine and the soc issue c ss ial s aused by the pe industry t .The reason why this philanthropic activity is valued as a soc busine is be ause the ial ss ccompany directly f e the soc issues that its busine and industry are responsible ac s ial ssf ( or society , and take an innovative and long- ) s term approach that ge rate good ne sc ulation with its c irc ore busine ( ss busine innovation) Furthe ss, . rmore, this philan-thropy is highly evaluate bec d ause it also stimulate both proc s esses involving ( ) 1e rnal f tors, and ( ) inte xte ac 2 rnal f tors. ac ⑴ Stimulating the process involving e rnal f xte actors Because PETsM art take a positive approach to the dif ic soc issues c ate by s f ult ial re dits busine and industrywithout ne ss glecting them,the companys philanthropic activityis highly justif d and easily unde ie rstood. In addition, PETsMart s unique and in-novative sy m attrac atte ste ts ntion be ause it ge rates c c ne irculation betwe n the prob- ele - m solving of the social issue cause by the industry ( d ir ) philanthropy and theirbusiness.The partnership with the NPO and local animal prote tion groups is c c onsid-e d to e re nhance the trust and belief in the value of this philanthropic activity. ⑵ Stimulating the process involving internal f tors ac The imple ntation of philanthropy c ates f me re avorable c ulation with their busi- ircness.People who consider becoming foste c r are parents,or who actually be ame one c ,would visit PETsMart store The adoption ce rs in the store are plac s f s. nte s e orcontacting potential custome If one bec rs. omes a foste pare the custome would r nt, rkee shopping at PETsM art to provide c p are f the pet. PETsMart s philanthropic or352 東海大学紀要政治経済学部
  17. 17. CSR Strategy and Soc Business ialactivity increase and stre s ngthe the relationships with ne and e ns w xisting customers.Furthermore be , cause this activity takes the form of applying the manage nt ir meprinciples into prac e, its method is e tic asy to understand, and helps disseminate thecompanys manage nt princ s to stake me iple holders, such as its employ e e s. The network with the NPO and loc animal protec al tion groups provides the com-pany with the opportunity to learn and conside the role of animals and e r nvironmentalprote tion,the re c lationship be e pe and the loc community twe n ts al ,and the role of theindustry In operating re . tail stores with a close relationship with the c ir ommunity it ,is possible f the c or ompany to find a see f ne approache PETsMart has d or w s.de loped and provide various servic s,suc as a dog training sc ve d e h hool f pe love or t rs.The information and expertise acquire f d rom the diverse network are be ved to help liethe proce M anaging stores while making c ss. onsistent and continuous attempts thatare socially meaningf should also he the c ul lp ompany enhance its branding. 5. Conclusions This pape has discusse the ide of CSR strategy to approach CSR activity as a r d asoc busine in ac ordance with ref c ial ss c le tion on their core busine based upon the ssthe tical consideration and the case study The the tic study starts to c ore . ore al onsiderthe framework in orde to overcome CSR issue Figure 2 provide us the base of r . sre ognizing c c ontributions to corporate ac ve nts as a re hie me sult of CSR activitie and sde loping the idea of CSR strate that stimulate the proc sse of e rnal and ve gy e s xteinternal factor. Furthermore the important ide of CSR strate is to extend the , a gyframe of the c ir ore busine by revie ss wing core busine to re ss, cognize soc issue in ialcore busine and to re ss solve the soc issue by c ating the soc busine ial re ial ss.The casestudy is the comple nt to the theore me tical study is re .It quired to investigate this ideaby many case and the e h ty of f s ac pe igure 1 in the future. Every industry contains both aspec of me ting social nee and burde ts e ds ning soc ty ie(causing soc issue ) Re ial s . garding soc issues cause by industry is important to ial d ,itlook at improvements in the legal and social sy ms f the public interest and ste orc ative approaches de loped by me re ve mbe of the community as a whole to succ ss- rs efully resolve the issue More r, the ef orts of c s. ove f ompanie and industry groups and sthe c ir reative ingenuityto resolve issue serve to strengthen the signif anc of the role s ic e第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 353
  18. 18. Keiko Yokoyamaof industry and companies.Because conducting soc busine base on the rec ial ss d onsid-eration of the companys core business is convincing and persuasive to any stakehol-de [ ] r,a proc ss involving 1 external f e actors is like to be e f c ly f e tive a c .If ompany candevise a sy m that he ste lps it to continue as a business in an innovative fashion, andc ate c re irculation be e its core business and CSR ac twe n tivity,then the proce involv- ssing[2 inte ] rnal factors should also be stimulated. In short, as an e ntial ide f a CSR strategy of the f sse a or uture a c , ompany ne ds to ere ognize important and re vant soc issue as a high priority acc c le ial s ording to thenature of its core business,and work on the issues as a soc business.A rec se ial onsidera-tion of the companys core business leads to the re knowle me of its identity in ac dge ntthe industry and the society The soc issue identif . ial ied in the reconsideration of itsidentification is e ntially the most important CSR issue that should be worke on. sse dFigure 1 Ty s of CSR strate pe gy provide alte s rnative to choose f s rom. With thepoints indic d in Figure 2 in mind, a c ate ompany ne ds to de e sign a CSR strategyconsidering innovative solutions,networking with othe organizations,and the appro- rpriate organization sty and proc ss f its impleme le e or ntation. Ref r nces ee Adkins, S. (1999 ) Caus Re d Marke e late ting: Who Ca s Wins Butte re , rworth He mann. ine Ansof , H. Igor ( f ) 1990 Implanting Strategic Ma ge nt, Pre na me ntic Hall Inte e rnational. Buchholtz,A. ,Amason,A.and Rutherford,M.(1 9 ) Be ond Re 99 y sourc s:The Mediating e Ef e t of Top Manageme Disc ation and Value on Corporate philanthiropy Bus fc nt re s , i- ne s & So ie , Vol. 8 No. , pp. 6 - 8 . s c ty 3, 2 1717 Brugmann, J. and Prahalad, C. K. (2 0 ) Coc ating Busine 07 re sss New Soc Compac ial t, Ha ard Bus s Re ie , Fe , Vol. 5 No. , pp. 8 - 0 rv ine s v w b. 8, 2 09. Burke L. and Logsdon, J. M. (1 9 ) How Corporate Social Re , 96 sponsibility Pay Of , s f Lo Ra ng nge Planning, Vol. 9 No. , pp. 9 - 0 . 2, 4 4552 Carroll, A. B. (1 9 ) The Py 91 ramid of Corporate Social Responsibility Toward the : Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders, Bus s Ho ns Vol. 4 No. , ine s rizo , 3, 4 pp. 9 4 . 3-9 Carroll, A. ( 9 6 Bus s & So ie : Ethic a B. 1 9 ) ine s c ty s nd Stak ho r Ma ge nt 3rd Editio e lde na me n, South- ste College. We rn Carroll, A. and Buchholdts, A. K. ( 0 2 Bus s & So ie : Ethic a B. 20) ine s c ty s nd Sta e lde k ho r Manage nt 5rd Edition, South- me Weste Colle . rn ge Clarkson,M. (e ) 9 8 The Co o tio a Its Sta ho rs Cla s and Co mp - B. d. (1 9 ) rp ra n nd ke lde : s ic nte o ra Re ry adings University of Toronto Pre , ss.354 東海大学紀要政治経済学部
  19. 19. CSR Strategy and Soc Business ial Dentsu Communication Institute Inc ( 9 1 Co o te Philanthro y Nikke Inc . 1 9 ) rp ra p, i . Fre man, R. E. ( 9 4 Stra gic Ma e 18) te nage nt: A Sta e lde Ap ro c Pitman. me k ho r p a h, Hoc rts, K. N. ( 0 3 Sus ke 20) tainability Inno a ns Ec lo a a v tio : o gic l nd So ia Entre re urs c l p ne hip and the Manage nt of Antago tic As e , Ph. The University St. Gallen, Dif - me nis s ts D. sis o Druc Bambe k, rg. Itami, K. ( 9 4 Shin Ke is nry 18) ie e aku no Ronri, Nikke Inc i . Kusunoki, K. ( 9 9 Organizational Capability and Sustaining Compe 19) titive Advantage,in faculty of commerce, Hitotsubashi University ( )Ke iga u- iro pp. 4 - 6 . ed. ie k ga n, 2821 Logsdon, J. M. Re r, R. and Burke L. ( 9 0 Corporate Philanthropy Strategic , ine , 19) : Responses to the Firm s Stakeholders, No ro it a np f nd Volunta Se to Qua rly Vol. ry c r rte , 1 , No. , pp. 3 1 9 9 2 9-0. M artin,R.L. (2 0 ) The Virtue Matrix:Calc 02 ulating the Return on Corporate Responsi- bility Ha ard Bus s Re w Mar. pp. 9 7 . , rv ine s vie , , 6-5 M arx, J. (1 9 ) Strategic Philanthropy An Opportunity f Partne D. 96 : or rship Between Corporations and Health/Human Servic Agenc s, Adminis tio in So ia Wo , Vol. e ie tra n c l rk 2 , No. , pp. 7 7 . 0 3 5-3 M itc ll, R. K. Agle B. R. and Wood, D. J. (1 9 ) Toward a Theory of Stake he , , 97 holder Identif ation and Salie e: De ining the Princ ic nc f iple of Who and What Really Counts, a my of Ma ge nt Re ie , Vol. 2 No. , pp. 5 - 8 . Ac de na me v w 2, 4 8386 M orsing, M. and Beckmann, S. C. (Eds. 2 0 ) Stra gic CSR Co )( 0 6 te mmunic tio DJOF a n, Publishing. Nikke Marke i ting Journal ( 995) U. PETsM art, Rapid Expansion of Store Ne 1 S. twork, 4 July. Nikke Marke i ting Journal ( 995) U. PETsM art, Sharp Growth, 5 Septe 1 S. mber. Nikke Marke i ting Journal ( 997) U. Pe Supply Store Looking f Foste Pare 1 S. t , or r nts of Dogs and Cats, 11 November. Penrose E. T. ( 9 9 The The ry of the Gro th o the Firm, Basil Blac , 15) o w f kwell. Ri, M . ( 9 8 Inte 19) rnational Co orate Phila rp nthro b Multinatio l Comp , Bunshindo py y na any Corporation. Porter, M. and Kramer, M. R. ( 0 2 The c E. 20) ompetitive advantage of corporate philan- thropy Harva Bus s Re w De , pp. 6 6 . , rd ine s vie , c. 5-8 Porter, M. and Kramer, M . R. (2 0 ) Strate E. 06 gy and Soc ty The Link Be ie : tween Competitive Advantage and Corporate Soc Re ial sponsibility Ha a Bus s Re ie , rv rd ine s v w De . pp. 6 6 . c, 5-8 Post, J. E. Lawrence, A. T. and Weber, J. ( 9 9 Bus s & So ie : Co ra Stra gy , 19) ine s c ty rpo te te , Public Polic , Ethic , M c y s Graw-Hill. Post, J. E. and Waddoc S. A. (1 9 ) Strate k, 95 gic Philanthropy and Partnerships for Economic Progress, Philanthro a o mic De e me pp. 5 8 . py nd Ec no v lop nt, 6-4 Simon, F. L. (1 9 ) Global Corporate Philanthropy 95 :A Strategic Framework, Inte - rna tio l Ma ting Re w Vol. 2 No. , pp. 0 3 . na rke vie , 1, 4 2-7 Smith, C. (1 9 ) The Ne Corporate Philanthropy Ha a Bus s Re ie , M ay 94 w , rv rd ine s v w -第4 号(2 0 ) 1 09 355
  20. 20. Keiko Yokoyama June, pp. 0 - 1 . 1516 Ste kel,R. c ,Simons,S.and Norman,T. ( 9 9 Ma ing Mo y While Mak ,Simons,R. 19) k ne ing a Dife nc : How to Pro it w a Nonp f Pa f re e f ith ro it rtne High Tide Pre r, ss. Stendardi Jr, E. J. ( 9 2 Corporate Philanthropy 19) :The Re inition of Enlighte Se - def d lf ie e ournal, Vol. 9 No. , pp. 1 3 . Interest, The So ial Sc nc J c 2, 1 2-0 Svendsen, A. ( 9 8 The Sta ho r Stra gy Berre - 19) ke lde te , tt Koe r Publishe hle rs. Tanimoto, K. ( )( 0 6 So ial Ente ed. 2 0 ) c rpris , Chuoke - e izai sha. Inc. Yanke ,J.A. ( 9 6 Corporate Support of Nonprof Organizations:Partne y 19) it rships across the Sectors, in Burlingame,D.F.and Young,D.R. ( ) rp ra Eds. Co o te Philanthro y a the p t Cro s ds pp. - 2 s roa , 72. Yokoyama, K. ( 0 3 CSR s 20) trate a gy nd NPO: The Co orativ Partne hip f r Soc l ir llab e rs o ia Value Cre tio Hakuto- a n, Shobo. Yokoyama, K. ( 0 6 CSR strategy in CSR re arc 20) se h, pp. 5 - 6 in Matuno, H. e al. 2926 , t , CSR re e rc a the Cro s sa h t s roads Mine , rva Publishing Co. Ltd. , rne elt, B. ( 9 4 A Resource Base Vie of the Firm, Strate We rf 18) d w gic Ma ge nt na me J urnal, Vol. , pp. 7 - 8 . o 5 1110 Whe le D. and Sillanpaa, M. ( 9 7 The Sta ho r Corp ra n, Pitman. e r, 19) ke lde o tio http: / / www. tsmartcharities. / pe org index.php note 1)Some studies classif stakeholde into three ty s. Se Clarkson, M . e (1 9 ) y rs pe e B. d. 98, Whee r,D.and Silanpaa,M . ( 9 7 f the de inition and c le 1 9 ) or f lassif ation of stake ic holders. 2)The CSR strategy in the article used the artic by the Yokoy le ama ( 0 3 and the draf 20) t by the Yokoyama ( 06) as ref 20 erences. 3)As describe strategic philanthropy re e to the me d, f rs thod of targeting both e f tive f ec philanthropy and corporate prof within a limite philanthropy budge Example its d t. s include linking donations to NPOs to the companys own marketing activitie and s, focusing the the on the companys busine - late subj c to be utilize its manage me ss re d e ts st - ment resources.For de loping a philanthropy program,it is basic to re ine the ve f mes and link the program to the companys core busine ( e ,utilize its management re ss i. . sourc s, e especially its core technology and compe nc s) Othe me te ie . r thods propose inc d lude collaborations with NPO, CRM ( ause re c late marke d ting) and community trade. 4)The conce of e pt nlighte d se - rest argue that CSR ac ne lf inte s tivity by corporations will be it the in the long run f the f nef m or ollowing principal reasons. CSR activity by a corporation will ( ) improve the inf 1 rastructure of the soc ty in whic the c ie h ompany belongs,and leads to the improvement of gene e ral nvironment,and ( )obtain a positive 2 reputation and favorable f elings f e rom stakeholde which lead to a trusting re rs lationship with its stakeholders. Of course, it is impossible to ac urate me c ly asure the costs as opposed to the benef ( its Yokoyama, 2 0 ) 03. 5)The article won Harvard Business Re ws M ckinse gold prize in 2 0 vie y 0 6.356 東海大学紀要政治経済学部