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Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll
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Copyright Dr. Tony O'Driscoll

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  • Audience: How many are classroom, leader led Trainers asked to automate everything Performance Consultants/Technologists HRIS Folks How many people feel overwhelmed out there? Very interrupt driven? 80% of populations moved from farm to city in just 100 years Where you were born no longer had to dictate where you would end up Ford’s “Any color you want as long as it is black” story Link to Sloan Management System (actually came from railroads) Core Values: Our People are our Most important Asset Who are they turning to to help them work with? No one knows how to do it but we are being asked to do it?
  • Describes the end-state. Not how to get there. Walk around the model telling a story. How does this relate to rationilizing curriculum and automating training
  • Peter has not yet seen a company that has done it (including Shell) If we are going to try to make transofmation, go to where things are stable. Super Oriented Goal Offer=Blend between Product and Service (i.e GE Onstar). Seconds save lives Eating up Volvo’s Lunch because they are still product driven. Profits from products efficiency is the game. Profits from solutions, innovation is the game. Ref Palm pilot. Skills HeadQuarters and Hired Hands , Check your brain at the door. More Profs. Style Managers of Software who never coded in Object Oriented. Must Participate Systems Things changing, but some opportunity to advance. Serial Printing story. Wonderful plumbing. Sponge is full in all other areas but systems, Plumbing is there how we use it changes
  • Humans were the largest source of error. Genesis of training was to eliminate human error, break down work into tasks.
  • Working in networks of people to solve problems. Strategic Lever is person who thinks up the new idea faster. First to market is key. Netscape Yahoo Palm Pilot, may have worked for a while! September 14, 1999 Microsofts Market Cap exceeded GE’s Red Hat Story (Atom world is shrinking and Bit world is exploding)
  • Biggest issue is Structural Collaboration 1: Come to represent their function Collaboration 2: See how we can all work together to meet the need Who do you have to go to to discuss changing the structure? This is not a Training Problem! How many people have been asked to Train people to be Cross Functional Physical structure is a problem look to atoms. How many act in a hierarchical way-Paradox with our people are our strength. Ritz Carlton example
  • Omit!
  • Classroom, Workshop, CBT, Books, On the job. How many learn more on job than in the classroom. Almost Wrecked, shouldn’t follow too closely! Behavior is forever changed. We tend to marry training and learning Training is a subset of learning. Machoista Dolls Training, Learning, Knowledge Mgt, Org Effectiveness Executives read learning organization, equate learning with training and by doing it quicker we will become a learning organization.
  • Reference Mark Twains
  • Two Content Slides
  • Get the Lingo Down Balancing Loop: 2:00, tired and needed coffee. How many are with me on this. Systems analysts spend a lot of time looking for it
  • Quitting caffeine is a big problem.
  • Shifted the burden of poor organization performance onto the training function. Training is the solution pigenhole for poor performance. Salesforce problem 4Q sales down. Good example because we measure. Tony Robbins, Zig Ziglar, Training Manager issue 4Q not a lot of work going on and I’m measured by butts in seats. What do I do. Our measurement system screws us up. Increased scrutiny.
  • One more confounding issue to ensure the picture of gloom and doom. Learning Org, Learning=training, More training faster, Now have a web so lets get going (CBT). Need to be judicious in doing this. New medium to new paradigm. Putting cart before the horse
  • Repurpose Leader Led stuff does not mean that you have a learning organization. Just a bunch more stuff clogging up the web. Show of hands on if you feel pain on this
  • Technology can do new stuff for us.
  • Lets talk about the most important stuff. Why should I buy this, what am I going to get, Product plus analysis, product plus service, product plus warranty. Articulate your job in one sentence “Mole Whacker” Production line assembley worker Typing pool person Nurse William Bridges: Job is an artifact of the industrial age. Nuala Beck, Shifting Gears. Financal Analyst. Beats Dow Jones. Intel Fab costs billions of dollars.
  • 1991 Economist from Harvard and Research Director from IBM. Info does not work on an economic paradigm. Wallet ($) Sharing info is non appropriable - give it away without giving it up. Facts=Piece of paper with numbers on it (Excel Spreadsheet, decontextualized) Context is the tilte Now it is info, so you look at it. SG&A growing faster than revenue, maybe wont buy, check cisco, nortel lucent (Inference is the human thing that happened) Track your time doing critical reflection on an issue (not dreaming) <5% Write the rule based algorithm for that inferential path. Can’t leverage technology to do everything. Peter Lynch-wise guy. Looks at Palm Pilot (would buy them- has the tacit knowledge base). Tie your shoes. Explicit: Declaritive Knowledge Soy Beans in Malaysis Procedural Knowledge: Reciepie. But lets get Peter in room to make money
  • 64,000 hits on the web when you search. When you read you add inference Think about the stuff as you miss the exit on the highway. Humans digest information, you don’t want your computer to do it.
  • Moore’s Law, and Metcalf’s Law. Rule Base AI. Sports, worse off than you were before you began. Blowing up the information bubble. Using IT to blow up info bubble
  • People still trying to find the answer. 3 weeks to generate reccs to put up the flagpole. What question are we trying to answer and have it focus your search. Use IT to help you do that. The jerbils in my head are a little slower than they used to be.
  • Start thinking about it as a performance enabling vehicle. Plumbing is there, web is there. Technology can allow us to facilitate learning. Look at leveraging the plumbing to help people do their work. Where are people going to take the course in this environment. 2 Hours: How many interrupts Part of being away from it all is getting away with it all. The biggest problem in the information age is with attention.
  • The key point to note here is that the scope of the Analysis component of the Learning Strategists role extends beyond the Skill and Knowledge domain. During the assessment phase, the Learning Strategist is acting more like a Performance Analyst, examining not only learning discrepancies but also work systems and work environment discrepancies that contribute poor business performance. Many parallels were drawn to Dana Gaines Robinson’s work in the area of Performance Technology.
  • EPSS is about leveraging technology to help them perform more appropriately. Workware not Software. Technology wrapped around you to help you do your job.
  • Common registration system where people sign up themselves. ATM story and Bank Tellers (Complex Transactions) this is the model. In IBM we use to wonder what to do to get the customer to get their money. Now it is how can we work with the customer and partners to help create value
  • Use the technology to assist people not to automate the Eval, Registration (Enabling Processes is great) Automating Training Content is a real slippery slope). Came from Consulting Firms. Asset is people. Can articulate what people know to the declarative or procedural level. Project Management - No sense to send someone to a 3 week class. Send interested folks an HBR article on this stuff. WBS, Gantt Chart, Critical Path. Know the concepts. Know the pieces but don’t know how they come together yet. Language analogy. Try it out and get comfortable with it. Knowledge Base for Conceptual and procedureal Just in Case Training versus Just in Time. Get rid of all that training by the pound stuff!
  • Cant compmartmentalize learning working and doing anymore. Ignore Transformational Learning, Navel Gazing, Race Awareness, Human Dynamics. Pull Strategies IBM in 1997 had 500,000 web pages (relying on people to find and pull info) Push Point cast squirts stuff at people. Need to know who you have and what they need to know (I.e. competency mechanism). Push technology can add to the problem. Connect: Good for Declarative and Procedural Info.
  • Clifford Stoll says it best when he says that you can’t download trust.
  • If only HP knew what HP knew.
  • Transcript

    • 1. OLL 302 ONLINE LEARNING STRATEGY: Push, Pull, Connect, Ignore: What is the Optimal E-learning Strategy? Dr. Tony O’Driscoll Senior Consultant, IBM e-business Strategy and Design Consulting 1808 Deer Fern Drive, Raleigh, NC 27606 Phone: (919) 816-9955 e-mail: odriscol@us.ibm.com
    • 2. Objectives Learning is a Journey, not a Destination. <ul><li>What environmental factors have created interest in creating Learning Organizations? </li></ul><ul><li>How are Training and Learning interrelated? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the intranet being used to automate organizational Training efforts? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference between Information Technology and Performance Technology? </li></ul><ul><li>How can IT and PT be leveraged to create a true Learning Organization? </li></ul><ul><li>You Should Leave Here With..... </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of questions about how IT and PT can be leveraged to facilitate Learning </li></ul>The Questions We Will Explore Today.... What I Know What I Know After Pursuing Question X Question X
    • 3. Organizational Metamorphosis Infrastructure Business Technology Primary Asset Main Output Organization Local Market Family Farm The Plow Land Food Products Family Structure Railroads, Steel The Factory The Machine Capital Equipment Mechanical Products Bureaucracy Computers, internet The Corporation The Transistor Intellectual Capital Knowledge Products Learning Organization In the 1995 HRD Executive Survey, 94 percent of respondents said that they think it’s important to build a learning organization; only nine percent think their companies aren’t moving that way Bassi ? Agrarian Age (??-1760) Industrial Age (1760-1960) Information Age (1960-2020)
    • 4. Describing the Learning Organization Learning Organization Systems Thinking “ There are many signs that the future of successful enterprises will hinge on their capacity for sustained organization-wide learning . . . . .” Senge “ The Learning Organization is an organization that is able to transform itself by acquiring new knowledge, skills, or behaviors. In successful learning organizations, individual learning is continuous, knowledge is shared, and the culture supports learning. Employees are encouraged to think critically and to take risks with new ideas” Bassi . ? Personal Mastery Mental Models Shared Vision Team Learning
    • 5. Creating the Learning Organization “ . . . . But while it is easy to advocate, it is difficult to produce” Senge Skills Physical Analytical Staff Line Worker Professional Style Dictate Participate Structure Hierarchy Network Strategy Efficiency Innovation Systems Linear Interactive “ Two major forces—global competition and rapid technological advances—have profoundly changed, and will continue to change, the nature of work, especially in the United States” Bassi ? Super-Oriented Goal Profits from Products Profits from Solutions
    • 6. Introducing the “Offer” Super-Oriented Goal “ The difference between products and services blurs to the point that the distinction is a trap. Winners in the Information Age will provide an offer that is both product and service simultaneously” Davis and Miller Anytime ATM Machines Real Time Intelligent Vending Machines Online PCS health Systems Interactive Sunbeam’s “Blanket with a Brain” Anyplace GM Onstar Service Learning Mercedes Driver Adaptive Transmission Anticipating Amazon.Com Filtering PointCast Customizing Levi’s Upgrading Phone and Cable Options Speed Connectivity Intangibles OFFER ?
    • 7. The Industrial Age Work Paradigm Customer Service Operations Production Based Work Capital Labor Raw Materials <ul><li>Standardized Work </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul>Mechanical Product Supply Chain Innovation Customer Chain Work Activity Focused on Efficiency, Productivity, and Quality ?
    • 8. The Information Age Work Paradigm Knowledge Based Work Expert Professionals Relevant Information <ul><li>Socially Based Work </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative </li></ul><ul><li>Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent </li></ul>Problem Solution New Opportunity Customer Service Operations Supply Chain Innovation Customer Chain Work Activity Focused on Innovation, Creativity, and Problem Solving OFFER ?
    • 9. Learning Organization Structure Authority/Production Knowledge/Problem The Authority/Production Organization is concerned with mobilizing people and equipment to maximize output of a finished product or service. The Knowledge/Problem mode is concened with processing or inventing knowledge to solve problems. Zand Structure and Style ? Elements Authority/Production Knowledge/Problem 1) Levels of authority Many Few 2) Division of labor High Low 3) Links to others Few Many in the organization 4) Sources of influence Position in hierarchy Ability to identify and solve problem and power 5) Use of rules and High Low procedures 6) Primary purpose Maximize output Analyze or invent knowledge to solve problems
    • 10. Fundamental Question #1 “ The Learning Organization requires that everyone continually challenge prevailing thinking, think systemically (see the big picture and balance short and long term consequences and decisions), and build shared visions that truly capture their highest aspirations” Senge “ Organization wide learning will require critical masses of individuals operating in new ways, so that new organizational norms are established. But that is not enough; it will also require new infrastructures that support learning. Senge How does one go about beginning to create a Learning Organization? ?
    • 11. Questioning our Assumptions on Learning Think back to your most recent learning experience.... ?
    • 12. Training Versus Learning “ Learning is a much more complicated phenomenon than can ever be limited to a classroom. In organizational learning efforts, the confusion of learning and training is fatal.” Senge “ I never let my schooling get in the way of my Education” Twain “ To learn is to gain knowledge, comprehension, or mastery through knowledge or experience. To train is to coach in or accustom to a mode of behavior or performance; to make proficient with special instruction and practice. Learning is something one does for oneself whereas training is something one does for others. The principal goal of training is learning, yet training is neither necessary nor sufficient to cause learning to occur” Pepitone “ The learning capabilities that matter are inseparable from the work that people do. Organizational learning is not the same as individual learning” Senge “ Training signifies a one way transfer of established wisdom from the trainer to the uninformed trainee. It focuses on the teacher, not the student. Learning reverses this in important ways. Learning involves not only absorbing existing information but also creating new solutions to not-yet-fully-understood problems” Kanter ?
    • 13. Fundamental Question #2 Could it be that our existing Mental Models—ones that tend to marry Training and Learning—have limited us from understanding how to create a true Learning Organization? ?
    • 14. The Characteristics of Systems Thinking <ul><li>Systems Thinking.... </li></ul><ul><li>Is non-linear </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on interrelationships </li></ul><ul><li>Looks inside the system for solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a ‘visual’ language </li></ul><ul><li>Adds precision </li></ul><ul><li>Forces ‘explicitness’ in models </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages examination and inquiry </li></ul><ul><li>Is Holistic </li></ul>
    • 15. Feedback Loops: The ‘Words’ of Systems Thinking <ul><li>Balancing Loop </li></ul>Drink Coffee Tired in PM B + _ time Tiredness <ul><li>Reinforcing Loop </li></ul>Births Population + time + Population R
    • 16. Archetypes: The “Language” of Systems Thinking It’s 3:30 P.M., you head towards the crowded coffee machine thinking “ I’ve gotta have something to keep me awake through this meeting.” So You proceed to get your fifth cup of coffee! Shifting the Burden : Over time your body begins to rely on caffeine (not sleep) at regular intervals in order to regulate your energy and metabolism. Tired in PM B + _ Drink Coffee Sleep at Night - + - B Dependence on Caffeine - + R Delay Problem Symptom Symptomatic Solution Fundamental Solution Addiction
    • 17. - Corporate America is Addicted to Training! “ Bureaucratic organizations do not know how to deal with a problem unless it is classified in terms of a solution. Once classified, the problem can be referred to the appropriate department (or solution pigeonhole) for action.” Rummler “ There is a superstitions factor that if a little training is good more must be better” Gilbert “ The activity based training approach of the past no longer serves us or our organizations: (a) Corporate America spent over $200 billion on training last year, and (b) Less than 30 percent of what people learn is actually transferred to the job in a way that enhances performance. In other words, at least 70 percent of the 200 billion-dollar investment in training and development is lost at a time when organizations need a highly skilled, adaptable, and motivated workforce” Robinson Performance Discrepancy B + _ Training Intervention Performance Intervention - + - B Dependence on Training + R Delay Problem Symptom Symptomatic Solution Fundamental Solution Addiction
    • 18. The Growth of the Web and intranets! “ Electronic networks form the key infrastructure of the 21st century, as critical to business success and national and economic development as the railroads were in Morse’s Era” Alvin Toffler, Power Shift Systems <ul><li>The Future.... </li></ul><ul><li>World Population is increasing 6.6% per year </li></ul><ul><li>Web users in increasing 370% per year </li></ul><ul><li>Number of URLs is increasing by 2000% per year </li></ul><ul><li>At this rate, there will be 8 billion sites on the web by 2002, more than one site for every man, woman and child on the planet. </li></ul>
    • 19. IT is Exacerbating the Training Addiction! “ What’s wrong with this scenario is that we are applying radically different technological alternatives to old frameworks without reexamining their underlying assumptions and structures. In our pursuit of solutions, we have assumed that the future should be and extension of the past” Gery Old Paradigm Apply technology to old training, documentation, and problem solving/decision making models. New Paradigm Develop new learning, information access, problem structuring, and decision making models based on new technical alternatives. 10 YEAR TRANSITION PERIOD DUE TO <ul><li>Installed Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Political Vested Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Available Development Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Performance Based Paradigm </li></ul>
    • 20. Fundamental Question #3 Are we merely leveraging IT to facilitate the administration and dissemination of Training programs instead of using it to create a true Learning Organization? “ We have leveraged IT to put wheels under old training models, we’ve automated the past—invalid assumptions and all” Gery
    • 21. 4. Knowledge Work Usurps Physical Work In 1985, 42% of Nortel’s total workforce were knowledge workers. At the 1997 Senior Managers Conference, this number was projected to become 75% by the end of 1998. Physical Work Intellectual Work Factor of Production Knowledge Producer Question Nothing Question Everything Repetitive Tasks Ongoing Challenges Do as you are told Determine what to do Segmented Work Holistic Work Direct Supervision Autonomy “ A Strong back” “A Strong Resume” Industry Ratio Ag. Production (Crops) 1.77 Ag. Production (Livestock) 7.29 Steel Production 15.96 Auto Production 18.53 Aircraft Production 38.97 Computer Production 57.72 Physician Services 59.31 Legal Services 63.29 Computer Services 73.15 Professional Services 92.68 Industrial Worker Knowledge Worker Staff &Skills
    • 22. Work Productivity = Creating Knowledge “ In the Post-Capitalist Society, the basic economic resource is no longer capital nor physical resources. It is, and will continue to be the knowledge worker. The economic challenge of the Post-Capitalist society, therefore, will be the productivity of the knowledge worker” Drucker Industrial Age Strategic Leverage “ Find the Answer” Information Age Strategic Leverage “ Create the Solution” “ The ever declining cost of technology for information processing has made the technology and information ubiquitous. In fact information is a commodity that can be bought and sold. Consequently it has become insufficient to define competitive advantage” Bassi Strategy FACTS INFORMATION INTELLIGENCE KNOWLEDGE WISDOM + Context Yield + Inference Yield + Certitude Yield + Synthesis Yield Less is More
    • 23. What Humans do With Information ACQUIRE PROCESS DECIDE “ Information is defined as anything that reduces uncertainty in decision-making” Haeckel Search Gather Organize Store Review Analyze Digest Synthesize Review Compare Contrast Commit
    • 24. IT and the Information Explosion “ The amount of information is doubling every five years” Davis 1980 2000 Info Sphere Information Technology <ul><li>Microelectronics </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Science </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul><ul><li>Software Engineering </li></ul>
    • 25. IT and the Information Paradox Process Time IT has been leveraged to create MORE and MORE information via computer networks and databases The HUMAN ability to cognitively process this information has remained CONSTANT. The MORE information that’s available, The LESS time there is to develop intelligence and create knowledge. Often referred to as “Information Overload” FACTS INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE WISDOM INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION “ Technology has made it so easy to amass information that it can get in the way of acquiring knowledge that has strategic value for a company.” Ledet Less is More
    • 26. Resolving the Information Paradox Performance Technology Information Technology We must STOP leveraging technology as an INFORMATION CREATING vehicle. We must BEGIN to leverage technology as a KNOWLEDGE ENABLING vehicle. Info Sphere • Microelectronics • Computer Science • Telecommunications • Software Engineering
    • 27. Fundamental Question #4 How can IT be leveraged as an enabling mechanism to facilitate knowledge work thus creating a true Learning Organization? “ We don’t need new technology to affect organizational performance, we simply need new thinking” Gery
    • 28. <ul><li>In the most concise form possible, Human Performance Technology (HPT) can be defined as systems thinking applied to human resource activities. </li></ul><ul><li>HPT is the application of what is known about human and organizational behavior to enhance accomplishments, economically and effectively, in ways that are valued within the work setting. Thus HPT is a field of endeavor that seeks to bring about changes to a system in such a way that the system is improved in terms of the achievements it values. </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of HPT: </li></ul><ul><li>HPT is Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>HPT is Systemic </li></ul><ul><li>HPT is grounded in scientifically derived theories and empirical data </li></ul><ul><li>HPT is open to all means methods and media </li></ul><ul><li>HPT is focused on achievements that human performers and the system value </li></ul>HPT Defined
    • 29. The Role of the Human Performance Technologist Performance Discrepancy Work Systems? Work Environment? Skills & Knowledge? What’s the Cause? Root Cause Perf. Levers Work Systems Tools, Processes, IT Systems Work Env. Comp, CD, Mentoring Learning Job Aids, Training, Websites Assessment Human Performance Technologists Enable Business Performance by Assessing Performance Discrepancy Root-Cause Levers and Recommending Intervention Suites to address these Root-Causes in an Expedient and Permanent Manner. Implementation HP Technologists are the thread from Discrepancy Identification to Resolution. They Assess all three Performance Areas for Root Causes, Suggest Performance Interventions across all three Performance Areas, Manage the Design and Development of the Interventions in the Learning Performance Area, and consult on intervention design in the other two areas.
    • 30. What are the Client’s Business and Performance Issues Client Needs How do business priorities link to performance gaps? Strategic Analysis What performance metrics characterize business success? Desired Perf. Metrics Today’s Performance Barriers Incentives/Rewards Data, Info, Feedback Environmental Support Tools and Resources Individual Capacity Skills and Knowledge Org. Structure Motives/Expectations Performance Levers HRD Training and Education Skills & Profiles Career Development Leadership Development OD Organization Design Working Principles Obj. Alignment/Rewards HRM Compensation Plng Succession Plng Recruiting Environment Expert Systems Web based Support Performance Evaluation Is New Work Process Driving Perf. Discrepancy To ZERO? Work Process Implementation New Work Process initiated with Client Where does Client stand today against the desired metrics? Today’s Perf. Metrics CLIENT BUSINESS VALUE ANALYSIS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS WORK PROC. DESIGN/IMP. Performance Discrepancy : Key Components of the HPT Model
    • 31. The Human Performance System (HPS) “ Pit a good performer against a bad system and the system will win every time.” Rummler The High Performance System (HPS). (Adapted from Rummler and Brache, 1992) (1) Performer (4) Consequences (3) Output (5) Feedback (2) Input Task Interference • Can performer easily recognize input requiring action? • Can task be done without interference from other tasks? • Are job procedures and work flow logical? • Are adequate resources available for performance? Performance Specifications • Do performance standards exist? • Do performers know the desired output and performance standards? • Do performers consider the standards attainable? Knowledge/Skill • Do the performers have the necessary knowledge and skill to perform? • Do the performers know why desired performance is important? Individual Capacity • Are the performers physically, mentally, and emotionally able to perform? Feedback • Do the performers receive information about their performance? • Is the information they receive: • Relevant? • Accurate? • Timely? • Specific? • Constructive? • Easy to Understand? Consequences • Are the consequences aligned to support desired performance? • Are the consequences meaningful from the performers viewpoint? • Are the consequences timely?
    • 32. Electronic Performance Support “ An EPSS is a software environment that provides a context within which work is done. Everything needed to do the job—information, software, expert advice, and guidance, and learning experiences—is integrated and available, resulting in improved worker productivity and minimal support an interactivity by others” Brown <ul><li>EPSS Goals: </li></ul><ul><li>Provide electronic support for job tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate support into work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide support on demand </li></ul><ul><li>Use appropriate technology where needed </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate information, tools, and methodologies for the user </li></ul>“ The goal of an EPSS is to provide whatever is necessary to generate performance and learning at the moment of need. This kind of support has always required human beings in the past. But we now have the means to model, represent, structure and implement it electronically” Gery Help Systems Databases Video Databases Templates Applications Software Advisory Systems Interactive Training Infobase Productivity Software Performer
    • 33. EPSS Attributes Electronic: Key is to INTEGRATE everything electronically Performance: Goal is NOT Learning but Business Performance System: Refers to BOTH Human and Computer Systems Environment: Takes a systemic view (Work, Worker, Workplace) Workware: NOT software, but systems that help you do work
    • 34. EPSS Related to Learning Strategy “ An EPSS is an electronic infrastructure that captures, stores, and distributes individual and corporate knowledge assets throughout an organization, to enable an individual to achieve a required level of performance in the fastest possible time with the minimum of support from other people” Raybould 1995 Awareness Conceptual Functional Proficient Competent Basic Information Zone: Books, Articles, Web Sites, Reports Structured Information Zone: Intro Course, CBT, Workbook, CD Rom Applied Information Zone: Intact Groups, Problem Solving Sessions, Mentoring Action Learning Zone: Learning on-the-job while solving real problems Competency Level Time to Competency “ Who Knows What” “ What do they Know”
    • 35. Can EPSS Facilitate Knowledge Work ? Performance Technology “ The EPS design paradigm requires a fundamental rethinking of the relationships between learning, training, and performance” Rosenberg Help Systems Databases Video Databases Templates Applications Software Advisory Systems Interactive Training Infobase Productivity Software Performer FACTS INFORMATION INTELLIGENCE KNOWLEDGE WISDOM + Context Yield + Inference Yield + Certitude Yield + Synthesis Yield Less is More
    • 36. Training versus HPT Event Oriented Process Oriented Domain is the Classroom Domain is the Organization Focus on the Learner (Worker) Focus on Work, Worker, and Workplace Focus on Skills and Knowledge Focus on Business Results Analyzes Instructional Needs Analyzes Performance Needs Develops Training Interventions Develops Performance Interventions Implements Training Solutions Implements Performance Solutions Evaluates Learning and Behavior Evaluates Bottom Line Results Training Focus Performance Focus
    • 37. Fundamental Question #5 Can a true Learning Organization be created by leveraging HPT principles to guide IT decisions in order to facilitate knowledge work? Authority/Production Knowledge/Problem (1) Performer (4) Consequences (3) Output (5) Feedback (2) Input Task Interference Perf. Spec Knowledge Skill Capacity Feedback Conseq. Performance Analysis Cause Analysis Customer Requirements Organizational Mission, Strategy and Goals Desired Performance State Actual Performance State Performance Discrepancy (Gap) Work, Organizational, and Competitive Environment Evaluation of Results Lack of: • Consequences, Incentives, or Rewards • Data, Information, and Feedback • Environmental Support, Resources and Tools • Individual Capacity • Motives and Expectations • Skills and Knowledge Implementation and Change Management Intervention Selection and Design
    • 38. Proposed Learning Strategy Framework Ignore Pull Push Connect Tacit Knowledge “ People with People” Explicit Knowledge “ People with Information”
    • 39. Ignore In the past, our “Technolust” has gotten us in trouble. Let’s not fall in the same trap again with intranets. “ Bad training put on a technology platform merely allows us to waste people’s time more effectively. In other words we leverage technology to increase the efficiency with which we train poorly” Fuller “ We are using the intranet to automate the past, bad assumptions and all. We must get out of the activity based training paradigm” Gery Always Remember the Do Nothing Alternative!
    • 40. Pull Web Based CBT and Automated Registration— by itself—does NOT Result in the Creation of a Learning Organization The challenge on the web today is getting people’s attention. The web is driven by an attention economy not an information economy. Wired The web based “Spray and Pray” approach to Training is inadequate. It is simply putting “wheels” under old Training paradigms. Gery Putting Training on the web is simply Data Warehousing. It requires that the employee take action to find the information needed. Barnhardt
    • 41. Push Technology and User Profiles can be Leveraged to Enhance Both Individual Learning and Organizational Performance Push PUSH Technology Webcasting is the wave of the future Wired Magazine Performance technology is about getting the right amount of information to the right person, at the right time, to allow them to do their job effectively. Push technology makes this possible. How you share things and how you get your hands on things will change dramatically. What we do today will look pretty crude in five years time.
    • 42. Leveraging the intranet as a vehicle for connecting employees with common interests and for connecting employees with information will facilitate the Creation of a true Learning Organization Connect The company that figures out how to harness the collective experience of its employees will blow the competition away. Walter Wriston The nation’s ability to compete in is threatened by inadequate investment in our most important resource: people. Business Week To help employees share and reuse knowledge, E&Y has created communities of interest. Right now there are 70 company wide networks of people with common interests and expertise. Leher
    • 43. Tony’s Top Ten Learning Strategy Tips 1) Change your paradigm/branding from Training to Learning 2) Put Technology in its Place: It is a delivery mechanism, not a panacea 3) Focus on Performance Technology not Information Technology 4) Measure Organizational Performance not Training Activity 5) KISS: Focus on parsimony—not excess—in creating performance interventions 6) Understand the difference between Tacit and Explicit Knowledge 6) Ignore intranets if you plan to merely reinvent the past by automating Training 7) Use Pull strategies to warehouse and customize information making access easier 8) Use Push strategies to send specific information to employees who need it 10) Use Connect strategies to link experts together to solve complex problems
    • 44. Biography Tony O'Driscoll is a Senior Consultant and Researcher with IBM's e-business Strategy and Design practice. He is responsible for helping clients develop differentiated strategies and coherent implementation plans for their e-business initiatives and for advancing IBM's thought leadership in e-business through research, methodology development, application and education. Dr. O'Driscoll has in-depth knowledge and extensive experience in optimizing and managing organizational performance and has a proven track record of providing thought leadership in the development of strategies that focus on delivering business results. Dr. O'Driscoll is an active member of ISPI, ASTD, and PDMA. He has been a  keynote presenter, panelist, workshop leader, and facilitator at numerous local, national,  and  international  conferences  and  symposia.  He  sits on the advisory  board for the International Performance Support Conference and is also a  member of the Conference Board on Knowledge Management. Currently, Dr.  O'Driscoll's  speaking  engagements-as  well as his recently published book:  Achieving  Desired  Business Performance - emphasize the critical need for corporations to leverage their organization and information technology infrastructures to more effectively harness the most valuable information age economy asset: Employees.

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