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  • 303KM, AM Coventry U.
  • 303KM, AM Coventry U.


  • 1. Chapter 2: The Project Management in Context of Organization Environment 303KM Project Management
  • 2. Learning Objectives
    • Understand the systems view of project management
    • Analyze a formal organization using the structural, human resources, political, and symbolic organizational frames
    • Explain the differences among functional, matrix, and project organizational structures
    • Explain why stakeholder management and top management commitment are critical for a project’s success
    • Understand the concept, development, implementation, and close-out phases of the project life cycle
    • Describe the importance of aligning projects with business strategy, the strategic planning process, and using a SWOT analysis.
    • Explain the four-stage planning process for project selection, and applying this model to ensure the strategic alignment of projects.
    303KM Project Management
  • 3. 1 Systems View of Project Management
    • A systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a more analytical approach to management and problem solving
    • Three parts include:
      • Systems philosophy: View things as systems, interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purpose
      • Systems analysis: problem-solving approach
      • Systems management: Address business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems
    303KM Project Management
  • 4. Three Sphere Model for Systems Management (Figure 2-1) 303KM Project Management
  • 5. 2 Understanding Organizations 303KM Project Management Structural frame: Focuses on roles and responsibilities, coordination and control. Organizational charts help define this frame. Human resources frame: Focuses on providing harmony between needs of the organization and needs of people. Political frame: Assumes organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. Conflict and power are key issues. Symbolic frame: Focuses on symbols and meanings related to events. Culture is important.
  • 6. 3 Many Organizations Focus on the Structural Frame
    • Most people understand what organizational charts are
    • Many new managers try to change organizational structure when other changes are needed
    • 3 basic organizational structures
      • functional
      • project
      • matrix
    303KM Project Management
  • 7. 3 Basic Organizational Structures 303KM Project Management
  • 8. Table 2-1. Organizational Structure Influences on Projects 303KM Project Management The organizational structure influences the project manager’s authority, but project managers need to remember to address the human resources, political, and symbolic frames, too.
  • 9. 4 Recognize the Importance of Project Stakeholders
    • Recall that project stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities
    • Project managers must take time to identify, understand, and manage relationships with all project stakeholders
    • Using the four frames of organizations can help meet stakeholder needs and expectations
    • Senior executives are very important stakeholders
    303KM Project Management
  • 10. Table 1-2. What Helps Projects Succeed?
    • According to the Standish Group’s report “CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success,” the following items help IT projects succeed, in order of importance:
      • Executive support
      • User involvement
      • Experienced project manager
      • Clear business objectives
      • Minimized scope
      • Standard software infrastructure
      • Firm basic requirements
      • Formal methodology
      • Reliable estimates
    303KM Project Management
  • 11. Need for Top Management Commitment
    • Several studies cite top management commitment as one of the key factors associated with project success
    • Top management can help project managers secure adequate resources, get approval for unique project needs in a timely manner, receive cooperation from people throughout the organization, and learn how to be better leaders
    303KM Project Management
  • 12. Need for Organizational Standards
    • Standards and guidelines help project managers be more effective
    • Senior management can encourage
      • the use of standard forms and software for project management
      • the development and use of guidelines for writing project plans or providing status information
      • the creation of a project management office or center of excellence
    303KM Project Management
  • 13. 5 Project Phases and the Project Life Cycle
    • A project life cycle is a collection of project phases
    • Project phases vary by project or industry, but some general phases include
      • concept
      • development
      • implementation
      • support
    303KM Project Management
  • 14. Phases of the Project Life Cycle 303KM Project Management
  • 15. Why Have Project Phases and Management Reviews?
    • A project should successfully pass through each of the project phases in order to continue on to the next
    • Management reviews (also called phase exits or kill points) should occur after each phase to evaluate the project’s progress, likely success, and continued compatibility with organizational goals
    303KM Project Management
  • 16. What Went Right? 303KM Project Management "The real improvement that I saw was in our ability to  in the words of Thomas Edison  know when to stop beating a dead horse.…Edison's key to success was that he failed fairly often; but as he said, he could recognize a dead horse before it started to smell...as a result he had 14,000 patents and was very successful…In IT we ride dead horses  failing projects  a long time before we give up. But what we are seeing now is that we are able to get off them; able to reduce cost overrun and time overrun. That's where the major impact came on the success rate.”
  • 17. 6 Aligning Projects with Business Strategy
    • Most organizations cannot undertake most of the potential projects identified because of resource limitations and other constraints.
    • An organization’s overall business strategy should guide the project selection process and management of those projects.
    303KM Project Management
  • 18. Strategic Planning
    • Strategic planning involves determining long-term objectives by analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of an organization, studying opportunities and threats in the business environment, predicting future trends, and projecting the need for new products and services.
    • Strategic planning provides important information to help organizations identify and then select potential projects.
    303KM Project Management
  • 19. SWOT Analysis
    • SWOT analysis involves analyzing S trengths, W eaknesses, O pportunities, and T hreats.
    • It can help you identify potential projects, as is shown in the example about four people trying to start a new business.
    303KM Project Management
  • 20. 7 Four-Stage Strategic Planning Process for Project Selection
    • Organizations often follow a detailed planning process for project selection.
    • The figure shows a four-stage planning process for selecting projects.
    • It is very important to start at the top of the pyramid to select projects that support the organization’s business strategy .
    303KM Project Management
  • 21. Methods for Selecting Projects
    • Discuss more on Integration management e.g.:
      • Focus on competitive strategy and broad organizational needs.
      • Perform net present value analysis or other financial projections.
      • Use a weighted scoring model.
      • Implement a balanced scorecard.
      • Address problems, opportunities, and directives.
      • Consider project time frame.
      • Consider project priority.
    303KM Project Management
  • 22. Focusing on Competitive Strategy and Broad Organizational Needs
    • Competitive strategies:
      • Cost leadership: Attract customers primarily because products or services are inexpensive. Examples include Wal-Mart and McDonald.
      • Focus: Develop products and services for a particular market niche. Examples include Starbucks Coffee and most skin-care product shops.
    • Broad organizational needs: People agree there is a need for a project, they will make funds available, and there is a strong will to make the project succeed.
    303KM Project Management