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Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
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Chapter 5

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  • 1. Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management5.1 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 2. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management The Database Approach to Data Management• Database: a collection of related files containing records on people, places, or things• Entities: anything I’m interested in keeping data about. It may be physical (car), conceptual (account), or event (accident)• Attributes: characteristics I’m interested in an entity OR the important characteristics that define an entity• Organizing data in a relational database: Tables include: fields, records, and key fields (primary key, secondary key, or foreign key)• Establishing relationships (associations among tables)5.2 • Entity-relationship diagram, normalization, join table© 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 3. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management The Database Approach to Data Management A Relational Database TableA relational database organizes data in the form of two-dimensional tables.Illustrated here is a table for the entity SUPPLIER showing how itrepresents the entity and its attributes. Supplier_Number is the key field.5.3 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 4. Relationships among Tables of a Database BookNo Title Author 1 IT Intro Ali 2 Adv IS Ahm BwngNo Date BookNo StdNo 3 Program Sana 111 2/1/11 3 44 4 DBMS Samy 112 3/3/11 2 55 primary keys 113 5/3/11 3 55 secondary key 114 8/4/11 2 33 StdNo Name Address 33 Omar Somohaprimary key foreign keys 44 Hasan Roshdy 55 Mona StanlyThis is a Logical View of the Database 66 Maha AboQeer5.4 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 5. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management The Database Approach to Data Management A Simple Entity-Relationship Diagram This diagram shows the relationship between the entities SUPPLIER and PART (1 Supplier has many Parts). It is called One to Many OR 1:M Relationship.5.5 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 6. Keys of Table• Primary Key: a column (or more) includes unique values that can uniquely identify each row in a table. It is a unique identifier for a database record.• Secondary Key: a key that is not a primary key, but for which an index is maintained and that may identify more than one record such as in case we don’t remember the student number as a primary key we use student name as a secondary key.• Foreign Key: a column (or more) in one table that refers to another table as a relationship.5.6 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 7. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Database Management Systems DBMS• A specific type of software for creating, storing, organizing, and accessing data from a database• Separates the logical and physical views of the data• Logical view: how end users view data• Physical view: how data are actually structured and organized (sectors on a track on a HD)• Examples of DBMS: Microsoft Access, DB2 (IBM), Oracle Database, Microsoft SQL Server, MYSQL (OpenSource)5.7 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 8. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Database Management Systems Books Table Operations of a Relational DBMS Borrowing Table a DBMS can do on a Database) (What Students TableDBMS Operations:• (1) Select: creates a subset of records based on stated criteria.• Example: Select students who live in Stanly from the Students Table.5.8 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 9. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Database Management Systems Books Table Operations of a Relational DBMS Borrowing Table a DBMS can do on a Database) (What Students TableDBMS Operations:• (2) Join: combines relational tables to present the user with more information than is available from individual tables.• Example: Join Borrowing Table with Students Table to show all borrowing dates by Mona.5.9 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 10. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Database Management Systems Books Table Operations of a Relational DBMS Borrowing Table a DBMS can do on a Database) (What Students TableDBMS Operations:• (3) Project: creates a subset consisting of columns in a table.• Example: Project the addresses of students from Students Table to know how many students live in each district of Alexandria.5.10 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 11. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Database Management Systems Capabilities of Database Management Systems• Data definition (meaning of data items e.g. Nam: Name)• Data dictionary (structure of DB ”tables, keys, relationships,…”)• Structured query language (SQL) is the language of dealing with DBMSs as an end user or a program. It consists of: • Data Retrieval Language (DRL) is the language of querying and reporting, such as “Select * from Std;” • Data manipulation language (DML) is the language of changing, inserting and deleting data, such as “Update, Insert, Delete,…” • Data definition language (DDL) is the language of building the database components, such as “Create table, Delete Table, Restructured Table,..…”5.11 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 12. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Database Management Systems Capabilities of Database Management Systems• Object-oriented databases (OODB):• Data is stored as objects (special identity that has characteristic and behavior “student”)• It can be interpreted (explanation) only using the methods and attributes specified by its class.5.12 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 13. OODB• Entity = anything I’m interested in keeping data about. It may be physical (student), conceptual (account), or event (accident).• Class (Set of attributes) = model or specifications of an entity (Student: ID, Name, Phone,…).• Object = an instance (case or example) of a Class (Student1: 225, Ali, 012223456,…).• Method = behavior of object at a specific event.• Attributes (Column) = characteristics I’m interested in an entity OR the important characteristics that define an entity.• State = the values of object attributes at specific time.5.13 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 14. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Using Databases to Improve Business Performance and Decision Making Data Warehouses • What is a data warehouse? • A database that stores current and historical data that may be of interest to decision makers. (layer of data accumulated over time to support analysis before decision. • Data marts • Subsets of data warehouses that are highly focused and isolated for a specific population of users5.14 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 15. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Using Databases to Improve Business Performance and Decision Making Components of a Data WarehouseThe data warehouseextracts current andhistorical data from multipleoperational systems insidethe organization.These data are combinedwith data from externalsources and reorganizedinto a central databasedesigned for managementreporting and analysis DSS.The information directoryprovides users withinformation about the dataavailable in the warehouse. Figure 5-135.15 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 16. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Using Databases to Improve Business Performance and Decision Making Business IntelligenceA series of analyticaltools works with datastored in databases tofind patterns andinsights for helpingmanagers andemployees make betterdecisions to improveorganizationalperformance.5.16 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 17. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Using Databases to Improve Business Performance and Decision Making Business Intelligence, Multidimensional Data Analysis, and Data Mining• Business Intelligence (BI): set of tools for consolidating (merge), analyzing, and providing access to large amounts of data to improve decision making. It includes Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), data mining (removal), and Predictive analysis.• Online Analytical Processing (OLAP): is an approach to quickly answer multi-dimensional analytical queries. It gives answers to important queries for decision making such as: What are the cities of highest growth rate of milk products consumption in the last 10 years?5.17 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 18. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Using Databases to Improve Business Performance and Decision Making Business Intelligence, Multidimensional Data Analysis, and Data Mining• Data mining: is data processing using sophisticated data search capabilities and statistical algorithms to discover patterns and correlations in large preexisting historical databases or data-warehouses.• Predictive analysis: includes study of: • Associations (things happened together) • Sequences (something happened after another) • Classifications (things classified in categories) • Clusters (things assembled together in something) • Forecasts (things expected to happen after happening of others)5.18 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 19. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Using Databases to Improve Business Performance and Decision Making Databases and the Web• Firms use the Web to make information from their internal databases available to customers and partners• Middleware (software running at the middle between the Web pages and the database servers) and other software make this possible • Database servers • CGI (Common Gate Interface)• Web interfaces provide familiarity to users and savings over redesigning and rebuilding legacy systems (traditional old systems)5.19 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 20. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Managing Data Resources Establishing an Information Policy • An information policy states an organization’s rules for managing and storing information • Data administration is responsible for the specific policies and procedures through which data can be managed as a resource • Large organizations use a database design and management group to perform database administration5.20 © 2007 by Prentice Hall
  • 21. Essentials of Business Information Systems Chapter 5 Foundations of Business Intelligence: Databases and Information Management Managing Data Resources Ensuring Data Quality• Poor data quality is a major obstacle to successful customer relationship management (CRM)• Data quality problems can be caused by redundant and inconsistent data produced by multiple systems (in multiple not linked systems some may be updated and some may not)• Data input errors are the cause of many data quality problems (they use check digits to improve the quality of data-entry)• A data quality audit is a structured survey of the accuracy and completeness of data• Data cleansing detects and corrects incorrect, incomplete, improperly formatted, and redundant data5.21 © 2007 by Prentice Hall

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