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Study guide Study guide Presentation Transcript

  • STUDY GUIDE Survival guide to TOK midterm
  • Chapter 1: Problem of Knowledge
    • Common Sense
    • Confirmation bias
    • Evidence
    • Gullibility
    • Mental Map
    • Open-mindedness
    • Paradox of cartography
  • Common Sense (p.5)
    • Consists of little more than general and untested beliefs, which are based on narrow-mindedness, believing what you hear, and desiring authority.
  • Mental Map (p.5)
    • The way people view reality; consists of what we find true and false, unreasonable and reasonable.
    • *your everyday understandings !
  • Paradox of cartography (p. 7)
    • “If a map is to be useful, then it must of necessity be imperfect.”
    • The imperfections in the map make it useful.
  • Gullibility (p.12)
    • Willing to believe everything that you read, see, or hear.
  • Evidence (p. 14)
    • In order to call something reasonable, there should be positive evidence to support it.
  • Confirmation bias (p.14)
    • The tendency we have to notice the evidence that ONLY supports our beliefs.
  • Open-mindedness (p.12)
    • We have to be open-minded enough to allow that there is a possibility of a strange thing being true.
  • Chapter 2: The nature of knowledge
    • Justified true belief
    • Knowledge by authority
    • News media
    • Primary knowledge
    • Second-hand knowledge
  • Justified belief (p. 24)
    • Preliminary definition of knowledge is to say that it is a justified true belief.
    • The three elements that make it up: truth, belief, justification (*primary knowledge)
  • Second-hand knowledge (p.30)
    • Accepting knowledge from other people; accepting the beliefs and practice passed on from one generation to yours.
  • Knowledge by authority (p.30)
    • Another name for second-hand knowledge and knowledge by testimony, which are made up of cultural tradition, school, the internet, expert opinion and the news media.
  • News Media (p.34)
    • Shapes our picture of the world with bias in selection and presentation.
    • a. Bad news
    • B. Extraordinary news
    • C. It’s relevant news
  • Chapter 3: Language
    • Ambiguity
    • Connotation
    • Denotation Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    • Euphemism Stereotypes
    • Idiom Weasel words
    • Irony
    • Linguistic determinism
    • Metaphor
  • Ambiguity (p. 56)
    • The meaning of words and phrases that have different meanings (misleads people).
  • Secondary meaning (p.57)
    • Denotation: the primal meaning (the dictionary’s definitions). *general
    • Connotation: the associations that surround a word. *Varies b/w people
    • Euphemisms: sugar coat harsh words
    • (He died = he passed away)
  • Metaphor (p.57)
    • Metaphorical truth differs from literal truth.
    • Dead metaphors are in our language; examples: We broke it off.
  • Irony (p.58)
    • The saying of one thing in order to mean the opposite. (adds to the ambiguity to language)
  • Idioms (p.62)
    • A conversational expression whose meaning cannot be worked out from the meanings of the words it contains… example: It’s raining cats and dogs.
    • *Doesn’t make sense when translated.
  • Stereotype (p.66)
    • Labels on people that hardened; statements which prove that assumptions were made of a group. (biased)
  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (p.68)
    • A hypothesis which states language determines our experience of reality, and we can see and think only what our language allows us to see and think.
  • Linguistic determinism (p.68)
    • Form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    • Example: A government who changes language to limit and restrict the way his people think.
    • language shapes thought?!
  • Weasel Words (p. 73)
    • Examples: many, should, probably
    • Words used by people to allow them to escape a task etc.
    • “This will work if you simply follow the instructions.”
  • Chapter 4:Perception
    • Context
    • Empiricism
    • Expectations
    • Figure and ground
    • Optical illusions
    • Sensation
    • Selectivity
    • Visual grouping
  • Empiricism (p.86)
    • The belief that all knowledge is ultimately based on perceptual experience. (experiences dealing with senses)
  • Context (p.87)
    • The way we see something depends on the context in which we see it.
    • We make contextual judgments unaware that we are doing it. “He looks bigger than Mike”… etc.
  • Expectations (p.90)
    • Influence how we see things because we perceive things the way we expect them to appear; therefore, we miss things that are right in front of us.
  • Figure and ground (p.89)
    • We have the tendency to highlight certain aspects of what we see (figure) and treat other parts of it as background (ground).
    • Example :
  • Visual grouping (p.89)
    • We naturally look for meanings in things we see in order to figure out a connection between one image and another.
    • A few patches of black can look like a dog to us because we want to create meaningful pictures.
  • Optical illusions (p.87)
    • Interpretation (what is provided by our minds) is put to a test when dealing with visuals illusions, for we create the illusions with the interpretation we put on them.
    • A. Context
    • B. Visual Grouping
    • C. Figure and Ground
    • D. Expectations
  • Sensation (p.87)
    • Component of perception
    • Is provided by the world; flood into our senses to experience something
  • Selectivity of perception (p.91)
    • We need to be careful with our senses, for they are selective. Certain aspects engage our attention and stand out, and the rest fade away.
    • What grabs attention- contrast, intensity, interest
    • What shapes perception: mood, feelings, emotions.
  • Chapter 5: Reason
    • Ad hominem
    • Belief bias
    • Circular reasoning
    • Deduction
    • Fallacy
    • False analogy
    • False dilemma
    • Hasty generalization
    • Induction
    • Lateral Thinking
    • Post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy
    • Premise
    • Rationalism
    • Venn diagram
  • Premises, rationalism, fallacies (p.113)
    • Premise – No if’s of but’s about it, the root of an argument.
    • Rationalism- discovering important truths about reality through the use of reason alone.
    • Fallacies- invalid patterns of reasoning.
  • Deduction (p.114)
    • Reasoning from general to particular
    • Example: All metals expand when heated. A is a metal; therefore A expands when heated.
    • Certain but not informative
  • Induction (p.119)
    • Reasoning from particular to general
    • Example: Metal A expands when heated; metal B expands when heated; metal C expands when heated. Therefore all metals expand when heated.
    • More informative but not certain.
  • Belief bias (p.116)
    • The tendency we have to believe that an argument is valid simply because we agree with the conclusion.
    • We have to be cautious because agreeing with a conclusion doesn’t make the argument a good one.
  • Venn diagrams (p.116)
    • Is helpful when deciding whether or not a syllogism (deductive argument) is valid.
    • Overlapping circles do not always make the argument valid.
  • Post hoc ergo propter hoc (p.124)
    • Deadly fallacy
    • Confusing a connection with a causal connection
    • Assuming that because one thing, follows another thing, A, then A must be the cause of B.
  • Hasty generalization (p.129)
    • Generalizing from insufficient evidence
    • Deadly fallacy
  • Ad hominem (p.129)
    • Deadly fallacy
    • Attacking/ supporting the person rather than the argument
  • Circular reasoning (p.125)
    • Deadly fallacy
    • Assuming the truth of what your are supposed to be proving
  • False analogy (p.127)
    • Assuming that because two things are alike in some aspects they are exactly alike
    • Deadly fallacy
  • False dilemma (p.129)
    • Deadly fallacy
    • Assuming that only two alternatives exist when there is in fact wider ranger of options
    • Ex: binary (black v. white)
  • Lateral thinking (p.135)
    • Thinking outside the box since we cannot rely on traditional logic.
    • Edward de Bono says we need to come up with creative ways of thinking to come up with better solutions to problems.
  • Chapter 6: Emotion
    • Emotional coloring
    • Emotive language
    • James-Lange theory
    • Primary emotions
    • Wheel of rationalization
  • Primary emotions (p.147)
    • Six basic inborn (not learned) emotions:
    • Happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust
  • James-Lange Theory (p.148)
    • A psychologist who claims that emotions share a connection with our bodies. Emotions are physical in nature; body movements come before feeling sad etc.
  • Wheel of Rationalization (p.153)
    • Powerful emotions  biased perception  fallacious reasoning  emotive language
    • “When we are in the grip of strong emotions, we tend not to reason…”
  • Emotional coloring (p.151)
    • Our perception of things can be colored by strong emotions (“love is blind”).
    • Make us aware of some aspects of reality and keeping out the other aspects.
  • Emotive Language (p.151)
    • A person in deep emotion usually uses emotive and biased language.
    • Talking in a way because you feel a certain way (language that derives from emotions).
  • Chapters 3 to 6 were the ways of knowing.