Data collection methods


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Data collection methods

  1. 1. . PrimaryData Collection MethodsPrimary DataData collected specifically for a research projectCollect when secondary data areo Unavailableo Inappropriatecan be collected through a number of different methodssometimes more than one method can apply to a singleproblemTwo BroadApproachesSame basic data collection methods can be used under each.o Although the formality or flexibility of the datacollection process varieso Nature of the sample varieso Conditions under which data are collected varyQuestioning Approach Observation ApproachRespondents play an active roleInterview or a formal questionnaireQuestion designCan use either for exploratory, descriptive, orexperimentalNot all questioning or interviewing situationsuse formal questionnairesQuestionnaire is a tool that is used in many, butnot all, research projectsPassiveIn-person or mechanical devicesTime consumingCan use either for exploratory,descriptive, or experimentalObservational Approaches
  2. 2. example: Johnson ControlsCovert observationalresearchResearchers do not identify themselves.Either theyo mix in with the subjects undetectedo Observe from a distance.The advantages of this approach are:o It is not necessary to get the subjects’ cooperationo Subjects’ behavior will not be contaminated by the presenceof the researcher.Some researchers have ethical misgivings with this approachOvert observationalresearchResearchers identify themselves as researchersResearchers explain the purpose of their observations.Subjects tend to modify their behavior when they know they arebeing watched.They portray their “ideal self” rather than their true selfResearcherParticipationThe researcher participates in what they are observingThey get a finer appreciation of the phenomena.Researchers that participate tend to lose their objectivity.II. Questioning Versus ObservationNot interchangeableEach has certain unique capabilities.Advantages may not hold true in every situation calling for primary-data collection.Neither approach is likely to always be better than the other along each of the followingdimensions.A.Versatility B.Time and Cost
  3. 3. Observation Observationlimited to collecting data about visiblecharacteristics or variablesmay be inconclusiveHow does a customer feel?Can involve large amount of inactivityQuestioning Questioningmay not be possible.Difficult to get answers from childrenvery versatile in the types of data itgenerates.Usually less expensiveUsually less time consumingA variety of avenues are availableCan search for the most rich data sourceMore flexibility in the collection process.C.Data Accuracy D. Respondent ConvenienceQuestioning QuestioningUnable to recall reaction/purchase–Chrysler MinivanUnwilling or unable to reveal the truthErroneous answersSurvey research did not support theintroduction of minivanAnswers specific questionsInaccurateParticipation problemsObserving ObservingObservation is more accurate for behaviorLack of interaction minimizes datadistortionPre-release observation of “Junior”(movie)showed support, but the movie was a boxoffice failureRespondents do not participateInability to account for all variablesWaiting for events to take place
  4. 4. Subjectivity of questionerCarelessness of an observer.Respondents inability or unwillingness toprovide accurate dataExample BenettonIII.Questionnaire FormatFormat is a function ofo The level of structure desired
  5. 5. o The degree of disguise desired during data collection.Structured Question Nanostructured questionpresented verbatim to every respondentfixed response categories.Not necessarily presented in exactlythe same wording to every respondentDoes not have fixed responses.No disguised Question Disguised QuestionDirect questionPurpose is obvious to respondents.Indirect question whoseTrue purpose is not obvious torespondentsUsed to examine issues for whichdirect questions may not elicit truthfulanswersTypes of QuestionnairesStructured - Non Disguised Non - Structured - Non DisguisedClear and directAppropriate for large samples and descriptiveresearchFlexible and directAppropriate when looking for in depthanswers and exploratory researchStructured - Disguised Non - Structured - DisguisedClear and investigativeUsed to uncover people’s attitudes towardssensitive issuesFlexible and investigativeAppropriate in motivation research
  6. 6. IV.Questionnaire Administration MethodsA. Personal Interview Method B.Telephone SurveysFace-to-face between interviewers andrespondents.Traditionally door to door or in-home.Very flexibleGreatest variety of data.Declined due to difficultieso Finding adults at homeo Getting cooperation if they arehome.o Time consuming set upMall intercept interviewso conducted in shopping centers ormallso Most common personalInvolve only voice contact betweeninterviewers and respondents.The most common method for reachingcustomers without an Internet connection.Central locations with WATS (Wide AreaTelephone Service) are used
  7. 7. interviewsMore common in the (B2B) environment.C.Mail Surveys D.Web-based SurveysNo interviewersSurvey is sent to the respondent throughthe mail.Popular for reaching a well-targetedcustomer base.No interviewersSurvey is conducted over the web.Often supplement other methods ofcollecting data.Quick feedbackTechnological advances are improving theversatility of web-based surveys.Ranking the methodsEach method has advantages and limitationsAdvantages and Limitations vary with the specifics of the situation.Criteria 1 2 3 4Best WorstVersatilityNumber of Questions Personal Mail Web PhoneAmount/variety of information Personal Phone Web MailPresentation Stimuli Personal Web Phone MailTime Web Phone Personal MailCost Web Mail Phone PersonalAccuracySampling Control Personal Phone Mail Web
  8. 8. Supervisory Control Web Mail Phone PersonalOpportunity for Clarification Personal Phone Web MailRespondent Convenience Web Mail Phone PersonalV .Types of Observation Techniques A. Natural versus Contrived ObservationNaturalObservationReactions and behavior observed as they occur naturally in real-lifesituationsA wide variety of companies are sending researchers to the field to observeconsumers in their natural environment.Natural observation (ethnographic research) is more suited than traditionalqualitative research for studying non-Western cultures.ContrivedObservationContrived settingEnvironment artificially set up by the researcher.Researchers are increasingly relying on computers to conduct simulatedmarket testing.Offers a greater degree of controlo Speedyo Efficiento Less expensiveWould this data have resulted from a real-life setting??Disguised versus No disguised ObservationDisguisedObservationRespondents are unaware they are being observedRespondents do change their behavior as a function of the observationaltechnique.Allows for monitoring of the true reactions of individuals.Unethical if disguised observation monitorso Normally private behaviors
  9. 9. o Behaviors that may not be voluntarily revealed to researchers.Mystery shoppingo popular disguised observational techniqueo Mystery shopper Unknown to the retail establishment Visits the store Uses a structured script Observes and records the shopping experience.No disguisedobservationData may be contaminated by respondent-induced errors.Data gathered through using disguised observation might not be as rich asthose from non-disguised observation.C.Human versus Mechanical ObservationHuman observationpeople taking observationsobserving products in use to detect usage patterns and problemsobserving license plates in store parking lotsdetermining the socio-economic status of shoppersdetermining the level of package scrutinydetermining the time it takes to make a purchase decisionEye-TrackingTacks eye movementso Measures which sections Attract customers attention how much time they spend looking at those sectionsUsed foro adso product packaging
  10. 10. o promotional displayso websitesoOculometers - what the subject is looking atPupil meters - how interested is the viewerResponse LatencyThe speed with which a respondent provides an answerMeasured to determine the ad effectiveness on brand preferences.Assumes that a quick expression of brand preference indicates a strongerpreference.Voice Pitch Analysis(VOPAN) -Used to determineo how strongly a respondent feels about an answero how much emotional commitment is attached to an answer.Variations from normal voice pitch is considered a measure of emotionalcommitment to the questions answer.People MeterElectronic device to monitor television viewing behavioro who is watchingo what shows are being watched.used by AC Nielsen CompanyPsych galvanometer measures galvanic skin responseD.Web-Based Observational TechniquesHTTPcookieWell-known mechanism for storing information about Internet users on their owncomputersOften stores identification for subsequent recognition of a Website visitor.Cookies and their use generally does not hide from usersConsidered ethical if the user gives permissionSpywareComputer software that gathers and reports information about a computer userwithout the users knowledge or consent.
  11. 11. Considered unethicalE.Direct versus Indirect ObservationDirect observation Captures actual behavior or phenomenon of interestIndirectobservationConsists of examining the results or consequences of the phenomenon.can give only relatively crude or imprecise indications of a phenomenonMore efficient use of timeMore efficient fund usageMay be the only way to get data from situations impractical to observedirectly.F.Structured versus Nonstructured ObservationStructured observationStudys data requirements areo well established ando can be broken into a set of discrete, clearly defined categoriesGenerally easier to record and analyzeLimited in the depth and richness of data.More suitable for conclusive research projectsNon-structuredobservationStudys data requirementso Not well establishedo cannot be broken into a set of discrete, clearly definedcategoriesMore suitable for exploratory research projects.G Other Types of Observational Techniques Auditsretail audits to determine the quality of service in storesinventory audits to determine product acceptanceshelf space auditsTrace Analysis
  12. 12. credit card recordscomputer cookie recordsgarbology - looking for traces of purchase patterns in garbagedetecting store traffic patterns by observing the wear in the floor (long term) or the dirt on thefloor (short term)exposure to advertisementsContent Analysisobserve either articles, programs, or advertising content ofo magazineso television broadcastso radio broadcastso newspapersWeb LinksGallop Leading research organizationHarris Interactive Leading research rates check out the privacy statements