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<ul><li>An instruction is a command given to the computer  to perform a specified operation on a given data. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>The CPU fetches one instruction from the memory at a time and execute it . It executes all the instructions of a p...
T3 T1 T2 T2 T1 T4 T3 Instruction Cycle Opcode Fetch Execute
<ul><li>The necessary steps carried out to perform the operation of accessing either memory or I/O device, constitute a ma...
<ul><li>One subdivision of an operation performed in one clock cycle is called a state or T-state. </li></ul><ul><li>The s...
M1 M2 Next instruction  cycle T3 T1 T2 T2 T1 T4 T3 Instruction Cycle Opcode Fetch Execute
<ul><li>The necessary steps which are carried out in a machine cycle can be represented graphically . Such a representatio...
<ul><li>In a fetch cycle the microprocessor fetches the opcode of an instruction from the memory </li></ul>
T1 T2 T3 T4
<ul><li>In a  memory read cycle the microprocessor reads the content of a memory location. </li></ul><ul><li>The content i...
 
<ul><li>In a memory write cycle the CPU sends data from the accumulator or any other register to the memory. </li></ul>
 
 
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presentation on timing diagram

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this presentation will tell you about opcode fetch ,memory read &memory write

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Transcript of "presentation on timing diagram"

  1. 2. <ul><li>An instruction is a command given to the computer to perform a specified operation on a given data. </li></ul><ul><li>To perform a particular task a programmer writes a sequence of instructions called a program. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>The CPU fetches one instruction from the memory at a time and execute it . It executes all the instructions of a program one by one to produce to the final result . </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction cycle consist of fetch and execute cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>In fetch cycle a CPU fetches opcode from the memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific operation in an instruction constitute an execute cycle. </li></ul><ul><li> IC=FC+EC </li></ul>
  3. 4. T3 T1 T2 T2 T1 T4 T3 Instruction Cycle Opcode Fetch Execute
  4. 5. <ul><li>The necessary steps carried out to perform the operation of accessing either memory or I/O device, constitute a machine cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary steps carried out to perform a fetch, a read or write operation constitute a machine cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>One basic operation such as opcode fetch, memory read, memory write ,I/O read , or I/O write. </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction cycle consist of several machine cycle. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>One subdivision of an operation performed in one clock cycle is called a state or T-state. </li></ul><ul><li>The subdivisions are internal states synchronized with the system clock . </li></ul><ul><li>So one clock cycle of the system is referred to as a state. </li></ul>
  6. 7. M1 M2 Next instruction cycle T3 T1 T2 T2 T1 T4 T3 Instruction Cycle Opcode Fetch Execute
  7. 8. <ul><li>The necessary steps which are carried out in a machine cycle can be represented graphically . Such a representation is called timing diagram . </li></ul><ul><li>Timing diagram: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opcode fetch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory write </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I/O Read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I/O write </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>In a fetch cycle the microprocessor fetches the opcode of an instruction from the memory </li></ul>
  9. 10. T1 T2 T3 T4
  10. 11. <ul><li>In a memory read cycle the microprocessor reads the content of a memory location. </li></ul><ul><li>The content is then placed either in the accumulator or any other register of the CPU. </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>In a memory write cycle the CPU sends data from the accumulator or any other register to the memory. </li></ul>
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