Presentation on structure,functions and classes
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Presentation on structure,functions and classes

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    Presentation on structure,functions and classes Presentation on structure,functions and classes Presentation Transcript

    •  
      • Arrays can be used to represent a group of data items that belong to the same type, such as int or float .
      • If we want to represent a collection of data items of different types using a single name then we cannot use an array.
      • The data type which we use is known as structure.
      • Structure is user defined data type.
      • struct struct_name
      • {
      • data_type member1;
      • data_type member2;
      • … …
      • };
      • //header files
      • #include<stdio.h>
      • #include<conio.h>
      • //Structure declaration
      • struct student
      • {
      • // data types & members
      • int rollno;
      • char name[20];
      • };
      • void main ()
      • {
      • struct student S1; // Structure variable
      • printf( “Input the name of student “ );
      • scanf( “%d” ,&S1.name);
      • printf( “Input the Roll number of student “ );
      • scanf( “%d” ,&S1.rollno);
      • printf( “name =%d“ S1.name);
      • printf( “Roll number=%d“ S1.rollno);
      • getch();
      • }
      • Input the name of student abc
      • Input the Roll number of student 1
      • name = abc
      • Roll number = 1
    • rollno name 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 21
      • Unions are a concept borrowed from structures and therefore follow the same syntax as structures .
      • There is a major difference between them in terms of storage .
      • A union may contain many members of different types ,it can handle only one member at a time.
      • union union_name
      • {
      • data_type member1;
      • data_type member2;
      • … …
      • };
      • //header files
      • #include<stdio.h>
      • #include<conio.h>
      • //Union declaration
      • union student
      • {
      • // data types & members
      • int rollno;
      • char name[20];
      • };
    • void main () { union student S1; // Union variable printf( “Input the name of student “ ); scanf( “%d” ,&S1.name); printf( “Input the Roll number of student “ ); scanf( “%d” ,&S1.rollno); printf( “name =%d“ S1.name); printf( “Roll number=%d“ S1.rollno); getch(); }
      • Input the name of student abc
      • Input the Roll number of student 1
      • name = abc
      • Roll number = 1
    • name rollno 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
      • Classes are same as structure but with a small difference ie. Structure are having data only(int or float) but classes are having data and functions together.
      • The class has a mechanism to prevent direct access to its members ,which is the central idea of object-oriented programming.
      • Classes are user defined data types.
      • In short structure + functions = classes.
      • A class definition begin with the keyword class.
      • The body of the class is contained with in the brace { };
      Class Data Functions
      • class <name of class>
      • {
      • private:
      • declaration of variables ;
      • declaration of functions ;
      • public:
      • declaration of variables ;
      • declaration of functions;
      • };
      • // Header files
      • #include<iostream.h>
      • #include<conio.h>
      • class student // class declaration
      • {
      • private:
      • int rollno; // data members
      • char name[20];
      • public:
      • void getdata(); // functions
      • // defining member function inside the class definition
      • void display()
      • {
      • cout<< “Name=“ <<name<<endl;
      • cout<< “Roll number=“ <<rollno<<endl;
      • }
      • };
      • // defining member functions outside the class definition
      • void student :: getdata()
      • {
      • cout<< “Input the name of student” ;
      • cin>>name;
      • cout<< “Input the roll number” ;
      • cin>>rollno;
      • }
      • main()
      • {
      • cout<< “We are in main function “ ;
      • student S1; // creat object S1
      • S1.getdata(); // call member function
      • S1.display(); // call member function
      • getch();
      • }
      • Input the name of student abc
      • Input the roll number 1
      • Name = abc
      • Roll number = 1
    •  
    •