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about classes ,ip address &domain names

about classes ,ip address &domain names



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Internet Internet Presentation Transcript

  • What is the Internet?
    • A network of network, joining many government university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail, file archives, hypertext documents and other computational resources.
  • Contd…
    • Computers on internet have a unique address - IP address
    • Network of networks connected using a common communication protocol (TCP/IP)
  • Contd…
    • The internet is a global network of computers and computer network communicating under one set of guidelines, formally called Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
  • How internet works?
    • Protocols – standardized rules that define how computers communicate and exchange data
    • IP address – unique number used to identify computers on internet
    • Domain name – structured naming system to locate computers on the internet
  • Contd…
    • URL – uniform naming scheme that specifies unique address of internet resources
    • Client and Server – computing architecture used by most internet services
  • Contd…
    • TCP/IP
        • The internet is a packet switching network that uses TCP/IP as its core protocol
        • TCP/IP is a suite of protocols that govern network addresses and the organization and packaging of the information to be sent over the internet
            • TCP-flow control $ recovery of packets
            • IP – addressing and forwarding of individual packets
  • Internet protocols
    • HTTP – for accessing and transmitting World Wide Web documents
    • FTP – for transferring files from one computer to another
    • Gopher Protocol – for accessing documents via Gopher menu
    • Telnet Protocol – allows users to login to a remote computer
    • SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) for sending and managing electronic mails(e-mail)
  • IP address
    • IP address is a unique address assigned to each computer connected to the internet
    • It is used by TCP/IP to route packets of information from sender to a location on the internet
    • IP address consist of four sets of numbers ranging from 0 to 255
    • E.g. -
  • Contd…
    • The first two numbers set designate the network
    • Third number set identifies local network
    • Fourth number set identifies the particular machine
    • There are two versions of IP:-
    • IPV4 e.g.
    • IPV6 e.g. 2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1
    • Static Address
    • Dynamic Address
  • contd….
    • Static Address
    • manually input by network administrator.
    • manageable for small networks .
    • requires careful check to avoid duplication.
  • Contd…
    • Dynamic Address
    • assigned on LANs and broadband networks by DHCP servers.
    • derived automatically from the range of addresses.
  • Various forms of IP Addresses
    • Decimal system with base 10.
    • Domain name system-By it own name.
    • DWORD format - Decimal number system.
    • Octal system - Base 8.
    • Hexadecimal - Base 16.
    • A cross breed – Combination of above two.
  • Domain names
    • Domain names are the alias or English language equivalent of computers IP addresses.
    • DNS allows the use of easier to remember domain names instead of IP addresses to locate computers on the internet
    • Domain Name resolvers scattered across the internet translate domain names into IP addresses
  • Contd…
    • Domain names have two parts:
          • First part names the host computer
          • Second part identifies the top level domain
        • Top level domains – identify the type of host
          • Country Code Top Level Domains
          • Generic Top Level Domain
        • Domain names are used in URLs and email addresses
  • Top Level Domains
      • .com - commercial/company site
      • edu/ac - educational/academic
      • .gov - government site
      • .org - non profit organizations
      • .mil - military sites
      • .int - international organizations
      • .net - network providers
  • Additional Top level Domains
    • .aero - restricted use by the air transportations industry
    • .biz - general use by businesses
    • .coop - restricted use by cooperatives
    • .info - general use by both commercial and non commercial sites
    • .museum - restricted use by museums
    • .name - general use by individuals
    • .pro - restricted use by certified professionals
  • DNS Tree
  • Working of D N S
  • References