Fibre optics by alina ramla mahira.


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Fibre optics by alina ramla mahira.

  1. 1. Fiber Optics Cable
  2. 2. What is Fiber optics Fibre Optics = Fibre + Optics Light Guided in Optical Fibre Communication system with light as the carrier and fiber as communication medium. Thin plastic glass
  3. 3. Structure Of Fibre Optics • • • Core Cladding Buffer Coating Higher Refractive Index Lower Refractive Index Mechanical Protection
  4. 4. Structure Of Fibre Optics  Core: Place in the centre of the fiber, this is where the light will travel.  Cladding: outer optical material that reflects the light back into the core.  Coating: Plastic buffer coating that protects the fiber.
  5. 5. Detail of Fibre Optics Cables • A thin and very fine strand of glass or plastic that carries light transmissions over long distance. • Fibre optics cables consist of one or more hair - thin filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective jacket. • They can conduct light pulse generated by lasers at transmission rate as high as 30billion bits per second this is about 60times greater than coaxial cables and 3000 times better than twisted pair wires. • Fibre optics also has a much lower data error rate than other media and its harder to tap than electrical wire and cable. • Fiber optic wire carries much more information than conventional copper wire and is far less subject to electromagnetic interference. Most telephone company long-distance lines are now fiber optic.
  6. 6. Classification of Fiber Optics • SPEED: Fiber optic networks operate at high speeds - up into the gigabits • BANDWIDTH: large carrying capacity • DISTANCE: Signals can be transmitted further without needing to be "refreshed" or strengthened. • RESISTANCE: Greater resistance to electromagnetic noise such as radios, motors or other nearby cables • MAINTENANCE: Fiber optic cables costs much less to maintain.
  7. 7. Types of Optical Fiber
  8. 8. Types of Optical Fiber • There are two types of Fiber Optics cables: 1. Singe Mode Cable:    Singlemode fiber generally is usable up to about 100KM (62 miles) without a repeater. Laser light transmitters normally are used to send information over singlemode fiber, because high light power is needed to reach long distances. Used to transmit one signal per fiber (Single Mode fibers are generally used for telephone and cable tv applications.)
  9. 9. Types of Optical Fiber 2. Multi Mode Cable • Used to transmit many signals per fiber. (Multi Mode fibers are generally used for computer networks, lan applications). Types Of Multi Mode Cables 1.In multimode step-index fiber The density of the core remains constant from the center to the edges. 2. In multimode graded-index fiber, Decreases the distortion of the signal through the cable.
  10. 10. Working of single and multi mode
  11. 11. Connectors for fiber Optics
  12. 12. Advantages of fiber Optics • • • • • • Higher bandwidth. Less signal attenuation. Immunity to electromagnetic interference. Resistance to corrosive materials. Light weight. Greater immunity to tapping.
  13. 13. Disadvantages of Fiber Optics • Installation and maintenance. Fiber-optic cable is a relatively new technology. Its installation and maintenance require expertise that is not yet available everywhere. • Unidirectional light propagation. Propagation of light is unidirectional. If we need bidirectional communication, two fibers are needed. • Cost. The cable and the interfaces are relatively more expensive than those of other guided media. If the demand for bandwidth is not high, often the use of optical fiber cannot be justified.