Companion Gardening By Susan Helterbran Champaign-Shelby County’s - Program Coordinator for the North Central Ohio Solid Waste District Serving Allen, Champaign, Hardin, Madison, Shelby & Union Counties
History of Pesticides• The first recorded use of insecticides was in 2500 B.C. by Sumarians, who used sulphur compounds to control insects and mites.• Controlling body lice in China with mercury and arsenical compounds in 1200 B.C.• Burning sulfur to kill insects in ancient Rome.• Controlling ants with honey and arsenic in 1600.
History of Pesticides• It was not until after WWII that pesticide popularity soared with the discovery of the effects of DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloro- ethane), BHC, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, and 2,4-D.• These products were effective and inexpensive with DDT being the most popular.
History of Pesticides• DDT was easy to use and it reduced insect-born diseases, like malaria, yellow fever, and typhus.• In the 1950’s and 1960’s, widespread resistance to DDT and other pesticides was documented.• In 1962, Rachel Carson’s book, Silent Spring, was released.• In 1970, President Nixon formed the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) and DDT was banned.
Future of Pesticides• If pesticides were banned in the U.S., it is estimated that 132,000 people would lose jobs, U.S. food aid programs to poor countries would slow, and worldwide hunger would increase.• A ban could hurt the environment in that farmers would need more farmland, thus in turn would ruin habitats.• Other countries with less strict or fewer regulations may increase pesticide usage to take advantage of the reduction of U.S. exports.• Banning pesticides would endanger public health, because pesticides have helped control diseases.
The Problem With Using Pesticides in Our Gardens• Pesticides Don’t Just Kill the Bad Bugs, They also Kill the Good Bugs.• More than 90% of Insects in Your Yard are Your Friends, Not Your Foes.• Ladybugs, lacewings, many kinds of flies and tiny wasps are an important natural pest control force.• Their larvae gobble up aphids and other pests or parasitize (the caterpillars that chew holes in the foliage of your flowers and vegetables). So How Can We Keep the Good Bugs and Get Rid of the True Garden Pest?
Re-Think The Way We Garden Nature Doesn’tPut Everything In Nice Neat Rows
The Three Sisters In The Garden Corn Bean Squash
Using Flowers As Pesticides • Some of the best flowers to start with are Alliums, Delphiniums, Geraniums, Lavender, Marigolds, Nasturtiums, Petunias, Sunflowers and Yarrow. • Planting these flowers in your or near your garden will attract the good insects, because the adult beneficial insects eat pollen, not bugs. • Buying a few packets of annual seeds and potted perennials is much more fun than buying pesticides and a sprayer.
ALLIUMS REPELS COMPANION WITH • Slugs • Tomatoes • Aphids • Peppers • Carrot Fly • Potatoes• Cabbage Worm • Broccoli • Rabbits • Carrots • Fruit Trees
DELPHNIUMS REPELS Do • Pick Japanese• Japanese Beetles off by hand Beetles and remove them from your garden. Don’t • Set Japanese Beetle traps with bait in your garden. • This will attract them to your garden.
There are many more flowers and herbs that can be used to deterpest as well as Natural Predators. • Birds • Toads • Frogs • Snakes • Pets
Attracting Natural Predators Preditor Birds Attracting Birds• Nuthatches, woodpeckers & • Consider their needs - chicakdees clean up larvae & Food, Shelter & Water eggs of gypsy moth and other • Allow flowers such as insects pest of trees. sunflowers, goldenrod, thistles• Many other birds devour weed or daises to go to seed. seeds like finches, juncos and • Provide a dusting spot for birds sparrows. (20 inches of bare sandy soil)• Barn swallows, purple martins, for birds to clean their feathers titmouse, wrens & cardinals, and get rid of parasites are all insect eating birds. • Put up nesting boxes or create a• Owls are effective hunters of brush pile to provide a hiding mice and rats. spots.• A bat (not a bird-but it can fly) • Provide a source of fresh water will eat up 1,200 mosquitoes in by adding a bird bath or shallow an hour. fountain to your garden.
Attracting Natural Predators Frogs, Toads & Snakes Why? OK How?• Amphibians and reptiles • Amphibians require moisture- add are mostly carnivorous, a low water source without steep preying on rodents, edges. insects and slugs. • Create a toad abode with rocks in a• Garter snakes are one of cool, shady spot in your garden. the majors predators of • Reptiles like warm sunny slugs. environments with lots of places to• One toad can eat well hide. over 1,000 earwigs in a • Provide a rock pile or logs around summer. your water source for them to hide and bask in the sun.
Pest In Your HouseMost information first suggest that you keep your house clean and remove/clean what is attracting them….HOW DO I HAVE TIME TO KEEP MY HOUSE CLEAN WHEN I’D RATHER BE WORKING IN MY GARDEN? Here are some suggested natural pest deterents • Cedar - Deter many pest • Eucalyptus - Spiders, Fleas, Moths and Flies • Cinnamon - Ants & Moths • Cucumber Peels - Ants • Bay Leaves - Flies & Ladybugs • Cloves - Moths & Flies • Lavender - Moths & Ticks • Citrus – Fleas
Here Is My Disclaimer? What I told you about today w ill require A Few More Sore Muscle A Little Bit More Sweat And More Time Outside In Your Garden
Instead of Weed Killer….Try This Old Fashion Tool
Benefits of Companion Gardening• Use of Flowers and Other Plants in Your Garden to Fight Pest, instead of Pesticides• Spending Your $$$$ on Beautiful, Healthy Garden instead of Pesticides.• Safer Garden for Your Kids or Grandkids and Pets.• Fresh, Pesticides Free Produce.• Spending More Time in Your Garden.