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# Geography topics 9 12

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### Geography topics 9 12

1. 1. Geography
2. 2. 1. Representations of the Earth
3. 3. Advantages and disadvantages of using: World map • Advantages: It represents the entire surface of the Earth. • Disadvantages: The representation of the earth surface on a ﬂat map distorts the shape and distance of some forms. !
4. 4. Advantages and disadvantages of using: Globe: • Advantages: it shows us distances, landforms, distributions and size of continents and oceans all without distortions. • Disadvantages: you can never see the entire surface of the earth and it is not easy to carry.
5. 5. SCALES Actual means "en la realidad" Here, 1 cm on the map represents 7,000 actual cm. This means: 1 cm on the map equals 70 meters in the real life Here, 1 cm on the map represents 500,000 actual cm. This means: 1 cm on the map equals 5000 meters in the real life. THIS MEANS: 5 km.
6. 6. Do you want to practice with scales? CLICK BELOW http://aograde6.blogspot.com.es/2013/11/practice-with-scales.html
7. 7. MORE GEOGRAPHY.........
8. 8. PARALLELS EQUATOR: it is the principal parallel, parallel 0º. PARALLELS ARE NUMBERED FROM THE EQUATOR TO THE POLES IN DEGREES 0º TO 90º NORTH or SOUTH.
9. 9. PARALLELS PARALLELS measure LATITUDE LATITUDE: is the distance between any point on the Earth to the equator. We talk about northern or southern hemisphere.
10. 10. MERIDIANS MERIDIANS: Imaginary lines that go from pole to pole. GREENWICH meridian is the principal meridian so we call it PRIME MERIDIAN.
11. 11. MERIDIANS MERIDIANS: are numbered in degrees from 0 to 180º EAST or WEST. Meridians measure LONGITUDE which is the distance between any point on the Earth and the Greenwich meridian.We talk about eastern or western hemisphere
12. 12. COORDINATES WHEN WE PUT THE LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE OF A PLACE TOGETHER WE HAVE THE COORDINATES OF THE LOCATION.
13. 13. WEBSITES ! http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dublin http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ushuaia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cape_Town http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anexo:Puntos_extremos_del_mundo
14. 14. 2. World maps: Oceans and continents
15. 15. 3. European continent: countries and capital cities
16. 16. 4. European Landscapes: climates and vegetation
17. 17. 5. Population in Spain and Europe
18. 18. Population The population is the number of people who live in a territory. It can grow because of the natural growth and the migratory balance. ! • Natural growth( crecimiento natural): it is the difference between the number of people who are born in an area ( birth rate) in one year and the number of people who die ( death rate) ! ! • Migratory balance ( saldo migratorio): it is the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. .
19. 19. Immigration or emigration? Emigrant: it is a person who leaves their country to live in another country. ! Immigrant: it is a person who comes to live in a foreign country
20. 20. Population density • It is the number of inhabitants per square kilometer. There is a formula to calculate: divide the number of inhabitants of a place by its surface area. Population density = n° inhabitants / surface area !
21. 21. Population in Europe • Europe has an ageing population: there are more elderly people than young people. Reasons for this: • Low birth rate: few babies are born. • Increasing life expectancy: on average about 74 years. • • Life expectancy: the average age people is expected to live to. In some countries, the births is less than the number of deaths, this is called NEGATIVE growth rate.