Characteristics of Microbes
• Prokaryote• microscopic, unicellular organisms• lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles
Bacterial Structures•   Flagella•   Pili•   Capsule•   Plasma Membrane•   Cytoplasm•   Cell Wall•   Lipopolysaccharides•  ...
How to Make a DichotomousKey From a Table of Bacterial       Characteristics (for use in running the minimum number of tes...
Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria      Organism                                       CharacteristicsAlcaligenes...
Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria    Alcaligenes faecalis       Mycobacterium smegmatis    Citrobacter freundi...
Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria      Organism                                       CharacteristicsAlcaligenes...
Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria      Organism                                       CharacteristicsAlcaligenes...
Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria               Alcaligenes faecalis       Mycobacterium smegmatis            ...
Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria      Organism                                       CharacteristicsAlcaligenes...
Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria                            Alcaligenes faecalis       Mycobacterium smegmati...
Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria      Organism                                       CharacteristicsAlcaligenes...
Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria                                 Alcaligenes faecalis       Mycobacterium sme...
Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria      Organism                                       CharacteristicsAlcaligenes...
Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria                                 Alcaligenes faecalis       Mycobacterium sme...
Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria      Organism                                       CharacteristicsAlcaligenes...
Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria                                 Alcaligenes faecalis       Mycobacterium sme...
Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria      Organism                                       CharacteristicsAlcaligenes...
Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria                                 Alcaligenes faecalis       Mycobacterium sme...
Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria      Organism                                       CharacteristicsAlcaligenes...
Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria                                 Alcaligenes faecalis       Mycobacterium sme...
Dichotomous key
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Dichotomous key

  1. 1. Characteristics of Microbes
  2. 2. • Prokaryote• microscopic, unicellular organisms• lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles
  3. 3. Bacterial Structures• Flagella• Pili• Capsule• Plasma Membrane• Cytoplasm• Cell Wall• Lipopolysaccharides• Teichoic Acids• Inclusions• Spores Chapter 4
  4. 4. How to Make a DichotomousKey From a Table of Bacterial Characteristics (for use in running the minimum number of tests in identifying an unknown bacterium)
  5. 5. Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism CharacteristicsAlcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeCitrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negativePseudomonas Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,fluorescens catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negativeStreptococcus Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative,pneumoniae galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negativeMycobacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactosesmegmatis fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeMycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negativeCorynebacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactosexerosis fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negativeAeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive
  6. 6. Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila
  7. 7. Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism CharacteristicsAlcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeCitrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negativePseudomonas Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,fluorescens catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negativeStreptococcus Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative,pneumoniae galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negativeMycobacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactosesmegmatis fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeMycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negativeCorynebacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactosexerosis fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negativeAeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive
  8. 8. Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism CharacteristicsAlcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeCitrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negativePseudomonas Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,fluorescens catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negativeStreptococcus Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative,pneumoniae galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negativeMycobacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactosesmegmatis fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeMycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negativeCorynebacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactosexerosis fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negativeAeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive
  9. 9. Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positiveAlcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatisCitrobacter freundii Mycobacterium lepraePseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosisAeromonas hydrophila Streptococcus pneumoniae
  10. 10. Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism CharacteristicsAlcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeCitrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negativePseudomonas Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,fluorescens catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negativeStreptococcus Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative,pneumoniae galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negativeMycobacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactosesmegmatis fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeMycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negativeCorynebacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactosexerosis fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negativeAeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive
  11. 11. Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positive Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Aeromonas hydrophila Streptococcus pneumoniae Galactose fermentation positive negativeAlcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundiiAeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens
  12. 12. Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism CharacteristicsAlcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeCitrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negativePseudomonas Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,fluorescens catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negativeStreptococcus Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative,pneumoniae galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negativeMycobacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactosesmegmatis fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeMycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negativeCorynebacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactosexerosis fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negativeAeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive
  13. 13. Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positive Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Aeromonas hydrophila Streptococcus pneumoniae Galactose fermentation positive negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production positive negativeAeromonas Alcaligeneshydrophila faecalis
  14. 14. Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism CharacteristicsAlcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeCitrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negativePseudomonas Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,fluorescens catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negativeStreptococcus Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative,pneumoniae galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negativeMycobacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactosesmegmatis fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeMycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negativeCorynebacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactosexerosis fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negativeAeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive
  15. 15. Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positive Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Aeromonas hydrophila Streptococcus pneumoniae Galactose fermentation positive negative Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production Litmus milk positive negative acid alkalineAeromonas Alcaligenes Citrobacter Pseudomonashydrophila faecalis freundii fluorescens
  16. 16. Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism CharacteristicsAlcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeCitrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negativePseudomonas Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,fluorescens catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negativeStreptococcus Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative,pneumoniae galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negativeMycobacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactosesmegmatis fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeMycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negativeCorynebacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactosexerosis fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negativeAeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive
  17. 17. Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positive Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Aeromonas hydrophila Streptococcus pneumoniae Galactose fermentation Acid-fast staining positive negative acid fast not acid fast Mycobacterium smegmatis Corynebacterium xerosis Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production Litmus milk positive negative acid alkalineAeromonas Alcaligenes Citrobacter Pseudomonashydrophila faecalis freundii fluorescens
  18. 18. Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism CharacteristicsAlcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeCitrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negativePseudomonas Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,fluorescens catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negativeStreptococcus Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative,pneumoniae galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negativeMycobacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactosesmegmatis fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeMycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negativeCorynebacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactosexerosis fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negativeAeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive
  19. 19. Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positive Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Aeromonas hydrophila Streptococcus pneumoniae Galactose fermentation Acid-fast staining positive negative acid fast not acid fast Mycobacterium smegmatis Corynebacterium xerosis Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production Litmus milk Catalase produced positive negative acid alkaline positive negativeAeromonas Alcaligenes Citrobacter Pseudomonas Mycobacterium Mycobacteriumhydrophila faecalis freundii fluorescens leprae smegmatis
  20. 20. Table of Characteristics for Eight Bacteria Organism CharacteristicsAlcaligenes faecalis Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, alkaline with litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeCitrobacter freundii Gram negative bacillus; acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose, catalase positive, non-motile, acid produced in litmus milk, not hemolytic, H2S negativePseudomonas Gram negative bacillus, acid-fast negative, does not ferment galactose,fluorescens catalase positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, hemolytic, H 2S negativeStreptococcus Gram positive oval coccus found as streptococci, acid-fast negative,pneumoniae galactose fermentation negative, catalase negative, non-motile, acid in litmus milk, hemolytic, H2S negativeMycobacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactosesmegmatis fermentation negative, catalase-negative,, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H 2S negativeMycobacterium leprae Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast positive, galactose fermentation negative, catalase-positive, non-motile, alkaline in litmus milk not hemolytic, H2S negativeCorynebacterium Gram positive club-shaped bacilli, acid-fast negative, galactosexerosis fermentation positive, non-motile, acid from litmus milk, catalase positive, not hemolytic, H2S negativeAeromonas hydrophila Gram negative bacilli, acid-fast negative, ferments galactose, catalase positive, motile, acid from litmus milk, not hemolytic, H 2S positive
  21. 21. Dichotomous Key to Identifying Eight Bacteria Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Gram stain negative positive Alcaligenes faecalis Mycobacterium smegmatis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Pseudomonas fluorescens Corynebacterium xerosis Aeromonas hydrophila Streptococcus pneumoniae Galactose fermentation Acid-fast staining positive negative acid fast not acid fast Mycobacterium smegmatis Corynebacterium xerosis Alcaligenes faecalis Citrobacter freundii Mycobacterium leprae Streptococcus pneumoniae Aeromonas hydrophila Pseudomonas fluorescens H2S production Litmus milk Catalase produced Hemolysis positive negative acid alkaline positive negative positive negativeAeromonas Alcaligenes Citrobacter Pseudomonas Mycobacterium Mycobacterium Streptococcus Corynebacteriumhydrophila freundii fluorescens faecalis leprae smegmatis pneumoniae xerosis
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