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TCO 7021 Internetworking      Multimedia          Lecture 1 Multimedia Communications
Contact                 Dr. Poo Kuan Hoong                khpoo@mmu.edu.my             FIT Building: Room BR4004          ...
Textbook and References   Textbooks     Fred Halsall, “Multimedia Communications”, Pearson,      2001.     S. Thomas, “...
Course Assessment   40% Final Examination   40% Assignment   20% Mid-Term Test       PLAGIARISM will not be tolerated a...
Course Objectives   To expose the principles and issues underlying    internetworking multimedia technologies as they are...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Learning Objectives             To understand and learn about the networking  ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Introduction             Multimedia communications embraces a range of        ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Introduction        1-8           FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia         Introduction        There are a number of different types of network that    ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Multimedia Networks           There are 5 basic types of communication network...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia         Telephone Networks        PSTN have been in existence for many years and have...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Telephone Networks        1-12           FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MUL...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Telephone Networks        1-13           FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MUL...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia         Data Networks        Data networks were designed to provide basic data       ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia         Data Networks        The Internet is made up of a vast collection of         ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia         Broadcast Television Networks        Broadcast TV networks were designed to s...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia         Integrated Services Digital         Networks (ISDN)        Deployed in the ea...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Integrated Services Digital        Networks (ISDN)           Broadband multise...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Integrated Services Digital        Networks (ISDN)           Data networks ope...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Multimedia Applications           There are many and varied applications that ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Interpersonal Communications           May involve speech, image, text, or vid...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Interpersonal Communications           Image - Alternative form of interperson...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Interpersonal Communications           Speech and video – eg. Video telephony ...
Interactive applications over theTCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Internet           Most widely used with a Wo...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Entertainment Applications              Can       be one of two parts :       ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Application & Networking        Terminology        1-39           FACULTY OF IN...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Communication Modes        1-40           FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MU...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Network Types           There are 2 types of information stream associated    ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Circuit Mode        1-42           FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDI...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Packet Mode           There are 2 types of packet mode network –            co...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Packet Mode           For CL, the establishment of a connection is not        ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Packet Mode           The service offered by a packet switched network is     ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Network QoS           The operational parameters associated with a communicati...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Circuit-switched network          If the probability of BER is P and number of...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Circuit-switched network        1-50           FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOG...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Packet-switched network           The QoS parameters associated with a packet-...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Packet-switched network        1-52           FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Application QoS           Depending on types of application, the QoS          ...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Application QoS        1-55           FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIM...
TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia        Summary           In this lecture, we have discussed:              The differ...
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  1. 1. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Lecture 1 Multimedia Communications
  2. 2. Contact Dr. Poo Kuan Hoong khpoo@mmu.edu.my FIT Building: Room BR4004 03-8312 5202 Consultation Hours: Wednesday: 2:00 pm – 4:00 pm Thursday: 2:00 pm – 4:00 pmFACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  3. 3. Textbook and References Textbooks  Fred Halsall, “Multimedia Communications”, Pearson, 2001.  S. Thomas, “ IPng and the TCP/IP Protocols: Implementing the Next Generation Internet”, 1996.  D. Messerschmitt, “Understanding Networked Applications: A First Course” , Morgan Kaufmann, 1999.  M. Rhee, “Internet Security”, Wiley, 2003. FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  4. 4. Course Assessment 40% Final Examination 40% Assignment 20% Mid-Term Test PLAGIARISM will not be tolerated and will be handled with seriously in this course FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  5. 5. Course Objectives To expose the principles and issues underlying internetworking multimedia technologies as they are today and as they are likely to evolve in the future. FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  6. 6. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Learning Objectives  To understand and learn about the networking evolution.  To understand the network types.  To discuss multimedia requirements in the communication systems.  To understand the basics of a multimedia communication system.  To illustrate multimedia networks.  To know the Internet protocol suite for multimedia communications. 1-6 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  7. 7. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Introduction  Multimedia communications embraces a range of applications and networking infrastructures.  The term “multimedia” is used to indicate that the information/data being transferred over the network may be composed of one/more media:  Text  Images  Audio  Video  Communications may be in the form of person-person communications or person-to-system communications 1-7 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  8. 8. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Introduction 1-8 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  9. 9. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Introduction  There are a number of different types of network that are used to provide the networking infrastructure eg. Public switched telephone network (PSTN)  Multimedia information is represented in various formats  Text : characters are represented by fixed number of binary digits (bits) known as codeword  Digitized image : 2-dimensional block known as picture element (pixel)  Digitized Audio/video : converted analog signal measured in bits per second which is normally compressed 1-9 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  10. 10. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Multimedia Networks  There are 5 basic types of communication networks  Telephone networks  Data networks  Broadcast television networks  Integrated services digital networks  Broadband multiservice networks 1-10 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  11. 11. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Telephone Networks  PSTN have been in existence for many years and have gone through many changes during this time.  Initially was designed to provide basic switched telephone service. 1-11 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  12. 12. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Telephone Networks 1-12 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  13. 13. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Telephone Networks 1-13 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  14. 14. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Data Networks  Data networks were designed to provide basic data communication services such as electronic mail (email) and general file transfers.  Equipment connected to such networks are computer, PC, workstations, or email/file server.  2 most likely deployed networks are X.25 network and the Internet.  X.25 network is restricted to low bit rate data applications and hence is unsuitable for most multimedia applications. 1-14 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  15. 15. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Data Networks  The Internet is made up of a vast collection of interconnected networks which use the same set of communication protocols.  Communication protocol is an agreed set of rules that are adhered to by all communicating parties for the exchange of information. 1-15 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  16. 16. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Broadcast Television Networks  Broadcast TV networks were designed to support the diffusion of analog TV (and radio) programs throughout wide geographical areas.  Large town/city the broadcast medium is normally a cable distribution network  Larger areas use satellite network or terrestrial broadcast network 1-17 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  17. 17. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN)  Deployed in the early 1980s to provide additional services to PSTN.  Convert the access circuits that connect user equipment to the network into all-digital form  Provide telephone call and data call services  With ISDN, the access circuit is known as digital subscriber line (DSL).  Digitization of a telephone quality analog speech signal produces constant bit rate binary system – bitstream of 64kbps 1-19 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  18. 18. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN)  Broadband multiservice networks were designed to support a wide range of multimedia communication applications.  The term “broadband” was used to indicate that the circuits associated with a call could have bit rates in excess of the maximum bit rate 2Mbps (30 X 64 kbps) provided by an ISDN. 1-20 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  19. 19. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN)  Data networks operate in packet mode.  A packet is a container for a block of data where the head of the packet contains address of the intended packet recipient.  For multimedia applications, binary stream is divided into fixed sized packets known as cells.  Different multimedia applications generate different cell streams of different rates thus asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks 1-22 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  20. 20. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Multimedia Applications  There are many and varied applications that involve multiple media types. In general, can be places into 3 categories:  Interpersonal communications  Interactive applications over the Internet  Entertainment applications 1-24 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  21. 21. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Interpersonal Communications  May involve speech, image, text, or video.  Some cases just a single type of medium while others two/more media types are integrated together.  Speech – uses the traditional PSTN  Alternatively can use multimedia PC with software – computer telephony integration (CTI)  Telephone over the internet is known as voice over IP (VoIP) 1-25 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  22. 22. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Interpersonal Communications  Image - Alternative form of interpersonal communications over a PSTN/ISDN is by using facsimile or fax.  Scan and digitize image of a document and transmit over the network.  Text – involving electronic mail (email)  Email server contains a mailbox for each user connected to a network. 1-28 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  23. 23. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Interpersonal Communications  Speech and video – eg. Video telephony  Requires higher bandwidth due to the integration of video and audio.  Some networks such as LANs and the Internet support multicasting.  Multicasting – transmission from any PCs/workstations belonging to a predefined multicast group are received by all the other members of the group. 1-31 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  24. 24. Interactive applications over theTCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Internet  Most widely used with a World Wide Web (WWW) or web.  The web consists of inter-linkage multimedia information servers that are geographically distributed around the Internet. 1-34 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  25. 25. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Entertainment Applications  Can be one of two parts :  Movie/video on-demand  Interactive TV 1-36 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  26. 26. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Application & Networking Terminology 1-39 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  27. 27. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Communication Modes 1-40 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  28. 28. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Network Types  There are 2 types of information stream associated with the different media types – continuous and block-mode  There are 2 types of communication channels – circuit mode (time-dependent) and packet mode (time varying)  Circuit mode is also synchronous communication channel since it provides a constant bit rate service  While packet mode is asynchronous communication channel as it provides variable bit rate service 1-41 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  29. 29. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Circuit Mode 1-42 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  30. 30. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Packet Mode  There are 2 types of packet mode network – connection oriented (CO) and connectionless (CL).  Comprises of packet switching exchanges (PSEs)  For CO, the connection is first set up utilizes only a variable portion of the bandwidth of each link and hence the connection is known as a virtual connection or virtual circuit 1-43 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  31. 31. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Packet Mode  For CL, the establishment of a connection is not required and the 2 communicating terminals/computers can communicate and exchange information as and when they wish.  In order to do this, each packet must carry the full source & destination address in its header in order for each PSE to route the packet onto appropriate outgoing link.  In CL, PSE is normally known as router 1-45 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  32. 32. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Packet Mode  The service offered by a packet switched network is best-effort service, depending of number of packets in the output queue, there will be some delays.  Router uses the store-and-forward method for packets delivery  The overall mean transfer delay of the packet across the network is know as mean packet transfer delay. 1-46 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  33. 33. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Network QoS  The operational parameters associated with a communication channel through a network as known as the network Quality of Service (QoS) parameters and collectively they determine the suitability of the channel for the user of a particular application.  For circuit-switched network, the QoS parameters associated with constant bit rate include:  The bit rate  The mean bit error rate (BER)  The transmission delay 1-48 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  34. 34. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Circuit-switched network  If the probability of BER is P and number of bits in a block is N, then assuming random errors, the probability of a block containing a bit error PB is given by: PB = 1- (1-P)N which is approx N X P (if N X P < 1) 1-49 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  35. 35. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Circuit-switched network 1-50 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  36. 36. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Packet-switched network  The QoS parameters associated with a packet- switched network include:  The maximum packet size  The mean packet transfer rate  The mean packer error rate  The mean packet transfer delay  The worst-case jitter  The transmission delay (Tp = distance/speed) 1-51 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  37. 37. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Packet-switched network 1-52 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  38. 38. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Application QoS  Depending on types of application, the QoS parameters include:  The required bit rate or mean packet transfer rate  The maximum startup delay  The maximum end-to-end delay  The maximum delay variation/jitter  The maximum round-trip delay 1-53 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  39. 39. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Application QoS 1-55 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
  40. 40. TCO 7021 Internetworking Multimedia Summary  In this lecture, we have discussed:  The different types of media that are used in multimedia applications  The different types of communication networks that are used to support these applications  A selection of the different types of application 1-56 FACULTY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY
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