What are you hoping to get out of this presentation?
This was on our proposal. Where did this 40% come from? TR 44 Halasz and Kempton (2000) conducted an email survey using various listservs and found that 70% (28 of 40) of responding institutions reported having a career course. Whiston, Sexton, and Lasoff (1998) examined 47 studies conducted between 1983 and 1995, including nine studies of career classes. Career classes followed individual and group counseling in effectiveness, but were ahead of group test interpretation workshops, computer interventions, counselor-free interventions, and other unclassified interventions. Career Courses were more effective than group test interpretation workshops, computer interventions, counselor-free interventions, & other unclassified interventions . Less effective than individual and group counseling. _________________________________________________________________________________
A review of the impact of college career courses can be framed in terms of the outputs and outcomes of this career intervention. These two concepts are part of the five basic elements of accountability in human service interventions, i.e., diagnosis, prescription, process, output, and outcome, which were discussed by Peterson and Burck (1982) in proposing an accountability model for human services programs. Outputs = skills, knowledge, and attitudes acquired by participants as the result of an intervention (Peterson & Burck, 1982). Examples: more positive career planning thoughts, increased career decidedness, vocational identity, internal locus-of-control, and career maturity. Outcomes = resultant effects occurring at some later point in time. Examples: job satisfaction, job performance ratings, course satisfaction, level of personal adjustment, deciding on a major, timely graduation from college, and cumulative GPA Ultimate value of career courses in higher education will probably be most affected by outcome research that documents the impact of courses on student retention in college and the quality of work and life roles after college. Outputs remain important in our understanding of outcomes, as they are inextricably linked or related. Tinto and Noel suggest that output variables, such as career indecision, may have a direct effect on outcomes, such as retention in college (Tinto, 1993; Noel et al, 1985).
Expected outcomes are based on the outputs. Here’s an example of the expected outcomes for FSU’s Introduction to Career Development Course.
40 studies of outputs (1970’s to present) 36 studies (90%) reported positive gains in measured output variables 4 studies (10%) reported no changes in output variables Reviewed 40 studies of career course outputs from 1970’s to present Output variables, such as career thoughts, career decision-making skills, career decidedness, and vocational identity, are theoretically related to outcomes of career interventions, such as persistence (retention) in college, and job satisfaction or satisfaction with field of study. Six outputs measured by the following standardized instruments: Career Maturity Inventory: career maturity output Career Development Inventory: occupational preference, knowledge of self and career, and career planning orientation Rotter’s Internal-External Locus-of-Control Scale: increased autonomy and self-reliance with career planning and decision making Career Decision Scale: increased career decidedness or reduced career indecision My Vocational Situation: clarity of vocational goals, interests, and personality Career Thoughts Inventory: career thoughts (DMC, CA, EC) 36 of the 50 studies reviewed used control or comparison groups to strengthen methodological rigor. Most studies used suitable and well-established measuring instruments in terms of reliability and validity. The findings of the majority of these studies are impressive in establishing evidence that career development courses tend to positively effect desired career development objectives or output variables, e.g., career planning thoughts, career decidedness, career decision-making ability, vocational identity, internal locus-of-control, vocational/career development maturity.
Reviewed 16 studies of career course outcomes from 1970’s to present Outcome variables associated with a career planning course include job satisfaction, selecting a major, course satisfaction, time to graduate from college, or cumulative GPA 14 studies (88%) reported positive gains in measured outcome variables 2 studies (12%) reported no changes in outcome variables Career courses have a positive impact on the cognitive functioning of students, and these courses also appear to have a positive impact on student outcomes, including satisfaction with career courses and increased retention in college. TR 44 includes a table that is a summary of career course studies from 1976-2005. The table includes: researchers, year, keywords that describe study, instruments used, design, sample size, findings.
Request review copies Comparison issues we encountered -Different layouts -Not always black and white When analyzing career texts, here are some factors to compare. (Provide handouts for our 4 examples) Draw examples from the handouts. As you can see with___________ book the purpose is _____________.
Options Rebinds: cut off binding of a traditional book, take out unwanted chapters, bind book back together (appendices stay same) Chapters from various texts of that publisher Custom course pack: You can choose articles or give publishing co. the topics and they pull current relevant articles Benefits -Author controls the content and the format. Can even be a variety of media (online with access code, cdroms, ebooks, kits, as well as anything else you can imagine [one psych. book comes with toys that relate to class presentations]) -Less expensive than adopting a standard text. -Royalties can be given to the school, scholarship funds, student groups, resources/equipment, department, or the author
Price -at least 100 copies (Kendall Hunt, Thomson ), another publisher said 200 (Wiley), Pearson said 300, Larger the print run = less $ -cover: have publisher create one (more expensive) vs. standard cover gallery (cheapest) Time Length of time varies based on publisher here is the range we got. Giving more time will allow you to have more time to review it before it’s on the shelf. Kendall Hunt: 98% of custom texts are published Project Coordinator/Developmental Editor will help you through the process (clear permissions, compile CD’s of info. that they feel are the best) Appendix will be adapted Wiley: Flush pagination & table of contents Appendix—can get them sent to you and then you can adapt them and post to your website *Address lack of reading: students seem to want only the information they need to know & some will not read the entire chapter, meet halfway—ex. With online book assignments can be in the book and can have a link that goes back to pages in the book that are directly related to assist students with understanding and integrating the content Online version = 60% off price of book Pearson: Online pick and choose chapters and build a book online
-Give handouts (with a few really creative examples and then lines for them to write ideas down. -Break into groups -Each group pick a member to write three of their most unique ideas on the flip chart. Using this PowerPoint break timer This PowerPoint slide uses images, custom animation, and timing to provide a countdown timer that you can use in any presentation. When you open the template, you’ll notice that the timer is set at 00:00. However, when you start the slide show, the timer will start at the correct time and count down by 1-minute intervals until it gets to 1 minute. At that point, it will count down in two 30-seconds intervals to 00:00. To insert this slide into your presentation Save this template as a presentation (.ppt file) on your computer. Open the presentation that will contain the timer. On the Slides tab, place your insertion point after the slide that will precede the timer. (Make sure you don't select a slide. Your insertion point should be between the slides.) On the Insert menu, click Slides from Files . In the Slide Finder dialog box, click the Find Presentation tab. Click Browse , locate and select the timer presentation, and then click Open . In the Slides from Files dialog box, select the timer slide. Select the Keep source formatting check box. If you do not select this check box, the copied slide will inherit the design of the slide that precedes it in the presentation. Click Insert . Click Close .
-We will have the complete list of their ideas and the ones we have compiled available on the Tech Center Website
After reviewing a series of meta-analyses, Brown & Krane suggest that when designing and evaluating the impact of a career course you should assess whether these components are included. -Goals: career and life -Individualized feedback = grades -Current information on risks. . . -Assistance in developing support networks for pursuing career aspirations
Before we talk specifically about our case study, lets take a look at the variability in career courses. Credit: variable, 1, 2, or 3, no credit Career planning vs. Job search focus (some schools have an exploratory course geared towards freshmen & sophomores & another course about job search strategies for junior and seniors) Career choice factors: v, i, s, assessment, decision making Career information Job-seeking techniques We found some courses that are specific to a certain fields/majors such as: -Social Service (Diablo Valley College) -Psychology (FSU) -Business (FSU used to have this) -Liberal Arts and Science (University of Kansas, Indiana University Bloomington) -Public Service (Portland State University) Fully integrated = integrated with Career Center These are some of the questions from the abstract that this slide covers: -Diversity of these different courses? -Do they deliver similar information? -How are they designed? Diversity of courses Information delivered Design Expected outcomes Innovative techniques Encourage growth of career development courses offered Resources that provide the most effective information Encourage new ways of thinking about career course delivery
Technology: ppts. Students can access online, piloting blackboard, CACGs, occupational information, online portfolios, Internet Job Search, website usage in class
Identified themselves as other
Team-taught: Taught by career counseling faculty, staff, graduate students in counseling and higher education, academic advisors Comprehensive: Assessment & career planning, as well as labor markets & employment (Unit I, II, III) Theory -Based on Cognitive Information Processing Theory -Incorporates Social Systems Theory & Holland’s RIASEC Theory
How each assignment contributes to the Strategic Academic Career Plan, Resume, and Cover Letter
50+ Activities 3 papers--expanding self and occupational knowledge Internet Job Search—sometimes in lab with active student participation and presentation Other Group Activities—analyze CASVE Scenarios, reframe negative thoughts, brainstorming negotiating & evaluating dilemma solutions, etc. Seminole Connection-Alumni Networking
Website takes you to the syllabus CC as course lab: research occupational info., critiques, CACG, lab activities, website usage in class
Sara’s wrap up: -Thank Carole Minor -All answer questions -Tech Center Website -Contact information in packets
1. Thinking Outside the Books… Getting creative with texts and techniques in your career planning course Beth Lulgjuraj, MS/EdS Liz Ruff, MS/EdS Sara Cummings, BS The Career Center Florida State University NCDA Conference, July 2006
2. Overview <ul><li>Why is this Important? </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Career Courses </li></ul><ul><li>Choosing a Career Text </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul>
4. History of Career Courses <ul><li>Many career development courses covered three major areas: (Devlin, 1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Career choice factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job-seeking techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research of outcomes and outputs </li></ul><ul><li> (Folsom et al, 2005) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scarce until the 1970s and early 1980s </li></ul></ul>
5. Why is this Important? <ul><li>Email survey using listservs (Halasz & Kempton, 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% (28 of 40) institutions reported having a career course </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examination of 47 studies (Whiston et al, 1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classes were more effective than most interventions </li></ul></ul>
6. Effects of Career Courses
7. Outputs & Outcomes Defined (Peterson & Burck, 1982) <ul><li>Outputs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills, knowledge, and attitudes acquired by participants as the result of an intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outcomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resultant effects occurring at some later point in time </li></ul></ul>
8. Outputs Leading to Outcomes (Reardon et al, 2001) Effectiveness of Services Prescription Unit II: Social Conditions Affecting Career Development Diagnosis Process Outputs Outcomes Need for Career Service Career Development Course Unit I: Career Concepts and Applications Self-Knowledge Retention to Graduation Occupational Knowledge Less Time Taken to Graduate Unit III: Implementing a Strategic Career Plan Career Decidedness Less Credits Taken to Graduate Effective Career Plan Implementation Higher Cumulative GPA Reduced Course Withdrawals
9. Output Findings (Folsom et al, 2005) <ul><li>40 studies (1970s to 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>90% (36) reported positive gain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More positive career planning thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased career decidedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher vocational identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus-of-control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Career maturity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>10% (4) reported no changes </li></ul>
10. Outcome Findings (Folsom et al, 2005) <ul><li>16 studies (1970’s to 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>88% (14) reported positive gains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job performance ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of personal adjustment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding on a major </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timely graduation from college </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative GPA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>12% (2) reported no changes </li></ul>
11. Choosing a Career Text
12. Analysis of Career Texts <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Topics covered </li></ul><ul><li>Theory/conceptual base </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional support </li></ul>
13. Authors’ Comments <ul><li>“ We emphasized that if students did not believe in themselves, they would not actually follow through with all the research they had done in class.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ We have added a section on getting financial aid and becoming better at financial decision making (Financial Fitness) into the decision making chapter.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Instructors can use it as a 3 unit 16 week or 18 week semester textbook or split it into Self Assessment, World of Work Awareness, and Job Search Strategy sections...” </li></ul><ul><li>- Lisa Raufman </li></ul>
14. Authors’ Comments <ul><li>“ The text is aimed at undergraduate students in colleges and universities, including all levels and disciplines.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Over its lifetime, the text has been used in about 40 schools…Some in business have used the text in BS and MBA courses in human resources… Some counselor educators have used it as supplemental text for beginning graduate students in counseling.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is assumed that students will be motivated to learn the material, and have appropriate cognitive and academic skills. They may be facing educational or work decisions related to their careers.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Robert Reardon </li></ul>
15. Authors’ Comments <ul><li>“ The book … is designed to be used as a textbook in a course or series of workshops, by an individual, or by a counselor working with a client...” </li></ul><ul><li>“ For example, several chapters deal with transitions, making decisions, taking risks, and getting assistance from others in making career and life decisions…deals with various components of work satisfaction and takes the reader through a variety of steps that can lead to specific changes that can enhance one’s present job…‘Create a Lasting Lifestyle’ deals with a variety of lifestyle issues, including health, friendships, financial planning, and a ‘lifestyle checkup’.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Fred Hecklinger </li></ul>
16. Authors’ Comments <ul><li>“ This book can be a great help in your survey of the occupational environment as well as in an examination of the personality that makes you a unique individual.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The books are intended to be used by students as comprehensive texts in career-planning courses or by individuals with the help of a counselor.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Robert Lock </li></ul>
17. Custom Publishing <ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebinds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take chapters from various texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a specialized book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course pack of articles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific to your objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Royalties </li></ul></ul>
20. To start the timer, on the Slide Show menu, click View Show . Delete this textbox before using this slide in a presentation. Group Activity
21. Creative Presentation Ideas <ul><li>For ideas, go to: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.career.fsu.edu/techcenter </li></ul>
22. Career Course Effectiveness (Brown & Krane, 2000) <ul><li>Effective career courses provide. . . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity to clarify goals in writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualized interpretations & feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about risks & rewards of career fields & occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of models/mentors who exhibit effective career behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistance in developing support networks </li></ul></ul>
23. Diversity of Career Courses (Folsom et al, 2005) <ul><li>Structured vs. Open-ended format </li></ul><ul><li>Career planning vs. Job search focus </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized vs. Nonspecific audience </li></ul><ul><li>Stand-alone vs. Fully integrated format </li></ul><ul><li>Credit vs. No credit </li></ul><ul><li>1 st year vs. Upper division </li></ul><ul><li>Elective vs. Required course </li></ul><ul><li>Career counseling staff vs. Faculty </li></ul>
24. Case Study <ul><li>“ I like the fact that this class is designed for anyone looking for a career.” “ I wouldn’t change anything about the course.” “Great course--GREAT INSTRUCTOR” “ I liked that we got into small groups and that we had a lot of activities.” “Very helpful tips on decision-making & seeking/preparing for employment” “I had to actually examine the state of my life and really contemplate my future . . . it was not the most pleasant experience but necessary.” “I value everything I learned. . .” </li></ul>
25. Students’ Perspectives <ul><li>Why are you taking this class? </li></ul>
26. Case Study <ul><li>Demographics of students </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional design </li></ul><ul><li>Activities and assignments </li></ul>
27. Demographics (2005) <ul><li>Sample </li></ul><ul><li> 247 undergraduate students </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li> Female = 102, 41.3% </li></ul><ul><li> Male = 145, 58.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li> African American 15.8% Asian American 1.6% </li></ul><ul><li> Hispanic American 12.1% Caucasian 67.6% </li></ul><ul><li> “ Other” 2.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li> Freshmen 13% Sophomores 32.4% </li></ul><ul><li> Juniors 23.9% Seniors 30.1% </li></ul>
28. Students’ Perspectives <ul><li>What do you think about the way the class is designed? </li></ul>
29. Instructional Design <ul><li>12 sections/yr (28-30 students/class) </li></ul><ul><li>Variable credit </li></ul><ul><li>Elective course </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor-student ratio = 1:7-10 </li></ul><ul><li>Team-taught instruction model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Career Center as course lab </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive in scope </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul>
30. Students’ Perspectives <ul><li>Tells us what you thought about the assignments. </li></ul>
31. Self Directed Search Autobiography Skills Assessment Career Thoughts Inventory Instructor Conference Final Individual Action Plan SIGI+ or Discover CFA Paper Information Interview Reports Draft Resume Strategic Academic Career Plan Final Cover Letter Final Resume Sequence of Assignments Draft Individual Action Plan CFA Worksheet Review SDS Interpretive Report & Skills Assignment Choices Draft Cover Letter Information Interviews Unit III Unit II Unit I
33. Students’ Perspectives <ul><li>What did you get out of taking this class? </li></ul>
34. For More Information . . . http://www.career.fsu.edu/student/current/choose_a_major/sds_3340/syllabus.html
35. Comments from Dr. Carole Minor
36. Questions ?
37. References <ul><li>Brown, S. D., & Krane, N. E. R. (2000). Four (or five) sessions and a cloud of dust: Old assumptions and new observations about career counseling. In S. B. Brown & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology (3 rd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Devlin, T. (1974, Summer). Career development courses: An important part of the counselor’s repertoire. Journal of College Placement , 62-68. </li></ul><ul><li>Folsom, B., Reardon, R., & Lee, D. (June 28, 2005 ). The effects of college career courses on learner outputs and outcomes (technical report No. 44). Tallahassee, FL: Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development, Florida State University. </li></ul><ul><li>Halasz, T. J., & Kempton, C. B. (2000). Career planning courses and workshops (pp. 157-170). In D. A. Luzzo (Ed.), Career counseling of college students: An empirical guide to strategies that work . Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Hecklinger, F.J., & Black, B.M. (2006). Training for Life: A Practical Guide to Career and Life Planning (9th ed.). Kendall Hunt. </li></ul><ul><li>Lock, R. D. (2005). Taking Charge of Your Career Direction: Career Planning Guide, Book 1 (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning. </li></ul>
38. References <ul><li>Lock, R. D. (2005). Job Search: Career Planning Guide, Book 2 (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Peterson G. W., & Burck, H. D. (1982). A competency approach to accountability in human service programs. Personnel & Guidance Journal, 60 , 491-495. </li></ul><ul><li>Reardon, R., & Folsom, B. (March, 2001). The Effects of Career Courses on Learners and Colleges . American College Personnel Association, Boston. </li></ul><ul><li>Reardon, R.C., Lenz, J.G., Sampson, J.P., & Peterson, G.W. (2006). Career Development and Planning: A Comprehensive Approach (2nd ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson Learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Sukiennik, D., Bendat, W., & Raufman, L. (2007). The Career Fitness Program (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Whiston, S. C., Sexton, T. L., & Lasoff, D. L. (1998). Career-intervention outcome: A replication and extension of Oliver and Spokane (1988). Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45 , 150-165. </li></ul>