History of CALL

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  • 1. History of CALL: Other histories of CALL The 40s: The war years- Vannevar Bush and Memex The 50s: Preparing the ground Rocío Bolado Alfredo Urbiola September 30, 2008
  • 2. Other histories of CALL
    • Two categories
    • Properly researched, objective historical accounts.
    • Interpretative; more subjective conclusions about advances and trends in the field.
  • 3. Other histories of CALL
    • Kurshid Ahmad et al.(1985) – category 1; early history of the field.
    • John R. Russell (1995) – category 1; history of CALL in North America.
    • Warschauer (LLT Journal, Hawaii) – category 2; evolution of CALL, three trends
    • Mike Levy (2000) – category 1; review of 40 years in the field
  • 4. Other histories of CALL
    • History of CALL  series of phases led by technological considerations
    • linguists
    • never –really– in control
  • 5. The 40s: The war years- Vannevar Bush and Memex
    • Influence of WW2 in technology
    • 1st demonstration of communication data at distance (NY – Hannover) – January, 1940
    • “ Memoranding regarding Memex” published by Bush – March, 1941
  • 6. The 40s: The war years- Vannevar Bush and Memex
    • The bases of the computer are established, “First draft of a report on the EDVAC” by Von Neumann – June 1945
    • “ A Top US scientist foresees a possible future in which man-made machines will start to think” by Bush – November 1945
    • Construction of the Mark 1 –first main-frame computer by Max Newman – 1948; Great Britain
  • 7. The 50s: Preparing the ground
    • The magnetic band of the BINAC – 1950
    • Development of SAGE, military network
    • Development of UNIVAC (fast printer) – 1951
    • IBM 650, first computer sold on large scale – 1954
    • SABRE, commercial network and database by IBM – 1955
    • RAMAC 305, first magnetic disk by IBM – 1956
    • FORTRAN, 1st universal computer language – 1957
  • 8. The 50s: Preparing the ground
    • ARPA, development for the Internet and processing standard, USA – 1958
    • First integrated circuit by J. Kilby – 1958
    • Introduction of the notions of interactivity, interface and the mouse by Douglas Engelbart at the SRI – 1958-1962
    • LISP, 1st language for AI by John McCarthy, MIT – 1959
    • Alleged appearance of the first CALL program – 1959