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    • http://compartiroposingles.bigforumpro.com/t4-a-brief-history-of-teaching-approaches-and-methodsA Brief History of Teaching Approaches and Methods Admin el Mar Feb 19, 2008 12:26 pm2. A Brief History of Teaching Approaches and Methods -The Grammar-Translation Method. In the 18th century foreign languages started to appear onthe school curricula, requiring a systematic approach to teaching them. The standard systemwas similar to the system for teaching Latin. Rather than speaking, the goal was for students tobe able to read literature in the target language, and benefit from the mental discipline ofstudying a language. Textbooks combined abstract grammar rules, vocabulary lists withtranslations, and sentences for students to translate. Sentences were chosen to illustrategrammar, with no relation to actual communication. During lessons, the teacher presentedgrammar structures, rules were studied, and the students worked through translationexercises. Grammar-Translation was influential until the 1950’s. Often the frustration oflanguage learners who experienced this method is that they spent years studying, but stillcould not speak the language.The Direct Method achieved worldwide publicity through Berlitz, since Maximilian Berlitz hadcreated a form of this method. An increase in travel in the second half of the 19th centurycreated the need to speak languages. It was noted (not for the first time) that children learn tospeak with no reference to grammar at all. The Direct Method put proficiency in speaking thelanguage at the top of the agenda and was the first of many ‘natural’ methods that claim toteach a second language the way first languages are learned. Lessons were taught exclusivelyin the target language. Teachers were usually native speakers and used a lot of demonstration,pictures, gestures, and association of ideas to make meaning clear. The goal was to build upcommunication skills through question and answer drills between teacher and student, andthere was a carefully graded progression from simple grammar structures to more complex.Grammar was taught through the use of examples chosen to help the student ‘work out’ therules and there was a focus on everyday vocabulary. The role of the teachers was veryimportant as they were expected to go to any length to avoid translation, and there was verylittle use of textbooks or the written word in class. In class, there was plenty of drilling andcorrection, no translation, and no rules. The Direct Method was influential into the1950’s and beyond. Its principles are still significant in language teaching today, but there isnow much more emphasis on student-centered instruction, and a greater understanding ofhow to build communicative competence, other than through drilling correct forms.
    • The Audiolingual Method. In the 1960s both Grammar-Translation and the Direct Methodwere questioned as applied linguistics became a mature discipline. US entry into the secondWorld War created the need to teach oral proficiency in foreign languages quickly to troops.Behavioral psychology also influenced the development - speech was just another habit to beacquired. No rules, no need to even comprehend (at least not at first). Dialogues and drillsform the basis of classroom activities according to the Audiolingual Method: dialogues areused for repetition and memorization, and then specific grammatical patterns in the dialogueare selected and become the focus of between 10 and 15 possible types of drill exercise. Whilethe role of the students is almost entirely reactive, and they have little control over thecontent, pace, or style of learning, the role of the teacher is central and active. The teachermodels, controls the direction and pace of the lesson, and monitors responses to correct allmistakes. The teacher would focus on pronunciation, intonation and fluency, and wouldcorrect immediately. Principles of Audiolingualism can still be identified in the type of “learn-in-a-month” programs that promise “You listen, you repeat, you understand!” Today there isgreater understanding of the student’s role in learning, and the need for real communicationas a key aspect in language learning.In the 1970s the humanistic values that informed the times led to a series of methods thatfocused more fully on the learners’ needs and abilities:The Silent Way(Developed by Caleb Gattegno)Gattegno saw foreign language learning as an intellectually engaging process of problemsolving and discovery. The teacher remains silent and guides the learning process whileresponsibility for working out the rules falls on the learner. In silence, the student concentrateson the task to be accomplished. Colored Cuisenaire Rods and various charts were used toguide the students - these rods might represent key points of the lesson, e.g., language itemsor the actors in a story.Community Language Learning(Devised by American psychologist Charles Curran)Community Language Learning was based on humanistic counseling techniques. The groupdecides what happens with the teacher, or ‘knower’, in the role of consultant. In the group,one student begins a conversation with another by saying something in their native language –this is then translated by the instructor, and the first speaker repeats this statement orquestion in the target language, saying it to the person he was talking to and into a taperecorder.
    • Suggestopedia(Developed by Georgi Lozanov)By inducing a relaxed but aware mental state in the learner through the use of music,classroom décor, and ritualized teacher behavior, Lozanov claimed that the power of memorycould be optimized. The students should assume a ‘pseudo-passive’ state. The instructor wasexpected to dress immaculately, behave solemnly throughout, create situations wherestudents were most ‘suggestible’, and then present material in a way that encouragesretention.While it is rare for any of these methods to be used today as the exclusive method for aparticular language teaching institution, quite a few of their techniques, or principles, havebeen incorporated within current language teaching. For example,• Student-centered instruction,• Cuisenaire rods remain a useful and effective tool in teaching,• Creating a relaxed and stimulating learning environment.Total Physical Response was also developed in the 1970’s. TPR is ‘natural’ method developedby psychologist James Asher based on the observation that children learn in stress-freeenvironments by responding physically to commands before they start speaking. Asher madeclear that TPR should be used in association with other methods and teaching techniques.The method was built around the coordination of speech and action – TPR tries to teachlanguage through physical activity. Asher believed also that if a method is undemanding andinvolves game like functions, this creates a positive mood in the learners, facilitating learning.While the first role of the students is to listen and perform, they are encouraged to speakwhen they feel ready. Gesture, use of voice, and mime are very important. An example of alesson might start with a fast paced review activity in which students respond to commandslike, ‘Pablo, drive your car around Miako and honk your horn. Jeffrey, throw the red flower toMaria…’ New commands would be introduced with lots of demonstration, e.g. ‘Wash yourhands! Wash your face!, Look for a towel! Look for a comb!’TPR techniques are used within a variety of current approaches and methods and are effectiveand fun, e.g., for Kids’ language instruction. Stephen Krashen’s hypotheses on languageacquisition reinforced TPR and Asher’s claim that what you understand you will later produceautomatically.
    • The Communicative Approach grew out of sociolinguistics in the 1970s and the view that thereis more to communication than just grammar and vocabulary. Communication involves‘communicative competence’ – the ability to make yourself understood in socially appropriateways. The claim is that L2 is learned best when the students try to communicate, i.e., to saysomething that they really want or need to say. Nowadays most teachers and students takethe need for real communication in class for granted, but English as a Foreign Language (EFL)history clearly shows that this has not always been the case! Within the CommunicativeApproach itself the precise role of communication is debated. The so-called ‘weak’ form of theapproach sees communicative activities as opportunities for students to practice new languageand develop fluency. A weak version of language teaching using this approach might simplymean adding more opportunities to communicate to a traditional grammar based curriculum.The ‘strong’ Communicative Approach on the other hand states that language is acquiredthrough communication. It is not just a question of using communicative activities to activatepassive knowledge of the language that has been pre-taught at an earlier stage. The belief isthat communicative confidence only develops if students are thrown in at the deep end andrequired to carry out tasks that demand real-life communication. Rather than a communicativeactivity being a chance for students to show what they can do or to use what they havelearned, it is through working on a task that the students learn what they need.It is impossible to make sense of current EFL teaching, especially in the west, withoutreference to the Communicative Approach. The weak Communicative Approach has had themost far-reaching impact on the EFL world, probably because its acceptance meant adaptingrather than rejecting existing materials and methodology. The strong CommunicativeApproach has been very influential in the development of Task Based Learning.The 1980s saw the Natural Approach, and with it linguist Stephen Krashen’s seminal views onhow languages are learned. Krashen claimed that language learning is a subconscious processof acquisition. Only exposure to language we understand (comprehensible input) can activatethis acquisition process. Krashen argued that consciously learned language – gained throughformal study - acts as a monitor, allowing people to self-correct and ‘edit’ their speech.Because of the belief that through the process of acquisition, students will begin to uselanguage in their own time, errors and all, students are not expected to start speaking untilthey are ready - when they are ready, they will naturally do so. Teachers adhering to theNatural Approach expose their students to as much comprehensible input as they can, bysetting up activities and situations where students can work out meaning from context.Interactive class activities focus on meaning rather than reacting to form.Many now contest the idea that formal study cannot lead to acquisition, but the concept hastaken such a firm foothold in EFL thinking that whether or not acquisition takes place is one ofthe main criteria used to judge methods past and present.
    • Krashen’s acquisition theory also provides a rationale for Immersion Teaching, which is anapproach that has developed to meet the linguistic needs of people who live in bilingualcommunities, and Content Teaching, which is the idea that language can be learned throughstudying another subject like cookery.Within the Immersion approach, students study subjects in both languages from the day theystart school, often with no formal language teaching at all.Within Content Teaching, students study subjects of interest, e.g., cooking, in the foreignlanguage.Task-Based Learning, one of the most talked-about recent methods, can be traced back to the‘strong’ Communicative Approach, where teaching is done entirely through communicativetasks. There is no set grammar syllabus. Focusing on language use after a task has beencompleted is widely accepted as an aid to acquisition, and task repetition gives students thechance to practice new language.What are tasks? ‘Tasks’ are a feature of everyday life – in daily life, a task might be shifting awardrobe from one room to another or planning the budget for the next financial year. In theclassroom, communication is always part of the process, whether the task involves creativity,problem solving, planning, or completing a transaction. Students become actively involved incommunication and focus on achieving a particular goal. They have to comprehend, negotiate,express ideas, and get their message across in order to reach that goal. Bringing tasks into theclassroom puts the focus of language learning on the meaning and the goal, rather than on theform of the communication. ‘Real life’ tasks for students might even be selected to make acourse relevant to particular students.As techniques from Task-Based Learning start to find their way onto teacher training programs,it is likely to have an increasing influence on teaching in the future. The question many haveasked is whether it will revolutionize teaching or remain a useful addition to the informedteacher’s repertoire.Fecha de inscripción: 17/02/2008http://compartiroposingles.bigforumpro.com/t4-a-brief-history-of-teaching-approaches-and-methods A Brief History of Teaching Approaches and Methods Admin el Mar Feb 19, 2008 12:26 pm2. A Brief History of Teaching Approaches and Methods -
    • The Grammar-Translation Method. In the 18th century foreign languagesstarted to appear on the school curricula, requiring a systematic approach toteaching them. The standard system was similar to the system for teaching Latin.Rather than speaking, the goal was for students to be able to read literature in thetarget language, and benefit from the mental discipline of studying a language.Textbooks combined abstract grammar rules, vocabulary lists with translations, andsentences for students to translate. Sentences were chosen to illustrate grammar,with no relation to actual communication. During lessons, the teacher presentedgrammar structures, rules were studied, and the students worked throughtranslation exercises. Grammar-Translation was influential until the 1950‟s. Oftenthe frustration of language learners who experienced this method is that they spentyears studying, but still could not speak the language.The Direct Method achieved worldwide publicity through Berlitz, since MaximilianBerlitz had created a form of this method. An increase in travel in the second half ofthe 19th century created the need to speak languages. It was noted (not for thefirst time) that children learn to speak with no reference to grammar at all. TheDirect Method put proficiency in speaking the language at the top of the agendaand was the first of many „natural‟ methods that claim to teach a second languagethe way first languages are learned. Lessons were taught exclusively in the targetlanguage. Teachers were usually native speakers and used a lot of demonstration,pictures, gestures, and association of ideas to make meaning clear. The goal was tobuild up communication skills through question and answer drills between teacherand student, and there was a carefully graded progression from simple grammarstructures to more complex. Grammar was taught through the use of exampleschosen to help the student „work out‟ the rules and there was a focus on everydayvocabulary. The role of the teachers was very important as they were expected togo to any length to avoid translation, and there was very little use of textbooks orthe written word in class. In class, there was plenty of drilling and correction, notranslation, and no rules. The Direct Method was influential into the 1950‟s andbeyond. Its principles are still significant in language teaching today, but there isnow much more emphasis on student-centered instruction, and a greaterunderstanding of how to build communicative competence, other than throughdrilling correct forms.The Audiolingual Method. In the 1960s both Grammar-Translation and the DirectMethod were questioned as applied linguistics became a mature discipline. US entryinto the second World War created the need to teach oral proficiency in foreignlanguages quickly to troops. Behavioral psychology also influenced the development- speech was just another habit to be acquired. No rules, no need to evencomprehend (at least not at first). Dialogues and drills form the basis of classroomactivities according to the Audiolingual Method: dialogues are used for repetitionand memorization, and then specific grammatical patterns in the dialogue are
    • selected and become the focus of between 10 and 15 possible types of drillexercise. While the role of the students is almost entirely reactive, and they havelittle control over the content, pace, or style of learning, the role of the teacher iscentral and active. The teacher models, controls the direction and pace of thelesson, and monitors responses to correct all mistakes. The teacher would focus onpronunciation, intonation and fluency, and would correct immediately. Principles ofAudiolingualism can still be identified in the type of “learn-in-a-month” programsthat promise “You listen, you repeat, you understand!” Today there is greaterunderstanding of the student‟s role in learning, and the need for realcommunication as a key aspect in language learning.In the 1970s the humanistic values that informed the times led to a series ofmethods that focused more fully on the learners‟ needs and abilities:The Silent Way(Developed by Caleb Gattegno)Gattegno saw foreign language learning as an intellectually engaging process ofproblem solving and discovery. The teacher remains silent and guides the learningprocess while responsibility for working out the rules falls on the learner. In silence,the student concentrates on the task to be accomplished. Colored Cuisenaire Rodsand various charts were used to guide the students - these rods might representkey points of the lesson, e.g., language items or the actors in a story.Community Language Learning(Devised by American psychologist Charles Curran)Community Language Learning was based on humanistic counseling techniques.The group decides what happens with the teacher, or „knower‟, in the role ofconsultant. In the group, one student begins a conversation with another by sayingsomething in their native language – this is then translated by the instructor, andthe first speaker repeats this statement or question in the target language, sayingit to the person he was talking to and into a tape recorder.Suggestopedia(Developed by Georgi Lozanov)By inducing a relaxed but aware mental state in the learner through the use ofmusic, classroom décor, and ritualized teacher behavior, Lozanov claimed that thepower of memory could be optimized. The students should assume a „pseudo-passive‟ state. The instructor was expected to dress immaculately, behave solemnlythroughout, create situations where students were most „suggestible‟, and thenpresent material in a way that encourages retention.
    • While it is rare for any of these methods to be used today as the exclusive methodfor a particular language teaching institution, quite a few of their techniques, orprinciples, have been incorporated within current language teaching. For example,• Student-centered instruction,• Cuisenaire rods remain a useful and effective tool in teaching,• Creating a relaxed and stimulating learning environment.Total Physical Response was also developed in the 1970‟s. TPR is „natural‟method developed by psychologist James Asher based on the observation thatchildren learn in stress-free environments by responding physically to commandsbefore they start speaking. Asher made clear that TPR should be used in associationwith other methods and teaching techniques.The method was built around the coordination of speech and action – TPR tries toteach language through physical activity. Asher believed also that if a method isundemanding and involves game like functions, this creates a positive mood in thelearners, facilitating learning. While the first role of the students is to listen andperform, they are encouraged to speak when they feel ready. Gesture, use of voice,and mime are very important. An example of a lesson might start with a fast pacedreview activity in which students respond to commands like, „Pablo, drive your cararound Miako and honk your horn. Jeffrey, throw the red flower to Maria…‟ Newcommands would be introduced with lots of demonstration, e.g. „Wash your hands!Wash your face!, Look for a towel! Look for a comb!‟TPR techniques are used within a variety of current approaches and methods andare effective and fun, e.g., for Kids‟ language instruction. Stephen Krashen‟shypotheses on language acquisition reinforced TPR and Asher‟s claim that what youunderstand you will later produce automatically.The Communicative Approach grew out of sociolinguistics in the 1970s and theview that there is more to communication than just grammar and vocabulary.Communication involves „communicative competence‟ – the ability to make yourselfunderstood in socially appropriate ways. The claim is that L2 is learned best whenthe students try to communicate, i.e., to say something that they really want orneed to say. Nowadays most teachers and students take the need for realcommunication in class for granted, but English as a Foreign Language (EFL)history clearly shows that this has not always been the case! Within theCommunicative Approach itself the precise role of communication is debated. Theso-called „weak‟ form of the approach sees communicative activities asopportunities for students to practice new language and develop fluency. A weakversion of language teaching using this approach might simply mean adding moreopportunities to communicate to a traditional grammar based curriculum.
    • The „strong‟ Communicative Approach on the other hand states that language isacquired through communication. It is not just a question of using communicativeactivities to activate passive knowledge of the language that has been pre-taught atan earlier stage. The belief is that communicative confidence only develops ifstudents are thrown in at the deep end and required to carry out tasks that demandreal-life communication. Rather than a communicative activity being a chance forstudents to show what they can do or to use what they have learned, it is throughworking on a task that the students learn what they need.It is impossible to make sense of current EFL teaching, especially in the west,without reference to the Communicative Approach. The weak CommunicativeApproach has had the most far-reaching impact on the EFL world, probably becauseits acceptance meant adapting rather than rejecting existing materials andmethodology. The strong Communicative Approach has been very influential in thedevelopment of Task Based Learning.The 1980s saw the Natural Approach, and with it linguist Stephen Krashen‟sseminal views on how languages are learned. Krashen claimed that languagelearning is a subconscious process of acquisition. Only exposure to language weunderstand (comprehensible input) can activate this acquisition process. Krashenargued that consciously learned language – gained through formal study - acts as amonitor, allowing people to self-correct and „edit‟ their speech.Because of the belief that through the process of acquisition, students will begin touse language in their own time, errors and all, students are not expected to startspeaking until they are ready - when they are ready, they will naturally do so.Teachers adhering to the Natural Approach expose their students to as muchcomprehensible input as they can, by setting up activities and situations wherestudents can work out meaning from context. Interactive class activities focus onmeaning rather than reacting to form.Many now contest the idea that formal study cannot lead to acquisition, but theconcept has taken such a firm foothold in EFL thinking that whether or notacquisition takes place is one of the main criteria used to judge methods past andpresent.Krashen‟s acquisition theory also provides a rationale for Immersion Teaching,which is an approach that has developed to meet the linguistic needs of people wholive in bilingual communities, and Content Teaching, which is the idea that languagecan be learned through studying another subject like cookery.Within the Immersion approach, students study subjects in both languages fromthe day they start school, often with no formal language teaching at all.
    • Within Content Teaching, students study subjects of interest, e.g., cooking, in theforeign language.Task-Based Learning, one of the most talked-about recent methods, can betraced back to the „strong‟ Communicative Approach, where teaching is doneentirely through communicative tasks. There is no set grammar syllabus. Focusingon language use after a task has been completed is widely accepted as an aid toacquisition, and task repetition gives students the chance to practice newlanguage.What are tasks? „Tasks‟ are a feature of everyday life – in daily life, a task might beshifting a wardrobe from one room to another or planning the budget for the nextfinancial year. In the classroom, communication is always part of the process,whether the task involves creativity, problem solving, planning, or completing atransaction. Students become actively involved in communication and focus onachieving a particular goal. They have to comprehend, negotiate, express ideas,and get their message across in order to reach that goal. Bringing tasks into theclassroom puts the focus of language learning on the meaning and the goal, ratherthan on the form of the communication. „Real life‟ tasks for students might even beselected to make a course relevant to particular students.As techniques from Task-Based Learning start to find their way onto teachertraining programs, it is likely to have an increasing influence on teaching in thefuture. The question many have asked is whether it will revolutionize teaching orremain a useful addition to the informed teacher‟s repertoire. Admin