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Статистика использования BIM в североамериканских инфраструктурных проектах от McGraw Hill

Статистика использования BIM в североамериканских инфраструктурных проектах от McGraw Hill

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  • 1. SmartMarket ReportThe Business Value ofBIM for InfrastructureAddressing America’s Infrastructure Challenges withCollaboration and TechnologyPremier Corporate Partner: Premier Association Partner: American Society of Civil Engineers
  • 2. ■ Design and Construction Intelligence SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction The Business Value of BIM for Infrastructure: President Addressing America’s Keith Fox Infrastructure Challenges with Vice President, Product Development Collaboration and Technology About McGraw-Hill SmartMarket Report Kathryn E. Cassino Construction Executive Editor McGraw-Hill Construction McGraw-Hill Construction Harvey M. Bernstein, F.ASCE, LEED AP (MHC), part of The McGraw-Hill Research & Analytics/ Industry Insights & Alliances Editorial Advisor and Companies, connects people, Contributor—BIM projects and products across the Vice President, Industry Stephen A. Jones design and construction industry, Insights & Alliances Harvey M. Bernstein, F.ASCE, LEED AP Editorial Director serving owners, architects, Michele A. Russo, LEED AP engineers, general contractors, Senior Director, Research & Analytics subcontractors, building product Burleigh Morton Managing Editor manufacturers, suppliers, dealers, Director, Green Content & Donna Laquidara-Carr, LEED AP distributors and adjacent markets. Research Communications Director, A reliable and trusted source Michele A. Russo, LEED AP Design & Production for more than a century, MHC William Taylor has remained North America’s Reproduction or dissemination Manager, Content Operations leading provider of construction of any information contained Juan Ramos project and product information, herein is granted only by contract Art Directors plans and specifications, industry or prior written permission from Matthew Healy news, market research, and McGraw-Hill Construction. Alison Lorenz industry trends and forecasts. In Contributing Art Director recent years, MHC has emerged Copyright © 2012, McGraw-Hill AD-BOUTIQUE, INC. as an industry leader in the Construction, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED Hisako Fujishima critical areas of sustainability and Editor interoperability as well. Enver Fitch, LEED Green Associate In print, online and through events, MHC offers a variety of Contributor tools, applications and resources Bruce Buckley that embed in the workflow of our Research Project Manager customers, providing them with Dana Gilmore, MRA, PRC the information and intelligence For further information on this they need to be more productive, SmartMarket Report or for any successful, and competitive. in the series, please contact: Backed by the power of Dodge, McGraw-Hill Construction Sweets, Architectural Record, Research & Analytics Engineering News-Record (ENR), 34 Crosby Drive, Suite 201 GreenSource and SNAP, Bedford, MA 01730 McGraw-Hill Construction serves 1-800-591-4462 more than one million customers within the global construction community. To learn more, visit us at
  • 3. SmartMarket Report Introduction H orizontal BIM”… “Heavy BIM”… ■■ UTLOOK: 79% of current non-users feel OTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ”VDC” … “Civil Information positively about future adoption, with only Modeling” …“BIM on its side” 4% actually opposed. Therefore, education … all of these phrases, and and best practices should be effective at more, are being used in the construction accelerating adoption. industry to describe the way companies are ■■ ALUE: 67% of all users report a positive V deploying model-based technologies and ROI on their BIM investments, even higher processes to non-building projects. Stephen A. Jones than the 63% of BIM users for buildings who This ground-breaking SmartMarket Senior Director reported the same in 2009, demonstrating McGraw-Hill Construction Report reveals the way in which BIM is that the value achieved will drive growth in poised to transform the infrastructure infrastructure as it has in the buildings sector. marketplace in the future. One of the most important findings of the research is that ■■ ENEFITS: Top benefits achieved now B exposure to BIM on vertical building include reduced conflicts and changes projects increases the likelihood of the (58%) and improved project quality (48%). use of BIM for infrastructure as well. This In addition, achieving lower project risk and finding is important because it reveals a better predictability of project outcomes is correlation between penetration of BIM also perceived by 60% as a top benefit in the use overall and BIM use for infrastructure, next five years, helping to drive wider BIM use and, as a result, BIM use in infrastructure for infrastructure. will be adopted at faster rates than when The need for innovative and cost-effective BIM was first introduced for vertical Harvey M. Bernstein approaches to both new and reconstructed building projects. F.ASCE, LEED AP infrastructure has never been greater or Vice President Some other key findings: more urgent. This report not only demon- Industry Insights & Alliances ■■ DOPTION: Almost half (46%) of the firms A strates what is being achieved through McGraw-Hill Construction report using BIM on their infrastructure proj- BIM in infrastructure today, but it provides ects, up from 27% two years ago. a critical baseline for the transition to new digitally-based collaborative processes for ■■ EVEL OF USE: Organizations currently L infrastructure in the future. using BIM for infrastructure plan to use it on We are excited to release the findings on more of their infrastructure projects in the this important topic and would like to thank future. The percentage of those using BIM Autodesk, the American Society of Civil on more than 50% of their projects will grow Engineers and all our other project partners from 30% now to 52% in just two years. for helping bring it to the industry. Stephen A. Jones leads 19 years in creative, marketing MHC’s market research group, serves as a member of the McGraw-Hill Construction’s and management roles with including MHC’s thought Princeton University Civil and (MHC) initiatives in BIM and design firms, most recently as a leadership initiatives in areas Environmental Engineering integrated project delivery as Principal and Board of Directors such as green building, BIM, Advisory Council. He is a well as developing alliance member with Burt Hill (now interoperability, innovation visiting professor with the relationships for technology and Stantec), a large, global and global construction University of Reading’s School content. Active in numerous architectural and engineering markets. Bernstein was of Construction Management industry organizations, he firm. Jones holds an M.B.A. one of the team members and Engineering in England, frequently speaks at events from Wharton and a B.A. from involved in launching MHC’s where he also serves on their around the world about the Johns Hopkins. GreenSource magazine. Innovative Construction business impact of emerging Previously, Bernstein served Research Centre Advisory technologies and trends. Before Harvey M. Bernstein, as President and CEO Board. Bernstein has an M.B.A. joining MHC, Jones was a F.ASCE, LEED AP has been of the Civil Engineering from Loyola College, an M.S. vice president with Primavera a leader in the engineering Research Foundation. He has in engineering from Princeton Systems (now Oracle), a leading and construction industry for written numerous papers University and a B.S. in civil provider of project management over 30 years. Currently, he covering innovation and engineering from the New software. Prior to that, he spent has lead responsibilities for sustainability and currently Jersey Institute of Technology. McGraw-Hill Construction    1 SmartMarket Report
  • 4. SmartMarket Report THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE TABLE OF CONTENTS 04 Executive Summary 04 Executive Summary 06 Recommendations 07 Data 8 BIM Usage 8 BIM Usage on Infrastructure Compared to All Projects 9 BIM Expertise 10 Current Implementation of BIM in Infrastructure 11 BIM Implementation Trends for Infrastructure 12 BIM Implementation by Project Type 13 BIM Implementation by Organization Size 20 Business Benefits 20 Assigning Value to BIM BenefitsFront Cover: Image courtesy of MWH Global. Opposite Page Left: Image courtesy of Mortenson Construction. Opposite Page Right: Image courtesy of EllisDon 21 Top Internal Benefits for A/E Firms and Contractors 22 Top Business Benefits for Owners 23 sidebar BIM Capabilities that Benefit Infrastructure Projects 24 Top Benefits by Phase 25 Top Benefits by Project Process 26 Impact of Project Factors on Benefits 27 Top Current Benefits 28 Top Benefits in Five Years 31 Investment and ROI 31 Top Investments in BIM for Infrastructure 32 Return on Investments in BIM for Infrastructure 33 Measuring ROI of BIM for Infrastructure 34 Length of Time Measuring ROI 34 Future Plans to Measure ROI 35 How to Improve ROI 35 sidebar Green Infrastructure 36 How to Improve Value of BIM 39 Non-Users 39 Non-User Profile: Organization Type 40 sidebar Comments by Users: Converting Non-Users to Adopt BIM for Infrastructure 41 Non-User Profile: Organization Size and Location 42 Non-User Profile: Project Type 43 Non-User Attitude Toward BIM for Infrastructure 44 Non-User Forecast: Importance of BIM to the Infrastructure Industry in Five Years 45 AEC Perception: BIM Use by Competitors for Infrastructure SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   2
  • 5. Front Cover: The Panama Canal team is using BIM for design currently and will soon use it for scheduling. This page: Left: Mortenson Construction’s Renewable Energy Group models its wind farm projects. Right: VivaNext Bus Rapid Transit System project in Toronto is using BIM.CONTENTS 46 AEC Perception: BIM Usage for Infrastructure by Clients 47 Owner Perceptions of BIM Usage for Infrastructure 48 Why BIM is Not Being Adopted for Infrastructure 49 Factors Influencing Lack of BIM Adoption for Infrastructure 50 Benefits that Would Encourage BIM Adoption for Infrastructure 53 Looking Ahead 53 BIM Value for Infrastructure Projects in the Future 54 Where Help Is Needed Case Studies 14 Use of BIM on Road and Highway Projects 16 Use of BIM on Airports 18 Use of BIM on Transit Projects 29 Use of BIM on Dams, Canals and Levees 37 Use of BIM on Water and Wastewater Facilities 38 Use of BIM on Energy Projects 51 Use of BIM on Park and Recreation Projects 5 Thought Leader Perspective 5 55 Owner Perspective: Robert A. Bank, Army Corps of Engineers 56 Technology Industry Perspective: Richard Humphrey, AutoDesk, Inc. 57 Industry Association Perspective: Dana Kennish “Deke” Smith, Building Seismic Safety Council and BuildingSMART Alliance, National Institute of Building Sciences 58 Engineer Perspective: Cory Dippold, Hatch, Mott, MacDonald 59 General Contractor Perspective: Joseph H. Jarboe, Clark Construction Group, LLC 60 Methodology 61 Resources McGraw-Hill Construction   3 SmartMarket Report
  • 6. Executive Summary BIM Adoption and Level of Use Will Increase at a Rapid Pace for Infrastructure Projects The level of BIM adoption and use in the infrastructure sector is a few yearsTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE behind vertical construction, but infrastructure projects are well-suited to benefit from a model-driven approach to design and construction, which bodes well for accelerating usage and broad acceptance of BIM in this sector. Business Value of BIM for R  educed rework is a top project-oriented benefit ■■ Infrastructure identified by owners. Almost half (46%) of the infrastructure organizations I mproved productivity is the BIM project benefit ■■ surveyed are currently using BIM technologies expected to increase in importance the most over the and processes on some part of their infrastructure next five years. portfolio. Only 27% report using it two years ago, so the recent growth rate is impressive. The vast majority INTERNAL BUSINESS BENEFITS (89%) of these companies that currently use BIM for infrastructure report they are receiving value from it. M  arketing BIM capability to win new work is the leading ■■ They experience benefits that impact their projects internally-focused benefit for A/E firms and contractors. as well as benefits that improve the internal business functions of their organizations. BIM for Infrastructure Has a Positive Return on Investment (ROI) PROJECT BENEFITS 67% of all BIM users report a positive ROI for BIM use on infrastructure projects. ■■R  educed conflicts and changes during construction is unanimously cited as the number one project benefit R  OI has a powerful correlation with BIM expertise. ■■ for all participants, both currently and five years out. Those characterized as BIM experts comprise 43% of the group that reports high ROI (50% or greater). A  t 77%, more contractors report a positive ROI than ■■ Business Value of BIM for Infrastructure any other industry player. Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 Metrics for the benefits and ROI of BIM are increasingly A/E Firms Contractors Owners important to spur the investments required for adoption and greater implementation. Most current users (56%) No Value Receiving Some are formally measuring the ROI of BIM, and over half of 11% Level of Value 89% those that currently are not measuring it expect to do so in the future. 53% 51% Implementation Trends of BIM 42% 42% 40% for Infrastructure The implementation trends track the frequency of use, as BIM users evolve from using it on a few 26% select projects to using it on the majority of projects in their portfolio. 16% 14% Implementation Forecasts Predict Strong Growth 6% 5% 2% 3% 7  9% of current users expect to be using BIM on more ■■ than 25% of their infrastructure projects by 2013—a We’re getting We’re just We’re getting We’re getting dramatic increase from the 43% reporting that level no meaningful scratching the a lot of everything in 2011. value surface value out of BIM SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   4
  • 7. Executive Summary  CONTINUED Level of BIM Implementation for Infrastructure Projects Over Time Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 2009 2011 2013 4 Year Change >25% of Projects 27% 43% 79% 2.9x >50% of Projects 16% 29% 52% 3.2x >75% of Projects 7% 16% 31% 4.5x T  he group of companies implementing BIM for Level of BIM Implementation for InfrastructureTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ■■ infrastructure at a very high level (employing it on Over Time (for Users) over three quarters of their infrastructure projects) Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 increases most dramatically, rising from only 7% in More Than 75% of Projects 2009 to almost a third (31%) by 2013. This rapid increase 50%-75% of Projects in heavy users demonstrates the value BIM is bringing 25%-50% of Projects to projects. Less Than 25% of Projects VARIATION BY INDUSTRY PLAYER 100% 7% A  /E firms and owners report the fastest adoption ■■ 16% 9% growth rates. 31% 80% 11% • Two years ago, 73% of current A/E users were either 13% not using BIM for infrastructure or using it at a low level. By 2013, that trend is reversed, with 78% expecting to 14% 60% 21% use it on more than 25% of their projects. • Owners go from 74% with low/no levels of use in 2009 to 84% using it on 25% or more of their projects 40% 73% by 2013. 57% 27% Non-Users Offer Strong 20% Market Potential 21% Most Non-Users’ Perspectives on BIM Are Positive Among the companies not currently using BIM on their 0% infrastructure work: 2009 2011 2013 79% are open to considering it or already evaluating it. ■■ Only 4% report having tried it and then rejected it. ■■ Most non-users perceive that BIM is being actively deployed among their competitors and peers. Over 70% of design and construction non-users believe their competitors and ES_ImpTrends2 clients are using BIM. A similar percentage of owners report the same perception of their peers. DRIVERS AND CHALLENGES TO ADOPTION ■■O  wners: At 55%, poor internal understanding of BIM is The top benefits that non-users identify as critical the top reason for delaying use of BIM on projects. to encourage them to adopt include more accurate construction documents, reduced construction costs In an industry known for valuing previous experience in and schedule and improved communication—all well- forming project teams, an additional adoption driver will documented benefits by BIM users. come from A/E firms’ changing view on who they want to Concern about BIM’s applicability to smaller projects work with. and lack of time to evaluate it are identified by all • 64% of A/E respondents currently using BIM for non-users as leading obstacles to adoption. Other key infrastructure place a high importance on having BIM- challenges vary by player type: knowledgeable design professionals on the project, as opposed to only 41% that cite previous experience D  esign and construction firms: At 67%, lack of demand ■■ working with other companies on a project as equally by clients is the top concern. critical to get the most of BIM. McGraw-Hill Construction   5 SmartMarket Report
  • 8. Recommendations Each company needs to develop a tailored approach to advancing its BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE objectives in order to meet its particular needs in the design and construction ecosystem. Below are insights drawn from the report for different players. Architects and the depth, accuracy and experience. Join local BIM break down when authorities Engineers consistency of the data user groups and attend having jurisdiction (AHJs) Embrace collaborative now available to generate national events where you require traditional 2D modeling as the new kinds of documents for will meet a wide variety documents for review. Some most effective way to daily use at the site. Often of BIM users, almost all AHJs are accepting models unambiguously convey your incorporating information of whom will gladly share in addition to 2D documents team’s design intent and help from several sources (e.g., advice and perspectives as a way to clarify intent in keep unscrupulous bidders GIS, laser scans, BIM), with you. the process of evaluating from taking advantage of the reflecting existing conditions compliance. This is a good discrepancies, errors and and providing a shop- Advanced and way to start moving up the omissions that are inevitable drawing level of detail, Expert Users learning curve of dealing in 2D drawings. Also, these are true “construction Don’t get complacent. As with modeled data, and your leverage BIM’s powerful documents,” meant for more companies adopt feedback will help to create visualization capabilities to precise implementation by and implementation an appropriate deliverable. engage your clients more craft practitioners in the field. accelerates, innovation will deeply in the solution-finding Infrastructure projects can distinguish the leaders. Your Non-Users process, and align their benefit just as greatly. current capabilities may be Lack of demand is a leading expectations more closely unique and successful, but reason for non-adoption, with realistic outcomes. Fabricators competitors will be actively but marketing BIM capability How much more can trying to surpass you. to win new work (rather Owners you make offsite? How than waiting to be asked) Demand more from your much more can you Technology is the top internal benefit teams and drive out preassemble prior to final Companies being enjoyed by users. This ambivalence. Even for installation? The accuracy Invest the time to understand indicates that the longer you public projects, where of models is enabling an the characteristics of wait to adopt BIM, the greater you must take the lowest offsite manufacturing and infrastructure work that the gap will grow between responsive bid, you can prefabrication revolution differ from buildings and you and these competitors. still require modeled in the vertical construction don’t assume your solution Start small, stay focused and deliverables in your scope industry, especially with will apply equally well to any commit to the process of throughout the process, ever-larger structural and project. Seek out direct input change. It should pay off. as several federal and MEP assemblies. Cost, from the firms currently state entities are currently safety, quality and timeliness engaged in this field and All BIM Users doing. The project-related all benefit. Help extend tailor your tools to meet Support data standards benefits of model-based this innovative trend to the their needs. and demand data design and construction infrastructure sector. interoperability. The accrue directly to owners Regulatory more quickly we can and are compelling. BIM Beginners Authorities create a cohesive, data- Keep the faith. Although Every day, more companies rich environment without Contractors initial projects may be upstream from you are technology barriers, the Get BIM to the field. Vertical challenging, the data show developing and working faster the entire industry project users have made that benefits and ROI accrue with data-rich models. The will enjoy the benefits of huge strides in leveraging in relation to increasing process and the benefits digital transformation. ■ SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction    6
  • 9. Data:­Section Hed1 Introduction BIM for Infrastructure on the Rise I n recent years, Building Information Modeling (BIM) has becomeTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA an important strategy in vertical (building) construction to improve Note About productivity and profitability. As the industry has struggled to emerge from the Data the Great Recession, the business advantages of BIM and its collaborative Most of the charts in tools have become even more pronounced and highly valued. this report and much However, in the horizontal world of infrastructure construction, use of BIM of the analysis focus on is just beginning. In fact, even the term BIM presumes vertical buildings being the differences among constructed. A plethora of terms have been created for BIM for infrastructure, three groups: A/E firms, contractors such as Civil BIM or CIM, virtual design and construction (VDC) and Heavy BIM, and owners. but all refer to the same capability to create data-rich models in three or more dimensions that facilitate better design, enhance construction efficiency and ■■ A  /E firms include all enable collaboration. These features hold equally strong benefits to horizontal, firms that primarily do infrastructure construction, and the industry has begun to take notice. design and engineering This report provides the results of a groundbreaking study to measure the work on infrastructure use of BIM in infrastructure design and construction. The results reveal an projects. If architects industry in the early stages of adoption, but they also demonstrate an even or engineers are more exciting picture of expected growth in the next few years. In fact, the mentioned separately level of use and adoption rate closely mirror those for commercial construction in the analysis, it is in originally reported by McGraw-Hill Construction in 2009—a prediction that has reference to a subset  been borne out by the rise in BIM use for buildings over the last few years. of the data just for The forecasted growth of BIM use for infrastructure is no surprise given those professions. (51% the expertise available from vertical construction, the high level of complexity of total) involved in large infrastructure projects, the increased use of prefabrication in ■■ C  ontractors include infrastructure, and the growing need for greater efficiency and effectiveness general contractors, on all aspects of infrastructure projects. In fact, according to McGraw-Hill construction managers, Construction’s annual construction forecast, vertical construction activity specialty contractors is forecasted to improve over the next three years while the volume of and fabricators. (36%  infrastructure work is expected to shrink. This is in contrast to the start of the of total) recession, when the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act made a major investment in infrastructure in many sectors, from transportation to water, O  wners include project ■■ leading to its slight growth through 2010 while the other segments of the owners and a few other industry declined dramatically. Now, however, as commercial construction respondents that do not improves, increased austerity in the public sector and funding uncertainty fall into the other two due to partisan politics during an election year are driving the volume of categories listed above, infrastructure work down. such as consultants  In addition, as infrastructure financing becomes scarcer and the need and educators. (13%  for infrastructure improvements continues to grow, the industry has begun of total) to explore alternative financing and delivery methods for infrastructure For a fuller description of construction, such as public-private partnerships. Collaboration is often a the study participants and critical part of these strategies, and BIM is well recognized in the construction details on when the survey industry as a process that enables collaboration. was conducted, please In order for organizations doing infrastructure work to remain competitive, see the Methodology on they will need to increase the efficiency and the profitability of their projects. page 60. Many of these organizations are also involved in vertical construction and have seen the benefits of BIM firsthand, and they are just beginning to recognize its value for infrastructure. This period of early adoption of BIM for infrastructure offers an extraordinary opportunity for organizations to become adept at using BIM and reap the rewards ahead of other industry players. McGraw-Hill Construction   7 SmartMarket Report
  • 10. Data:­BIM Usage BIM Use on Infrastructure Compared to All Projects While many organizations have been using BIM on Length of Time Using BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA vertical building projects for a number of years, its Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 application to infrastructure projects has been slower to gain traction. The use of BIM for infrastructure, in fact, All Project Types Infrastructure Projects appears to be about three years behind its use on other project types, a conclusion supported when comparing the length of time using BIM for infrastructure to that for 50% building projects reported in McGraw-Hill Construction’s 2009 The Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report: 43% 1–2 Years ■■ • 012 Infrastructure: 50% 2 • 2009 Buildings: 48% 28% 29% 27% 3–4 Years ■■ 23% • 2012 Infrastructure: 27% • 2009 Buildings: 28% 5 Plus Years ■■ • 2012 Infrastructure: 23% • 2009 Buildings: 24% To establish a baseline of comparison among the respondents to this survey, companies that indicated they are using BIM 1-2 Years 3-4 Years 5+ Years for infrastructure work were also asked about their BIM experience on all project types. H  alf of the companies using BIM for infrastructure have ■■ only one to two years of experience doing so, versus only 28% with that limited track record working on all project types. W  hile 43% have five or more years of BIM experience ■■ on all project types, only about half that number (23%) have an equivalent length of experience using it on infrastructure work. Variation by Player Among the most highly experienced (five or more years) BIM user group, architects show the greatest disparity between those using BIM on all projects (45%) and on infrastructure (18%). This is likely due to longer-standing BIM use by architects on vertical projects. This conclusion is further USE_Q13Q13A supported by the finding that only 3% of architects reported one year of BIM experience on all projects, compared to 29% that are novices in using BIM for infrastructure work. The lag in experience with BIM for infrastructure among the group having the greatest overall experience with BIM again supports the conclusion that BIM for infrastructure is lagging a couple of years behind its adoption in vertical construction. SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   8
  • 11. BIM Usage  CONTINUED BIM Expertise In lieu of an industry standard for BIM expertise—and BIM Expertise: All Project TypesTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA consistent with previous McGraw-Hill Construction Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 SmartMarket Reports about BIM—survey respon- dents who use BIM for infrastructure were asked to A/E Firms Contractors Owners self-describe their level of BIM expertise as beginner, moderate, advanced or expert. In addition, they were asked to rate their expertise on all project types and, Beginner 20% Advanced/Expert 44% separately, more specifically on infrastructure work. 37% 37% 37% 44% of BIM users self-describe as advanced or expert on all projects, but only 33% are at that level for infrastructure. 31% Variation by Player 26% 23% A/E FIRMS 21% 20% 20% Architects report an especially dramatic difference 16% 16% 16% between their expertise with BIM for all project types and for infrastructure projects. BIM expertise on all project types: 55% ■■ BIM expertise on infrastructure projects: 35% ■■ In addition, only 16% of architects and engineers self- describe as beginners for all projects, but that percentage Beginner Moderate Advanced Expert jumps to 34% on infrastructure work. OWNERS Owners report the lowest expertise across both project BIM Expertise: Infrastructure Projects categories. This is consistent with the findings of the 2009 Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 BIM SmartMarket Report in which owners of buildings also reported the lowest expertise across all player types. A/E Firms Contractors Owners Beginner 34% Advanced/Expert 33% 42% 38% 34% 31% 32% 26% 21% Use_Q16 20%20% 14% 11%11% Beginner Moderate Advanced Expert McGraw-Hill Construction    9 SmartMarket Report
  • 12. BIM Usage  CONTINUED Current Implementation of BIM in Infrastructure Consistent with previous McGraw-Hill Construction addition, the findings are again comparable to the 2009THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA SmartMarket Reports about BIM, the term implementation Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report, which reported refers to the percentage of a company’s projects that are BIM implementation for buildings. In that report, 27% report done using BIM technologies and processes. doing high/very high implementation, defined as more than 60% of projects using BIM. Comparing Implementation on All Project Types to Infrastructure Variation by Player Respondents that reported using BIM for infrastructure ■■A  /E firms have a steep differential in the level of BIM use, were first asked to baseline their level of BIM with 49% reporting high/very high implementation on all implementation on all project types, then asked separately project types, but only 30% reporting that advanced level about their implementation on infrastructure work. (Note: for infrastructure. Some respondents indicate “none” for their current BIM usage because, even though they have used BIM in the past ■■O  wners report a consistent 42% high/very high level and plan to do so in the future, they had no BIM projects of implementation across both project categories, currently underway at the time of the survey.) indicating a predominant focus on infrastructure by those The findings confirm the trend that BIM use in owners, versus the A/E firms, which generally practice infrastructure, and the extent of that use, lags several years on a wider variety of project types and may have more behind vertical construction. Only 37% of respondents experience using BIM on vertical projects. report low or no current BIM implementation on all projects, but that percentage jumps to 53% for infrastructure. In Current Implementation of BIM: Current Implementation of BIM: INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS ALL PROJECTS Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 A/E Firms Contractors Owners A/E Firms Contractors Owners Low/No Use 53% High/Very High Low/No Use 37% High/Very High Use 30% Use 44% 53% 49% 44% 42% 42% 42% 41% 37% 31% 32% 30%29% 18%19% 17% 16% 16% 14% 11% 9% 3% 4% 2% Low (<25% of Medium (25%- High/Very High Low (<25% of Medium (25%- High/Very High None Projects) 50% of Projects) (>51% of Projects) None Projects) 50% of Projects) (>51% of Projects) SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction    10
  • 13. BIM Usage  CONTINUED BIM Implementation Trends for Infrastructure Comparing the past implementation of BIM for Variation by PlayerTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA infrastructure with the expected implementation in Owners show the most growth, going from 42% not two years reveals a striking increase in implementation using BIM for infrastructure two years ago to 100% saying expected. Again, the predicted growth parallels the they will be doing some amount of BIM for infrastructure results of the 2009 BIM SmartMarket Report, in which in two years. Over a quarter (26%) plan to be at a very 52% of those using BIM for buildings report that they high level of implementation at that time. expect to use BIM on more than 60% of their projects. Because owner demand is cited as a top factor that will encourage adoption among non-users, this trend has ■■L  ow/no usage, which dominates the past (73%) the potential to be the biggest driver of BIM adoption for and current (53%) responses, decreases sharply infrastructure. As more owners increase the number of in two years, with only 21% expecting low usage projects they commit to this approach, implementation and no respondents expecting not to use BIM for levels will increase across the board for design infrastructure. professionals and contractors. ■■V  ery high usage will grow dramatically, from only 7% two years ago to 30% two years from now, more than four times greater. 2013 Implementation of BIM for Infrastructure Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 2009 Implementation of BIM A/E Firms Contractors Owners for Infrastructure Low Use 21%/ High/Very High Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 No Use 0% Use 52% A/E Firms Contractors Owners 54% 53% Low/No Use 73% High/Very High Use 16% 42% 41% 42% 42% 36% 37% 34% 32% 27% 25% 22% 19% 17% 16% 16% 16% 13% 10% 6% Low (<25% of Medium (25%- High/Very High Low (<25% of Medium (25%- High/Very High None Projects) 50% of Projects) (>51% of Projects) Projects) 50% of Projects) (>51% of Projects) McGraw-Hill Construction    11 SmartMarket Report
  • 14. BIM Usage  CONTINUED BIM Implementation by Project Type All project types show substantial growth over the four-THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA year period, more than doubling, on average. Much of the growth for these project types will derive from increas- ingly sophisticated civil design tools for BIM, which allow users to more accurately capture existing conditions, as well as greater latitude in exploring alternate design solu- tions and robust analysis of project performance. In fact, every project category is anticipated to have well over half of its practitioners using BIM on more than 50% of projects within two years. Variation by Project Type The greatest expansion over the four-year period is predicted for water projects and public parks and recre- ation. Only 15% of respondents in these sectors report a high use of BIM two years ago, but 57% and 56%, respec- tively, forecast that they will be using a high level of BIM two years from now, almost quadrupling. BIM Implementation on More than 50% of Infrastructure Projects by Project Type Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 2009 2011 2013 59% 58% 59% 58% 56% 56% 57% 44% 39% 38% 35% 32% 30% 23% 24% 20% 20% 19% 20% 15% 15% Rail, Transit & Public Parks & Bridges, Roads & Dams and Other Waste Aviation Energy Recreation Highways Water SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   12
  • 15. BIM Usage  CONTINUED BIM Implementation by Organization Size Organizations of all sizes foresee increasing their BIM Implementation on More than 50% ofTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA implementation of BIM to more than 50% of their infra- Infrastructure Projects by Size of Organization structure projects, but the size of the organization has Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 implications for the pattern of high infrastructure BIM usage over the five year span. (Refer to the Methodology 2009 2011 2013 section on page 60 for organization size definitions.) 65% M  idsize organizations show the pattern of greatest ■■ growth, more than quadrupling the percentage of 58% 54% high-level implementers from 2009 to 2013, with the small-medium group expanding from 11% to 47%, 47% and medium-large organizations expanding from 39% 37% 13% to 58%. B  y 2013, small organizations will lead the way in high- ■■ 25% level implementation, when almost two thirds (65%) 19% 18% 19% predict they will be practicing at that level. 13% 11% Although small organizations express concerns about BIM’s cost and applicability to small projects, once they have adopted BIM, their size actually provides an advan- tage in driving higher levels of implementation. Small projects have shorter durations, thereby creating more Small Small-Medium Medium-Large Large opportunities to start them off using BIM. Larger orga- nizations, which tend to work on larger projects with longer durations, are unlikely to introduce BIM during the course of an existing project and therefore will take longer to get the majority of their projects using BIM. Once a small organization has become a user, its higher rate of project turnover will tend to accelerate its level of BIM implementation. Use_FirmSize McGraw-Hill Construction    13 SmartMarket Report
  • 16. y ud st se ca Use of BIM on Road and Highway Projects F rom complex megaprojects THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE to standard roadway work, designers, contractors and owners are seeking ways to merge BIM into their workflows. Wisconsin DOT Projects The Wisconsin Department of Trans- portation (WisDOT) is taking a lead role in testing the application of BIM on state roadway projects. Within its design methods group, the state is seeking the best ways to maximize return on investment in BIM, says Lance Parve, senior project engineer in the Southeast Region of WisDOT Wisconsin Department of Transportation is taking a lead role in testing the application and co-chair for the Transportation of BIM on state roadway projects, including the $1.7 billion Zoo Interchange. Research Board’s Virtual Design and Construction Joint Subcommittee. more than avoiding a few incidents, its models but does not require Parve says he sees value in the and you’ve paid for a whole boatload it. “There’s a lot of room for the collaborative aspects of BIM, but, of BIM software.” contracting side to develop models because the state mandates design- WisDOT is testing its approach further and recognize this as a design- bid-build procurement, early on two current projects—the $162.5 level issuing of the model that could integration of teams is not possible. million Mitchell Interchange Project have further enhancements,” he WisDOT is testing a hybrid approach and the $1.7 billion Zoo Interchange. says. “If they find a shorter way to that uses its in-house design and On the Mitchell project, modeling do something, that saves us money construction departments to was done after design was complete. and saves them time. On a lump sum collaborate on design models to gain Still, the team was able to use the contract, there’s a lot to be gained.” many of the benefits of working in an model for visualization and clash alternative delivery method, such detection that reaped savings, says Fore River Bridge as design-build. Parve. In addition, the team used Replacement “Pure design plans can have that model for 4D scheduling of the Regardless of an owner’s outlook issues,” Parve says. “There’s a lot construction phase. on BIM, some firms see big benefits of coordination and design reviews On the Zoo Interchange project, the in modeling on their own. STV has between different disciplines, but team was able to start earlier, creating a been using BIM on vertical buildings that’s not enough. We’re taking a robust model that could be provided for since 2006 but decided to test its construction-oriented approach contractor bidding. Both 4D schedule application on the Fore River BridgeImage courtesy of Wisconsin Department of Transportation that really impacts the design in a simulation and 5D cost estimation are Replacement in Quincy, Mass., for beneficial way.” possible with the model. The models Massachusetts DOT. The design calls Parve says the process gives the include mobile, static and aerial light for a vertical-lift bridge with towers team a greater likelihood of fixing detection and ranging. In total, the team that are nearly 300 feet high. issues virtually, rather than in the field. expects to scale up to a 20,000-page set After starting the design in CAD, “We’ve found that on projects, there of design plans using models created STV decided that the bridge’s can be 5% to 10% of costs coming by more than 200 designers. complexity required modeling, says from [change orders],” he says. “On Under the state’s design-bid- Greg Spears, a designer at STV. some of these projects, that is more build method, Parve says, WisDOT “The coordination of the different than adequate payback. It doesn’t take encourages contractors to use disciplines was a huge part of this CONTINUED SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   14
  • 17. y ud Use of BIM on Road and Highway Projects st ED se U N ca TI N CO project,” he says. “We have a lot of its applicability on small projects as A plan to integrate the model with THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE equipment that requires electrical well. Clark Nexsen used modeling on the city’s GIS (global information conduit that had to be designed for two intersection projects for the City system) was considered, but was extremely tight places. By designing of Chesapeake, Va., with combined shelved for future consideration in 3D, we’re able to see what our design and engineering fees of less because the city was updating its electrical engineers are doing and than $100,000. GIS system at the time. have immediate feedback over the The roadway project, which Kyle Jacocks, a civil engineer at placement of their components.” began in 2009, aimed to realign an Clark Nexsen involved in integrating In addition to MEP, STV created a intersection. Drainage improvements BIM into the firm’s infrastructure- structural model and architectural and stormwater management were related disciplines, says modeling components of the bridge. However, no included in the scope. Clark Nexsen the project improved visualization, analysis was done in the models. was contracted the following year to enabled faster design reviews, Although BIM was not required design a new mast arm traffic signal enhanced coordination, ensured by the owner and the owner was not at the intersection. better constructability and charged extra fees for the models, The team modeled the roadway increased collaboration. Spears says, the effort paid off. “It and performed stormwater design Jacocks says that while BIM streamlined our process,” he says. analysis based on the model. Quantity provided considerable benefits, “There is a tight schedule for this takeoffs were performed for engineer’s it did add time to the process. project, and modeling is one way estimates for inclusion in a bid package. However, he believes it proved we were able to speed up the With the roadway model in place, Clark valuable on the project. “We know process internally.” The client also Nexsen added its traffic signal study. some things took extra time, but gained direct benefits through better The city commissioned a laser scan to it’s hard to measure what didn’t over-the-shoulder reviews of the identify existing above-ground utilities happen,” he adds. “There was models as they progressed. and other features, such as trees. The probably an additional cost, but Still, the benefits were limited to model, laser scan and additional digital down the road, as we get more the designer. Although the project is drawings were integrated to create experienced and faster [with being delivered using design-build, the a virtual project “drive-through” for modeling], I anticipate that will be contractor is not creating construction visualization and analysis. less of an issue.” ■ models. “That was not part of the initial contract,” Spears adds. Spears says he expects STV to incorporate BIM into future heavy civil projects, particularly on complex facilities. “We’ve learned that this is really effective at the intersection between infrastructure and [vertical] buildings,” he says. “If there are minimal building elements, we can still do it, but we don’t get the same kind of benefits as when there are many disciplines to coordinate.” Chesapeake RoadwayImage courtesy of Clark Nexsen Projects While large, complex roadway projects seem a more likely candidate for BIM use, some firms are testing Clark Nexsen found value in modeling a $100,000 intersection in Chesapeake, Va. McGraw-Hill Construction   15 SmartMarket Report
  • 18. y ud st se ca Use of BIM on Airports M ultibillion-dollar airport Scalamandre & Sons was awarded logistics and other aspects of THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE expansion programs a separate taxiway package. Several project execution. often include a mix stakeholders are involved as well, S&P broke out its model in of complex vertical including Delta, JFK International Air accordance with how the project and horizontal projects split among Terminal and the Port Authority of would be built, enabling 4D scheduling numerous bid packages. To better New York and New Jersey. Numerous capabilities. S&P also can conduct manage projects, many airport businesses housed within the rough 5D cost estimates. Through 4D, authorities encourage designers and concourses are also affected by Kelly says, the team can better track contractors to collaborate in BIM. the program. production. “We track early, late and Since many of these programs are split To better monitor all contracts and actual finish of tasks in the model,” he into multiple phases, some build teams keep stakeholders informed, S&P says. “We then analyze it to show how are crossing competitive lines for the is modeling the project, providing things are tracking going forward.” greater good of the program. estimating and scheduling analysis If the schedule starts to slip, the team and cost controls. When S&P joined can react quickly to recover. Frank Delta Air Lines the project, the design was already Roetzel, senior vice president at S&P, Redevelopment at JFK complete, but S&P was able to work says that kind of knowledge yields Satterfield & Pontikes (S&P) is from the design team’s models to significant benefits. “When you’re on a providing project-control services build its own, says Tim Kelly, technical big project, you can lose control and not for the $1.2 billion Delta Air Lines services manager at S&P. S&P also even know it,” he says. “It’s too much Redevelopment project at John F. incorporated models generated by to handle in the traditional way with 2D Kennedy International Airport (JFK) contractors and some of their subs. blueprints. Once you’ve modeled and in New York City. The program is The teams conduct coordination you can tie these other applications to split into multiple packages. Turner and constructability reviews. the model, then you have incredible Construction and Lend Lease Visualization is another major real-time knowledge about where your each oversee separate concourse component. Team members work project is. That allows managers to packages. Turner’s scope also collaboratively in an on-site virtual focus on issues, and you can filter out includes significant civil work. Peter studio on schedule planning, site the background noise.”Photo courtesy of Sundt Construction On San Diego International Airport’s Green Build, the team that handles the main roadway and parking aspects of the project coordinates in BIM with a team under a separate contract that is building a terminal expansion, new gates and a new taxiway. CONTINUED SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   16
  • 19. y ud Use of BIM on Airports st ED se U N ca TI N CO The Green Build at San On the civil side, Rob Foster, BIM also crossing competitive linesTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE Diego International manager for the Kiewit/Sundt/URS to work together. Dwain Brown, On the $1.2 billion Green Build project at team, says a major initiative for his team TRIP implementation director and San Diego International Airport, major was to model utilities and create highly program manager at Freese and contractors on separate contracts work accurate as-built drawings. When the Nichols, says the airport authority in harmony through BIM. The program team began its work, Foster says the wanted teams to work in common is split primarily between the team of provided as-builts were very unreliable. platforms to enable high-value BIM Kiewit, Sundt Construction and URS, “Like any good utility contractor, we use and consistent communication. which handles the main roadway and tossed those aside and started drilling The airport also had a separate parking aspects of the project, and the potholes [to locate utilities],” he says. sustainability goal to go paperless team of Turner Construction, Flatiron “They cost about $1,000 each, and we on the project, necessitating greater Construction, PCL Construction did more than 500 of them. We kept use of BIM and related tools. The Services and HNTB, which is building track and modeled the existing and joint venture of Balfour Beatty a terminal expansion, new gates and a new utilities so that when the as-builts Construction, Azteca Enterprises, new taxiway. are sent to the next contractor, you’re H.J. Russell & Company and From the outset of the program, saving another half million dollars.” CARCON Industries was the the airport authority envisioned An overarching goal is to produce first team in, so Brown worked a fully integrated program from a data-rich deliverable model for with those firms to establish an design through construction with future facilities management, Hughes implementation plan. modeled content that was created says. “Currently, for every dollar we Recognizing the potential as a deliverable for the facilities spend in design, we spend $50 to $60 savings, the airport agreed to pay management side, says AECOM’s Mark in maintenance,” he says. “If we can for items such as software and Hughes, who serves as BIM manager spend an extra dollar in design and plan rooms with large computer for the airport authority. save $10 in maintenance costs, that’s displays. The airport also purchased When the teams were selected significant savings for us.” hundreds of iPads to allow in 2007, both were contractually Hughes says that the process managers, superintendents and obligated to collaborate in BIM and significantly accelerated the program, subcontractors digital access to create data-rich models, Hughes trimming costs and keeping more all plans. WiFi throughout the site says. “We entered a 90-day validation of the airport open for business. He enabled access to a cloud server for period, where the three parties locked estimates that between hard and updated models and plans. “These ourselves in a room and came up with soft costs, the $1.2 billion program are tools to achieve our goals,” he a game plan,” he adds. might have cost nearly $2 billion using says. “We would pay for them one Hughes says the team had very open traditional means. “We were able to way or another.” dialogue about technology options and start foundations at 30% construction When a second joint venture of expectations of deliverables. Although documents,” he says. “If we waited Manhattan Construction Co., Thos. a plan was set in place, Hughes says the for the design to be done, we’d still be S. Byrne, James R. Thompson and team understood that BIM technology waiting today, and we’re two years into 3i Construction came on board, was still evolving. “We all recognized construction now. That’s a lot of lost Brown asked the Balfour Beatty that this was really only a starting airport revenue.” team to get all parties on the point,” he says. “We left the door open same platforms. for exploration along the path. If we Terminal Renewal and Brown estimates that its found a better solution, the opportunity Improvement at Dallas/ paperless initiative alone could was brought to the table to discuss. Fort Worth save the airport more than $8 Simple things like platform changes Joint ventures on the Dallas/Fort million in printing costs and and platform products had to be Worth International Airport’s added efficiencies. ■ discussed. New products came online $2.3 billion Terminal Renewal and that we couldn’t even dream of initially.” Improvement Program (TRIP) are McGraw-Hill Construction   17 SmartMarket Report
  • 20. y ud st se ca Use of BIM on Transit Projects T he intersection of vertical THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE and horizontal building is often referenced by BIM users as an ideal opportunity to use the technology in infrastructure. Many transit projects, which combine stations with roadways and rail lines, fit that description perfectly. Use of BIM on Transit Projects Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB), an early adopter of BIM in vertical building sec- tors, has seen a interest in BIM slowly increasing within the transit world. Seven kilometers of roadways, 22 stations and two new pedestrian bridges were Starting in 2006, the firm used BIM to modeled for a section of the VivaNext Bus Rapid Transit system project in Toronto. deliver the 4th Street Bus Station in Reno, Nev. an interest in things like modeling work on a 6.7-kilometer tunnel segment Tom Brooks-Pilling, vice president underground utilities. Knowing where of the project. Given the tight spatial and architectural practice leader at those are would be very useful for a restriction, the model was used for PB, says the firm used modeling early long-term facilities owner.” coordination of various disciplines. in the project for conceptual design Jay Mezher, manager of virtual “The clearances were very tight,” to identify the best site concepts. design and construction at PB, says says Chris Tattersall, vice president of Architecture, MEP and structural the firm’s use of BIM on its transit jobs, transportation in central Canada for elements were modeled by PB, but regardless of owner requirements, HMM. “One area had a tight curve with electrical and plumbing were not is garnering interest from transit utilities and a fire main running through because the functions were not well authorities. In places like New York City, it. We had no confidence we were clear developed at the time, he says. Civil where the firm has worked extensively in there until we modeled it.” engineering was also not modeled. on the city’s subway system, use of Although HMM made good use of The model was used for systems BIM is proving its value. its model, the information was siloed. coordination and cost estimating. “We weren’t required to use it, but “The real value for BIM on these Since then, the firm has seen they have been really supportive of it, projects is the downstream usage,” expanded use of BIM on transit especially on the trickier issues that he says. “The problem is that public projects, including the Fulton Street help with scheduling, RFI or anything procurement models tend to silo the Transit Project in Manhattan, on that makes project controls easier,” he disciplines. The only way to span which PB served as the construction says. “The Port Authority [of New York across the silos is for the authorities manager. The firm is also currently and New Jersey] now has a published to get involved. We’re seeing some using BIM on mass transit stations in BIM standard. That tells you a lot.” heading that way.” Mumbai and Los Angeles. BIM is being used extensively for Brooks-Pilling says he expects use transit projects in Toronto, Canada. VivaNext Bus Rapid of BIM on mass transit work to gain Multiple firms working on the $730 Transit System momentum as more owners request it. million Toronto-York Spadina Subway Also in the Toronto area, extensive “Once owners request it for facility Extension Project are modeling modeling is being used on theImage courtesy of EllisDon management, then there is a lot of segments with the encouragement of VivaNext Bus Rapid Transit system value to be gained,” he says. “We the Toronto Transit Commission. Hatch project. A partnership of Kiewit see more sophisticated clients taking Mott MacDonald (HMM) modeled its and EllisDon is modeling much of CONTINUED SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   18
  • 21. y ud Use of BIM on Transit Project st ED se U N ca TI N CO a 7-kilometer section of the project design was well underway, so it had The point clouds are also used for THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE that will include road-widening for to build its model from scratch. For quantity takeoffs and estimating. Erlich dedicated bus lanes, 22 stations, the second phase, Erlich says, the says the scans are accurate to “within a two pedestrian bridges and five team got designers to work in 3D to couple of millimeters.” new bridges built for environmental speed up the modeling process. The team is also scanning the protection along the corridor. Perhaps the most robust tool roadways, using an outside firm with The team converted 2D drawings used in its modeling effort is a vehicular scanner. Again, getting into 3D models to help analyze road laser scanning. The team, which accurate measurements is a major structures, corridors, intersections purchased its own scanner, is benefit. “A centimeter difference and culverts for constructability. regularly scanning all conditions as over seven kilometers adds up to a The team also generated quantity construction progresses. Kiewit/ lot in quantities.” takeoffs and earthwork calculations EllisDon sees multiple benefits from During construction, the point from the model. For the stations and the process. Erlich says the team clouds allow the owner and other bridges, the team modeled structural uses the point clouds produced team members to monitor progress of elements; coordinated existing and by the scanners to ensure quality, the project. proposed utilities; and performed particularly at the interfaces Potentially, one of the most valuable quantity takeoffs. The model was between the civil works aspects aspects of scanning will be realized after also used for 4D scheduling with of the project and the vertical completion. Because the project is being site superintendents to help them construction. Those point clouds scanned regularly, the point clouds can visualize the process. can be pulled into the 3D model to be combined after completion to create Denis Erlich, senior BIM compare site conditions with the highly accurate as-built models, Erlich coordinator with EllisDon, says the design. When discrepancies are says. “You can see the station peeled like team came in after the first phase of found, they can be addressed quickly. an onion,” he says. ■Image courtesy of EllisDon The VivaNext project is scanned regularly, creating a series of point clouds that are added to the model. McGraw-Hill Construction   19 SmartMarket Report
  • 22. Data:­Business Benefits Assigning Value to BIM Benefits The benefits of BIM manifest in a variety of ways. In someTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA cases they accrue directly to the individual company that is deploying it in the form of improved productivity, profitability or efficiency. In other cases, the benefits are enjoyed by the entire team and often contribute directly to better overall projects. In addition to this variety of benefits, each type of player involved in a project experiences the value of BIM from its own perspective of needs, risks, rewards and objectives. One common thread running through the findings of this study is the positive impact on the business aspects of running organizations and designing, building and operating projects. To determine the relative value of BIM benefits across these dynamic dimensions, respondents were asked to assign one of five levels of importance (none, low, medium, high or very high) to: A  variety of specific benefits that result from using BIM ■■ technologies and processes P  roject phases and project processes which benefit ■■ from BIM to varying degrees P  roject factors that most affect the ability to generate ■■ benefits from BIM Current versus future benefits ■■ To focus on the aspects with the most impact, the graphs in this section of the report show just the percentage of respondents that assigned high or very high levels of importance to any choice offered. SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction    20
  • 23. Business Benefits  CONTINUED Top Internal Benefits for A/E Firms and Contractors The top four benefits noted by users of BIM for Top Internal Business Benefits of Using BIM forTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA infrastructure are the same as the top benefits noted Infrastructure Projects for A/E Firms and Contractors for buildings in MHC’s 2009 Business Benefits of Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 BIM SmartMarket Report, and they are ranked in the A/E Firms same order. This demonstrates the consistent results Contractors experienced from BIM across project types, especially to create new business and improve project outcomes. Marketing New Business Several of the most critical benefits of using BIM for 45% infrastructure hold equally strong appeal to A/E firms 45% and contractors. Overall Better Project Outcomes ■■Marketing New Business 38% An equally high percentage (45%) of A/E firms and 51% contractors rank the ability to leverage BIM capabilities Reduce Errors in Documents and experience to win new work as a top benefit, making 42% it the most universally important among all internal 41% benefits. This competitive advantage aspect has scored well consistently in previous BIM research conducted by Offer New Services McGraw-Hill Construction. 39% Other factors related directly to business concerns 42% were also selected as important by over one third of A/E Maintain Repeat Business firms and contractors: 38% • Offer New Services 38% • Maintain Repeat Business Reduce Rework ■■Reduce Errors in Construction Documents 31% A/E firms and contractors also agree (42% and 41%, 44% respectively) on the high importance of BIM’s ability to reduce construction document errors. Improve Learning for Younger Staff 34% Improve Learning for Younger Staff ■■ 38% A/E firms and contractors also highly regard BIM’s usefulness for working with younger staff, an important aspect of attracting and retaining the emerging tech- savvy workforce in the construction industry. Benefits_Q21_AEC Benefits scoring lower among A/E firms and contractors Variation by Player include reduced claims/litigation and increased profits. There are a few benefits that appear to carry greater This result does not suggest that these are unimportant weight with contractors than with A/E firms. benefits, but that they are not yet demonstrated to the ■■ O  ver half (51%) of the contractors report overall better extent that many firms can report experiencing them. project outcomes as a top internal benefit from using BIM. This benefit allow respondents to assign an internal value to the sum of all of the project-oriented benefits they experience, which is of particular concern to contractors. ■■ R  educing rework is rated more highly by contractors (44%) than A/E firms (31%), likely because they are affected most directly by this issue. McGraw-Hill Construction   21 SmartMarket Report
  • 24. Business Benefits  CONTINUED Top Business Benefits for Owners As the entities ultimately responsible for project Top Internal Business Benefits of Using BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA outcomes, owners have their own unique perspective for Infrastructure Projects for Owners on what constitutes an internal benefit of BIM on Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 infrastructure projects. Overall Better Project Outcomes T  ied for first place at 44%, overall better project ■■ 44% outcomes and reduced rework are significant benefits Reduce Rework of BIM. 44% This is understandable because both are highly visible Fewer Claims / Litigation on projects in an owner organization and reflect directly 38% on the individuals responsible. This is especially the case with reduced rework because unbudgeted changes Reduce Errors in Documents on projects that result in rework are, in many cases, 33% avoidable and indicate gaps in the project delivery Reduce Workflow Cycle Time process. A process enhancement, such as BIM, that can 33% positively impact this perennial problem will be highly Reduce Project Duration valued. Not surprisingly, a large percentage of owners 33% of vertical projects in MHC’s 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report also find these benefits important. Reduce Construction Cost 22% ■■F  ewer claims/litigation is owners’ next most important internal benefit. Claims and litigation may rank highly with owners because of their visibility and the potential financial risk they involve. Benefits_Q21_O T  ied for third place at 33% are reduced errors in ■■ documents, reduced workflow cycle time and reduced project duration. These specific benefits are critical because they impact aspects of project processes that owners believe contribute to better project outcomes. ■■R  educed construction cost rates least important of these benefits. As with several other low-ranking factors, the challenge of attributing this benefit reliably to BIM use is more likely the cause of its low rank than its lack of importance. SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction    22
  • 25. Sidebar:  Business Benefits BIM Capabilities that Benefit Infrastructure Projects T he specialized nature of Simulation parties. By modeling the existingTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE infrastructure projects Once surface and subsurface surface and subsurface conditions creates the opportunity conditions are modeled, engineers of the entire downtown, PB could for a number of benefits can simulate the impact of their produce numerous highly descriptive resulting from BIM technologies and proposed design solutions. For and compelling animations that processes. Even clash detection, a example, by using computational definitely accelerated the complex staple of vertical BIM, has special flow analysis, an engineer can assess evaluation and approval process. significance on infrastructure the downstream impact of a dam on See an example at < projects. According to Dan Klancnik, the existing natural water system. watch?v=mWfwnkEbc4Q>. VDC manager at the Walsh Group It is also possible to simulate the in Chicago, “Conflicts tend to be effect of a natural disaster on the Visualization for much more expensive in treatment built environment. This was done Business Development plants and heavy construction than in in Seattle to assess the impact Marketing BIM capability is one of the commercial work, so the benefits [of of an earthquake to an elevated top internal business benefits of BIM BIM] are easily realized.” highway and the surrounding for infrastructure reported by current grade level improvements. To see users in this SmartMarket Report (see Civil Conditions the video, go to < page 21). Combining that goal with A building has a defined footprint watch?v=hos_uIKwC-c>. the power of visualization for highly where it touches the earth, and complex engineering solutions, once the foundation is in place, the Engaging Community many firms are modeling proposed complex realities of the geophysical Stakeholders approaches to projects during the environment that surrounds it have Large roadway and tunnel projects marketing phase. This allows them minimal impact on construction. in urban areas are complex and to demonstrate their BIM prowess at Horizontal projects, by contrast, can require choices between many the same time they impress the client are subject to every nuance of the alternative approaches before with their understanding of the unique extensive amount of terra firma with the final engineering solution is aspects of the project. ■ which they engage. “No two feet of approved for implementation. This a roadway is like any other two feet,” process is further complicated says Eric Cylwik, BIM engineer for by required involvement from the Heavy and Civil Group of Sundt numerous stakeholder groups whose Construction in Tempe, Ariz. members are often non-technical Many firms putting BIM to work and have difficulty understanding the on civil projects believe in using a differences between options based variety of inputs including GIS data, on the handful of design documents underground radar, laser scanning, and renderings that are typically test borings, and any other source produced for these purposes. of reliable information to develop a The Alaskan Way Viaduct and complete-as-possible model of the Seawall Replacement project in existing civil conditions with which Seattle, Wash., is just such a project. they will be working. Once that model Coursing through the heart of the is in place, engineers can leverage it city’s downtown business area, its for nearly endless types of analysis, impact is enormous. The project’s simulation and visualization to engineering firm, PB, developed 98 optimize design solutions. Says Jay different alternatives, from elevated Mezher, VDC Manager for Parsons highways to tunnels, which had to be Brinckerhoff (PB), “You can model and comparatively evaluated and then analyze as many issues in horizontal narrowed down to a final plan with projects as you can in buildings.” the involvement of a large array of McGraw-Hill Construction   23 SmartMarket Report
  • 26. Business Benefits  CONTINUED Top Benefits by Phase BIM is still maturing in its applicability throughout the High/Very High BIM Value forTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA lifecycle of a project. As a result, benefits are not being Infrastructure by Project Phase experienced at equal levels across all phases by every Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 player type. Respondents were asked to report on the A/E Firms level of value they are currently receiving, by phase, from Contractors the use of BIM on infrastructure projects. Design and construction documentation are Owners assigned the highest values by the most respondents Programming (53% and 51%, respectively). Predictably strong rating 25% from A/E firms (59% and 53%, respectively) contribute to 19% this high valuation, which align with the results of MHC’s 24% 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report on vertical construction. Planning However, design and construction documentation 34% also have high value to contractors and owners. In fact, 32% the strong recognition of this benefit by contractors 44% highlights broad acknowledgement of the growing importance of collaboration between A/E firms and Design contractors during these phases. These are also the 59% phases for which BIM has been implemented the longest 45% and on the most projects, so it is not surprising that more 44% people are familiar with those benefits. Construction Documentation The high levels of importance assigned to other phases point to a few emerging trends. 53% 46% ■■ 4  4% of the owners assign high value to the use of 47% BIM for the planning phase, where its ability to visually convey complex engineering solutions is Bid Letting proving increasingly valuable for review and approval 21% processes with nontechnical stakeholder groups. 26% 2  9% of the owners also assign high value to BIM’s ■■ 6% contribution to the maintenance phase, an aspect Construction of rapidly growing interest in operations and 37% maintenance throughout the industry. 55% T  here is increased interest in using BIM for closeout ■■ 41% and operations throughout the industry. This is Project Closeout supported by comparison with the results of MHC’s 25% 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report, which examined BIM adoption in building construction. 25% While a comparable percentage perceived the value of 24% BIM during the design and construction phases, only Maintenance 16% from the earlier survey found BIM added value in 24% project closeout and 15% during the operations and 17% maintenance phase, compared to roughly one quarter of the current respondents. 29% SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction    Benefits_Q27 24
  • 27. Business Benefits  CONTINUED Top Benefits by Project Process BIM generates varying degrees of value for each player High/Very High BIM Value forTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA type across different project processes: Infrastructure by Project Process Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 S  patial coordination is identified by the largest number ■■ of contractors (65%) and A/E firms (56%) as a process A/E Firms where BIM provides high value. Contractors Owners view it with less enthusiasm (25%), probably Owners because the process is not as visible to them, and in most Spatial Coordination cases they already expect a fully coordinated project. 56% S  tructural analysis is valued at the second highest for ■■ 65% A/E firms (41%). 25% Not surprisingly, it lags with contractors (23%) and owners (25%), again likely because of their relative lack of Structural Analysis direct involvement with that activity. 41% 23% ■■S  urprisingly, more A/E firms cite the high contribution of BIM to quantity takeoff (38%) and cost estimating 25% (31%) than contractors (22% and 17%, respectively). Greater Client Engagement This is likely a result of contractors’ long-standing 35% reliance on traditional methods and the fact that reliable, 28% detailed quantity takeoff and estimating directly from 0% BIM is still an emerging practice, whereas it provides a newfound capability for design firms. Quantity Take-Off 38% ■■3  5% of A/E firms consider BIM’s ability to foster greater 22% client engagement important. This result spotlights the important contribution of 0% enhanced visualization to that process. Almost as many A/E Less Time Documenting firms (33%) value spending less time on documentation, 33% a benefit of the front-end loaded BIM process. 23% Lower-scoring processes include submittals, 0% 4D scheduling, automated machine guidance, Cost Estimation environmental impact/feasibility studies, and operation 31% and maintenance of an asset (which no player rate as high or very high). As BIM usage matures and technology 17% advances, the value of BIM to each of these important, but 25% currently low-scoring, processes is expected to increase. Submittals Process Certainly, the importance that 29% of the owners and 21% 24% of the A/E firms place on the value of BIM during the 31% maintenance phase of a project (see page 24 for more 38% information) indicates that the industry believes that BIM offers great potential in these areas. Benefits_Q28 McGraw-Hill Construction   25 SmartMarket Report
  • 28. Business Benefits  CONTINUED Impact of Project Factors on Benefits While there is much variability among the value of project Most Important Infrastructure Project FactorsTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA factors by player, one factor, project complexity, rates that Add Value to BIM Use equally high (total of 61%) among all respondent types. Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 This strong result for infrastructure projects emphasizes A/E Firms the perceived value of BIM for managing large amounts Contractors of information among multiple participants more Owners effectively than traditional approaches, a benefit that impacts all users equally. Project Complexity Project complexity is also one of the few top factors 61% for which an equivalent percentage (63%) found value in 63% vertical construction in MHC’s 2009 Business Value of BIM 63% SmartMarket Report; however, for buildings, this was the BIM-Knowledgeable Design Professionals on the Project third highest rated factor rather than the first. In fact, all the 64% other top five factors were selected by a larger percentage 54% of organizations using BIM in buildings in 2009 compared 50% to those using it for infrastruture in 2011. One of the few exceptions is project size, which was only selected by 41% Interoperability between Team Members Softwares of the 2009 respondents. This combination of size and 56% complexity reveals that it is the complexity of large projects 48% that is perceived to offer the greatest opportunity in the 57% infrastructure sector. Number of BIM-Knowledgeable Firms on the Project 49% Variation by Player 44% A/E FIRMS 63% A surprising 64% of A/E firms place high importance on BIM-Knowledgeable Construction Firms on the Project having BIM-knowledgeable design professionals on the 45% project. This result is particularly striking when compared to the 41% who cite previous experience working with 51% the other companies on a project as critical. In an industry 38% known for valuing long-term relationships, this signals a Project Size very important cultural change driven by the perception of 46% tangible value. 44% CONTRACTORS 50% Interestingly, a relatively small number (27%) of contractors Contract Form that Supports BIM/Collaboration assign a similarly high importance to project budget. This 47% may indicate a belief that projects of any budget can benefit 43% from BIM, not just the most expensive ones. 25% OWNERS BIM-Knowledgeable Client The most popular choice (75%) among owners is project 44% budget, probably closely linked in their minds to project 39% complexity, to which 63% of them assign top importance. 0% Owners also place strong value on working with firms with BIM experience. 63% consider the number Project Budget of BIM-knowledgeable firms on a project important, 49% the same percentage that recognize the importance of 27% project complexity. 75% SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction    26 Benefits_Q29
  • 29. Business Benefits  CONTINUED Top Current Benefits Not surprisingly, each player has a very different view of Most Important BIM Benefits that ContributeTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA the top current benefits of using BIM for infrastructure. Value to Infrastructure Projects Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 Variation by Player A/E Firms A/E FIRMS Contractors The A/E responses are largely in agreement with the owner’s Owners responses. The only area selected by significantly more A/E Reduced Conflicts & Changes During Construction respondents than owners is reduced conflicts and changes during construction. One factor that may make this benefit 55% particularly appealing to A/E firms is BIM’s ability to convey 65% design intent, which reduces the likelihood that the contractor 47% will make major changes to the project during construction. Improved Overall Project Quality CONTRACTORS 44% 69% of contractors cite reduced conflicts and changes 50% during construction as important, the highest percentage 59% of any group for any of the benefits. It also has the highest combined total percentage (58%) across all player types. Lower Risk & Better Predictability of Outcomes 46% of contractors also give high marks to prefabrication 37% of larger and more complex parts of projects, a BIM trend 43% that is well established and growing. Among the company 35% types that comprise the contractor category, specialty Prefabrication of Larger, More Complex Parts contractors are especially enthusiastic regarding this benefit, 35% with 38% reporting it as having very high importance and none rating it with low or no importance. 46% 31% OWNERS The highest percentage of owners (59%) select improved Better-Performing Completed Infrastructure overall project quality as an important BIM benefit, making 38% this the second most important benefit overall, with a 34% combined total of 48%. 40% The benefits of reduced total project cost and reduced Improved Review & Approval Cycles overall project schedule are also selected by a significant percentage of owners (44% and 38%, respectively), but their 36% relatively low level of selection by design and construction 32% respondents keep them out of the top group of BIM benefits 38% as shown in the chart at right. Other Benefits Falling short of the top group of current BIM benefits are improved individual participant productivity and improved profitability of participating companies. While certainly desirable outcomes, these benefits are likely selected by Benefits_Q30 fewer respondents as important due to a lack of reliable track record of achieving them, a persistent trend throughout all the lower-ranked data. As more data are collected from BIM teams across the industry, these benefits are sure to rise in perceived value. McGraw-Hill Construction    27 SmartMarket Report
  • 30. Business Benefits  CONTINUED Top Benefits in Five Years All players believe that reduced conflicts and changes Areas of Greatest Value to BIM Practitioners forTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA during construction will be their top future benefit of Infrastructure Projects in 5 Years using BIM for infrastructure. This finding corresponds Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 to the top current benefit of using BIM (see page 27). A/E Firms Reducing conflicts and changes during construction can Contractors have the greatest impact on improving project schedule and productivity and reducing the risk of cost and Owners schedule overruns. Reduced Conflicts & Changes during Construction Lower risks and better predictability of outcomes is 75% also an important benefit for all of the players. A similar 69% percentage (64%) considered this to be an important 76% benefit of BIM for buildings in the future in MHC’s 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report, which Lower Risk & Better Predictability of Outcomes demonstrates how valuable it is across project sectors. 60% 60% Variation by Player 61% The owners outpace the A/E firms and contractors in their selection of improved productivity (71%) as a highly Higher Quality, Better-Performing Completed Infrastructure valued future benefit of using BIM for infrastructure. This 61% result is striking because it indicates an understanding 59% that although this benefit accrues first to the companies 50% providing the labor, it ultimately controls cost on a Improved Productivity project—always a critical concern for owners. Reflecting their unique perspective on what 58% constitutes a benefit of BIM, the group also shows the 54% strongest level of support for: 71% ■■Improved review and approval cycles (63%) Improved Review & Approval Cycles This result demonstrates an awareness of the value that 52% streamlining decision making provides for everyone. 50% ■■L  ower risk and better predictability of outcomes (61%) 63% and reduced total project cost (59%) Reduced Total Project Cost The importance of these areas reinforces the owners’ 52% focus on the elements by which their performance 47% ultimately will be measured. 59% Interestingly, the fewest owners place high value on the future benefit of higher-quality, better-performing completed infrastructure, which should accrue the most relative benefit to them. This may be because there currently is not enough evidence of the ability to achieve that result, and their opinion may shift once data are collected to establish that potential. Benefits_Q31 SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   28
  • 31. ca se st ud y Use of BIM on Dams, Canals and Levees THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE The Panama Canal Authority added BIM to the workflow at its ongoing $6 billion expansion project, primarily for use by the design team; however future plans call for use of BIM in other tasks, including scheduling. B uilding information modeling Seattle District, says that unlike the dam. Woods notes that the facility had (BIM) is beginning to pique the “top-down” approach that the Corps relatively complex geometries, such as interest of public entities that used to implement BIM on vertical a horn modeled as an elliptical curve, own, operate and maintain building projects, the adoption of traction water conduit modeled as dams, canals and levees. Such critical BIM on civil projects is starting in an ogee parabolic curve, and a flood infrastructure is generally expected to the trenches. “We have engineers control tunnel modeled as a helical remain in operation for many decades, interested in trying to get [BIM] into horseshoe. Additionally, a pedestrian and some owners recognize the long- the workflow, and we are helping to bridge comes in on an angle and has term benefits of creating models for support that,” he says. a slope. ongoing analysis and improvement Woods says that a handful of Multiple disciplines worked on the of facilities. districts are starting to test the model, including structural, mechanical, technology’s applications in civil civil and geotechnical. Through its U.S. Army Corps of projects, including recent work on coordination efforts, the team discovered Engineers the Howard Hanson Dam through its that a planned drilling location for The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Seattle District. Initially, engineers reinforcement of the fish ladder would released its BIM Roadmap in 2006, and chose to model the dam as a way to have clipped the existing structure. since then it has made great strides by monitor a depression that appeared on “That was an interesting exercise in cost requiring use of the technology on its an abutment. The team used terrestrial avoidance,” Woods says. vertical building projects. Recently, the and aerial LIDAR data to build a 3D The team was also able to pullImage courtesy of MWH Global Corps started implementing 3D modeling site model. quantities from the model, such as and BIM on civil works projects as well. The team has since built models on volume of concrete, rebar and structural Van Woods, CAD/BIM manager top of that data, including a BIM model steel; volume of rock and soil excavation; in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers of a new fish passage facility at the and vertical and horizontal surface areas. CONTINUED McGraw-Hill Construction   29 SmartMarket Report
  • 32. y ud Use of BIM on Dams, Canals and Levees st ED se U N ca TI N CO Although the Corps’ use of BIM on earth dam components. Other modeled Pansic notes that the biggest THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE civil projects is years behind its efforts elements include filling and emptying challenge has been getting up to speed in vertical building, Steve Hutsell, components, large fixed-wheel gate on how BIM can be applied in civil geospatial section chief in the Seattle valves, and 60 control buildings per lock projects while sticking to the project’s District, says it will be part of the Corps’ complex. All mechanical systems and aggressive schedule. “We are coming future workflows. “You’ll see more electrical controls for the complex are up the learning curve, so there have civil projects with 3D as a requirement also modeled, as well as supporting been situations where we had to go for design and construction,” he adds. utilities. Additional civil works and back to the conventional approach and “Within the Corps, there’s recognition earthwork models were created by then come back later to catch up in the of its value in the vertical world. The outside consultants. BIM model. It hasn’t been 100 percent question we’re trying to answer is: Can Although the authority left the according to the grand plan.” we not achieve those same results in implementation plan up to the Although the project is designed in civil works?” consortium, Pansic says having all BIM, the build team is not required to parties on the same platforms aided with use BIM. All construction documents The Panama Canal coordination of models from the different will be provided in 2D. Still, Pansic sees In recent years, the Panama Canal disciplines. “We had to resolve a conflict greater use of BIM on the project in the Authority added BIM to the workflow at recently with the high-mast lighting future. He says the authority plans to its ongoing $6 billion expansion project. required for operation of the locks,” contract a BIM consultant to develop Nick Pansic, deputy design manager for he says. “The locations of those light a 4D schedule for the project. The the project with MWH Global, has been poles are interfering with some access authority may also consider using the involved with the project for more than roadways needed for equipment. The model for facilities management in the a decade, and recently was asked by the BIM tool is an easy way to quickly identify future, but those plans have not been authority to implement BIM. where we have those conflicts and finalized, he says. Pansic says the initiative provided present that to the contractor and owner.” Beyond the benefits for the project, MWH with an entrée into BIM for The team designed the project to Pansic says MWH is gaining a critical civil works. “I was excited to see Level of Development 300 standards, understanding of the technology. it requested,” he says. “I knew it which enables the team to create “They have been looking for ways would challenge us to up our game construction documents and provide to introduce this technology and and figure out a new way to design rough quantity takeoffs for estimating. understand what is needed to make this projects versus traditional delivery of Pansic says the team didn’t link structural a standard approach going forward,” something like this.” or hydraulic intelligence for analysis he says. “Having a real project with real The master plan includes several purposes to the model, since that would challenges and lessons learned will dredging projects, but the BIM initiative require a higher level of development. help with other projects in the future.” ■ is focused on the Third Set of Locks project. MWH is part of a design joint venture with Tetra Tech and the Dutch firm Iv-Infra. The joint venture is subcontracted under the design-build consortium Grupo Unidos por el Canal.Image courtesy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers The authority specified the BIM platform that would be used for the project, but left the implementation plan largely up to the design consortium, Pansic says. The team’s primary focus for modeling is the reinforced concrete structures The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is testing the use of BIM on infrastructure that retain the water, as well as some projects, including a new fish ladder at Howard Hanson Dam in Washington State. SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   30
  • 33. Data:­Investment and ROI Top Investments in BIM for Infrastructure Marketing BIM capability is the leading focus for both Focus of BIM Infrastructure InvestmentsTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA current (38%) and future (51%) investment across all (Current and Future) respondents. This result is not surprising because A/E Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 firms and contractors report that the ability to market new 2011 capabilities is currently one of the top benefits from BIM 2016 for infrastructure (see page 21). This also contributes to why few owners indicate that this is a focus for their BIM Marketing BIM Capability investments. Among the different player types, architects 38% show a slightly greater degree of current (40%) and 51% significantly more future (62%) commitment to a high or very high level of investment. Software that Supports BIM The next most important current and future 35% investment for all respondents is software that supports 50% BIM. Among the players, architects (subset of the A/E Developing Collaborative BIM Processes firms) have the lowest current percentage (29%) of firms investing at high or very high levels, but they appear 33% to be the most aggressive future investors, with 57% 49% forecasting that level five years out. Owners also predict New/Upgraded Hardware strong growth over the period. 33% New or upgraded hardware required to operate BIM 46% software scored third highest, but its importance does Developing Custom Libraries not increase quite as much over five years as other top investment types. This perhaps reflects a belief that 31% near-term upgrades will suffice. In general, architects 37% and engineers focus on this more than contractors, likely Training on BIM due to their high level of involvement in authoring and 30% analyzing large model files. 42% Investments with a High Percentage Customization/Interoperability Solutions of Increase Expected 29% Developing collaborative BIM processes shows the 43% greatest percentage increase, with the number of high and very high investors increasing dramatically during this period—from 33% in 2011 to 49% in 2016. This reflects the increasing awareness that while hardware and software are prerequisites, enhanced inter-company processes will generate the greatest value. Invest_Q18 The numbers of organizations placing high priority on investments in training on BIM and customization/ interoperability solutions, while somewhat lower currently than other categories, are expected to increase significantly. By contrast, developing custom libraries shows the least predicted growth in importance, perhaps reflecting a belief that, similar to hardware, near-term investments will reduce future needs. McGraw-Hill Construction   31 SmartMarket Report
  • 34. Investment and ROI  CONTINUED Return on Investments of BIM for Infrastructure Because currently there is no widely accepted way Perceived ROI on Infrastructure BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA to calculate ROI on BIM, respondents were asked to Investment by Expertise Level estimate their ROI in seven broad categories. The Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 findings demonstrate that the majority of respondents are finding that using BIM for infrastructure has value, and a significant percentage find that they are gaining Negative/Break-Even ROI 50% or Greater ROI significant returns from their investments in BIM. 47% ■■O  ne third of respondents currently using BIM for 43% infrastructure work show negative or break-even ROI. 38% Almost half (47%) of owners fall into this category, followed by A/E firms at 37%. 30% ■■M  ore than one quarter of all respondents report ROI of 25% or better, with nearly one third of the contractors 21% reporting that attractive level. Comparisons with the results reported in MHC’s 2009 14% Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report are striking. That report examined the ROI of BIM used for buildings, 5% and the findings again are quite similar, demonstrating 2% that BIM adoption for infrastructure is lagging behind its adoption for buildings by a few years. Beginner Moderate Advanced Expert In 2011, 67% report a positive ROI for BIM use on infrastructure, compared to 63% for buildings. The percentage experiencing a high ROI of more than 50% Perceived ROI on Infrastructure BIM Investment Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 A/E Firms Contractors Owners Negative/Break-Even 33% More than 25% ROI: 26% 29% 26% 21% 21% 20% 19% 17% 16% 15% 16% 13% Invest_ROIExpertise 12% 11% 11%11% 10% 10% 10% 10% 2% Negative Break-Even Less than 10% 10%-25% 26%-50% 51%-100% Over 100% SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   32
  • 35. Investment and ROI Return on Investments of BIM for Infrastructure  CONTINUED is the same in both surveys—15%. The overall greater A  t the other extreme, 43% of BIM experts claim highTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA ■■ experience with BIM by the players in this survey positive ROI (50% or greater). Only 2% of beginners combined with their relative lack of experience with using believe they are receiving that level of ROI. it for infrastructure may account for these results. Comparing the results by level of expertise to the 2009 report reveals a similar pattern. Far more beginners (62%) ROI Investments by Level of Expertise reported negative/break-even ROI in 2009, but among There is a strong correlation between respondents’ the experts, the percentage in 2009 who experienced reported ROI on BIM for infrastructure and their BIM 50% or greater ROI is 39%, slightly lower than the 2011 expertise level. infrastructure results. Again, this suggests that their N  early half (47%) of BIM beginners are experiencing ■■ greater overall knowledge of BIM from building projects negative or break-even ROI in BIM for infrastructure. may be impacting the ROI of those who consider themselves beginners in BIM for infrastructure. Measuring ROI of BIM for Infrastructure 56% of all respondents engage in formal measurement of Formal Measurement of ROI on BIM ROI for BIM on at least some portion of their infrastructure for Infrastructure Projects projects, compared to 46% of BIM users on buildings in Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 MHC’s 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report. This increase may be due to greater overall familiarity with A/E Firms Contractors Owners BIM in the industry since 2009. Among all the organizations that measure ROI on some 56% Formally Measure ROI portion of their projects, the largest group (28%) do so on 53% less than 25% of them. Most of these are A/E firms and contractors, who are typically not highly experienced with 46% calculating ROI and thus only do so on a relatively small 42% percentage of their projects. Also, many organizations are probably assuming that the metrics for a few projects 28% 28% reasonably apply across all of them, and thus measuring ROI 26% on a sample of their portfolio is adequate. 16% 15% 15% 13% 13% Variation by Player A/E FIRMS AND CONTRACTORS 5% 58% of A/E firms conduct ROI measurement on at least some of their projects, followed closely by contractors at 54%. None Less than 25% 25%-50% Greater than 50% OWNERS Taking the lead at both extremes, 53% of owners conduct no ROI measurement, while another 16% of them are measuring ROI on half or more of their projects. related to their construction programs. But if ROI is not In both cases, this is probably a reflection of organization- being measured as a standard practice, it is unlikely that wide policies. Organizations committed to measuring the introduction of BIM, in and of itself, would instigate this ROI as a standard practice will also do so for investments major process change. McGraw-Hill Construction    33 SmartMarket Report
  • 36. Investment and ROI  CONTINUED Length of Time Measuring ROI About one quarter of all respondents that measure ROI Length of Time ROI Has Been FormallyTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA for BIM on infrastructure projects report having done Measured on BIM for Infrastructure Projects so for a long time (more than two years), with roughly (Among those Doing Formal Measurements) equal proportions of the three player types falling into Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 this category. A/E Firms Contractors Owners Variation by Player 44% of owners have been formally measuring ROI for a 47% 47% moderate length of time (one to two years), leading that 44% category by a significant margin. Thus, even though a relatively smaller portion of the owners engage in formal 34% measurement, those that do have been conducting such 30%29% measurements for a longer time. 23%24%22% This is likely due to long-standing organizational policies that require ROI measurement on a wide range of technology investments across the organization, therefore establishing it as an expectation of construction activity as well. Almost half (47%) of the A/E firms and contractors that report measuring ROI are new to it, having done so Less than More than for less than one year. 1 Year 1-2 Years 2 Years Future Plans to Measure ROI For the respondents that report using BIM for Measurement of ROI on BIM for infrastructure projects but not measuring its ROI, a Infrastructure Projects in the Future significant percentage are interested in measuring ROI (Among those Not Measuring ROI) eventually, but the data also demonstrate that they are Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 unlikely to begin any time soon. A/E Firms Contractors Owners O  verall, 35% indicate they are likely to engage in formal ■■ measurement of ROI at some point in the future, and 46% 44% over 20% are not sure. This is similar to the responses 40% in 2009 from firms using BIM for buildings, highlighting an industry-wide need that technology companies and 30% 31% industry organizations can address to help create more 27% universally accepted methods for measurement. Invest_Q25 20% 21% ■■ A  t just over 7%, those predicting they probably will 16% begin formally measuring ROI within the next 12 months are the smallest group overall. 9% 10% 6% This low level of near-term commitment is likely due to the lack of well-established methods for measuring ROI, especially among A/E firms and contractors, where the Probably Probably Not Probably within Not Never for at Least the Next Sure practice is not widespread to begin with. Another Year 12 Months SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   34
  • 37. Investment and ROI  CONTINUED How to Improve ROI For players that measure the ROI of BIM, the top two Most Important Means of Improving ROI onTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA factors that can raise their perception of ROI are project- BIM for Infrastructure Projects oriented benefits, not internally focused ones. (Among those Doing Formal Measurements) Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 A  t 66%, the leading factor is improved project process ■■ outcomes (such as fewer RFIs and field coordination Improved Project Process Outcomes problems). This represents an enlightened understanding 66% that all participants benefit from smoother, more Better Multi-Party Communication trouble-free projects. This was especially strongly felt by 63% contractors (71%). Improved Productivity B  etter multi-party communication, a close second at ■■ 60% 63%, reflects the belief that the use of modeling can improve information exchange so effectively that each Positive Impact on Marketing company will directly benefit. 56% These were also the top two factors selected by Reduced Cycle Time for Activities organizations using BIM for buildings in MHC’s 2009 survey. 52% Six other factors considered the most important means Lower Project Cost of improving ROI by 30% to 52% of the respondents are project-based benefits, including reduced cycle time, lower 44% project cost, positive impact of sustainability, increased Positive Impact on Sustainability prefabrication, faster plan approvals and permits, and 38% improved job safety. Increased Prefabrication These finding support the conclusion that better project processes generate notable benefits for individual 37% participants, benefits they believe are demonstrable in Faster Plan Approval & Permits their ROI. 36% However, internally focused benefits are still important to the respondents, with improved productivity and Positive Impact on Recruiting/Retaining Staff positive impact on marketing scoring third and fourth in 34% the ranking—at 60% and 56% respectively. In addition, one Improved Jobsite Safety third find great value in the impact of BIM on recruiting and 32% retaining staff. Green Infrastructure 38% of the firms that measure the first in the U.S. to rate the Engineering Companies (ACEC) the ROI of BIM in infrastruc- sustainability level of all types and the American Public Works Invest_Q26 ture consider improved sustain- of infrastructure across three Association (APWA). ability an important means to dimensions: economic, social Government at all levels is improve ROI. This result is con- and environmental. also engaged in pursuing green sistent with rising industry The Envision standard may infrastructure. Cities like Chi- interest in green infrastructure. have a broad reach since it is cago and Philadelphia have One major milestone for the supported by leading infra- launched major initiatives, and pursuit of green infrastruc- structure industry associations the federal government has ture in the U.S. is the launch in the U.S. The founding organi- begun to look at how to green of the Institute for Sustain- zations of the ISI are the Amer- the procurement of infrastruc- able Infrastructure’s (ISI) Envi- ican Society of Civil Engineers ture across all agencies. sion standard. This system is (ASCE), the American Council of McGraw-Hill Construction   35 SmartMarket Report
  • 38. Investment and ROI  CONTINUED How to Improve the Value of BIM The factors expected to improve the value of BIM by Factors Most Important to Overall Experience ofTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA organizations that are using BIM for infrastructure but are Value from BIM on Infrastructure Projects not measuring ROI correlate with the benefits considered (Among those Not Measuring ROI) important by those that already measure the ROI of BIM. Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 6  3% of both groups cite better multi-party ■■ Better Multi-Party Communication communication as being of high or very high 63% importance, which indicates widespread support for Positive Impact on Marketing the value of this collaborative project benefit. 46% I nternally focused benefits of positive impact on ■■ Improved Project Process Outcomes marketing (46%) and improved productivity (42%), 43% rank in the top four for this group, but at distinctly lower percentages than with the group that measures Improved Productivity ROI—56% and 60% respectively (see page 35). 42% A major difference between those who measure BIM ROI Reduced Cycle Time for Activities and those who do not involves the level of importance 35% assigned to improved project process outcomes. 43% of Lower Project Cost those that do not measure ROI assign top importance to this factor, versus 66% of those that do (see page 35). 31% The differential between the two groups again Increased Prefabrication reinforces the trend found throughout the data that 27% benefits that are more difficult to measure are less valued Faster Plan Approval & Permits than those that can be more easily gauged. Thus, the respondents who measure ROI may be more willing to 24% assign importance to elements that have established methods of measurement. Comparison to BIM Users for Buildings in the 2009 Survey The results of the importance of BIM benefits that improve ROI on building projects from MHC’s 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report were not divided between Some interesting points of comparison include: those who measure ROI and those who do not, but they still offer useful comparisons to the current results on ■■ B  etter multi-party communication, improved project the factors that can improve BIM’s contribution to ROI on process outcomes and improved productivity are infrastructure projects. the top three factors contributing to BIM’s value for The most striking differential is that the percentage Invest_Q24 buildings in 2009. These factors all clearly contribute who consider all of these factors important is significantly to value regardless of project type and are central to higher on all of the top measures, with the top five what BIM offers its users. measures selected by over 70%. While the ROI benefits ■■P  ositive impact on marketing ranks much higher reported by BIM users for infrastructure in the current in the overall infrastructure responses than in the survey are a little stronger than those from the firms building responses. using it for buildings in 2009, there is less of a clear sense in the industry about how to continue to improve ■■I ncreased prefabrication ranks much lower in their ROI. This suggests an opportunity for further infrastructure, while 71% considered it important in education and engagement, both by experienced BIM 2009 to improve ROI on buildings. This may suggest for infrastructure users and by software companies that prefabrication companies in infrastructure need to promoting BIM for infrastructure. promote the value of BIM use. SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   36
  • 39. ca se st ud y Use of BIM on Water and Wastewater Facilities M ajor design and read the 2D blueprints well, but they Arbennie Pritchett Water THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE construction firms could read the 3D model,” he says. Reclamation Facility are exploring ways “They could visualize it better to tell Some public authorities are embracing to maximize models us what changes were needed.” an integrated BIM approach. The within the design-bid-build delivery Bowen says the team saved Okaloosa County Water and Sewer system typical on water and time by identifying conflicts early Department in Florida selected CDM wastewater projects. However, many and being able to react quickly to Smith to design, construct, outfit, see far greater benefits to using BIM changes. For example, when the start up, performance test and obtain in a more integrated environment. design reached 90%, the team permits for the new 10 mgd Arbennie “We can model effectively on our identified a change in the floodplain Pritchett Water Reclamation Facility. The own, but clearly BIM works best with that resulted in a need to raise the team used BIM throughout the project a collaborative approach,” says John facility by one foot. “We were able to lifecycle, including delivery of a model Bowen, national BIM integration update our construction documents for operations and maintenance (O&M). manager at HDR Engineering. and the model in less than 40 hours,” Through a design-build process, he says. “In 2D, we’d be talking 300 the team used BIM to help compress Des Moines Combined to 400 hours to do that.” the design schedule to just over five Sewer Solids Separation However, the BIM benefits ended months, reviewing models with the Facility after the design process since the client throughout. The construction HDR was selected by the Des Moines contractor is not using BIM. Bowen team was provided with an early start Wastewater Reclamation Authority says it is a function of the design- package generated from the model, for design services on a combined bid-build process that is common in which consisted of building foundations, sewer solids separation facility in public sector infrastructure work. plumbing and electrical underground 2008. It was the authority’s first By comparison, on a biosolids utilities. This enabled the team to start project designed in BIM. Bowen says processing facility for an industrial site work 2.5 months before construction the client was hesitant at first about client in California, HDR is part of documents were complete. the process, which involved ongoing an integrated design-build team The model was used to create bid model reviews—rather than printed that is using BIM throughout design packages for subcontractors, who also documents—until around the 60% and construction. “We’ll see some used it in the field to aid in construction design stage. savings on the design side, but the and coordination efforts. “Early on, we showed them both big savings will be in construction Upon completion, the model was 2D sketches and a 3D model and because of the amount of time connected to an electronic O&M system found that a few engineers couldn’t saved,” he adds. that helps manage data equipment, datasheets and manuals. It was also used for training staff at the new plant. Although CDM makes effective use of BIM, William Nelson, senior vice president at CDM, says the technology has significant room for improvement. For example, he says, engineers do little to no analysis within its models, instead pulling data from the models, analyzing it and then re-inputting it. CDM is also unable to do its processImage courtesy of CDM Smith modeling, which simulates wastewater treatment behavior, within its models. On the Arbennie Pritchett Water Reclamation Facility, CDM Smith connected its “That is a major part of the puzzle that is models to an O&M system that manages equipment, datasheets and manuals. missing,” he adds. ■ McGraw-Hill Construction   37 SmartMarket Report
  • 40. y ud st se ca Use of BIM on Energy Projects B THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE IM is yielding powerful results on energy projects. Mortenson Construction, which was an early adopter of BIM in vertical building construction, extended that commitment into its Renewable Energy Group. “We wanted to push its limits to see what it could do,” says Sera Maloney, the group’s integrated construction manager. Wind Farms On its wind farm projects, Mortenson’s teams construct Mortenson Construction uses BIM models to resolve potential conflicts between a numerous turbines on vast sites wind tower’s electrical conduit and the structural rebar in its foundation. that often have varying conditions. Heavy equipment and materials may Scheduling is a major component Engineers at Enmax Power need to cross small rural bridges, of its modeling effort. Deliveries must Corporation, which owns and open streams or railroad tracks. be carefully planned so that materials operates an electricity distribution Underground and overhead utilities are placed in the right location and and transmission network around must also be considered. Many in the proper sequence. With solid Calgary, started modeling new farms are built on mountaintops, planning, construction follows almost substations in mid-2010. another challenge. “A blade an assembly line process, as crews “We build 3D models with transport truck could be up to 190 move from pad to pad, ideally in a near- intelligence,” says Lindsey Porteous, feet long with 19 axles,” she adds. repetitive pattern. electrical construction planner at “Driving that over a rural road will “We model every piece of the Enmax. “We create a single-line probably cause issues.” construction process,” she adds. “We diagram of the substation that shows Speed of construction is critical, have plan room computers located on the equipment. Then, we can click on as most farms must be delivered each site, and the 4D schedule is used in a device, such as a circuit breaker, and within one season, so Maloney says our daily meetings.” navigate to that on the 3D model of that preplanning is where BIM offers Models are also used for quantity station. You can click on it and get the the greatest benefit. The team takeoffs and systems coordination. part number, the manufacturer and investigates all site issues; considers For example, the electrical conduit the cost. You can also create accessory where dirt needs to be moved; for a tower, which can be 100 feet tall, parts for each device, so you can determines lay-down areas; and typically conflicts with the significant include things like the connector bolts.” maps how equipment and materials structural rebar required in the Porteous says modeling saved time will be moved around. foundations, she says. and reduced errors. The software On one of its projects, about 70 Mortenson has also leveraged its automatically creates wiring diagrams, towers were constructed on a U.S. preplanning modeling to create better which he notes are prone to errors Bureau of Land Management site. proposals. “We won a recent project using traditional design methods. TheImage courtesy of Mortenson Construction The team was given up to a three- based on the modeling we did [as part of team also generates bills of materials acre radius per tower to work in. After our proposal] because we showed that and estimates costs from its models. modeling each stage of the process, we knew the project better,” she says. Some suppliers provide his team Mortenson found it only needed with models of devices. “Instead of to use two acres per tower. “On Electrical Substations taking a week to build a model of a environmentally sensitive land, that’s Some owners in the energy sector circuit breaker, it takes 10 minutes,” a huge savings,” she adds. are also adding BIM to their workflow. he adds. ■ SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   38
  • 41. Data:­Non-Users Non-User Profile: Organization Type 54% of respondents report that they do not currently use BIM Non-User Profile: Company TypeTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA on infrastructure projects. Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 The player type data reveal a trend that runs through 74% the non-user profile—exposure to BIM use on vertical projects increases the likelihood of using BIM for infrastructure as well. 61% Owners have the highest percentage of non-users 54% 55% 55% (74%), probably due to the slower pace of BIM adoption in the infrastructure sector compared to the vertical (building) market. Infrastructure owners are less likely to do a large number of vertical projects that might expose 35% them to using BIM. 14% of owners also indicate that they do not understand what BIM is, compared to only 2% of architects and 4% of engineers. In contrast, architects have the lowest percentage of non-users (35%). Many architects may also practice in a variety of vertical project types. Thus, they are more likely to use BIM elsewhere in their firms and can apply the knowledge of its benefits to their infrastructure work. Trade/ Architect Engineer CM/GC Fabricator Owner Other The involvement of different types of engineers with BIM for infrastructure also supports this correlation: ■■N  early two-thirds of MEP engineers (represented in the “Other Engineers” pie chart below) use BIM on infrastructure projects. ■■Structural engineers are evenly divided. ■■T  wo thirds of civil engineers are non-users. These engineers are less likely to be involved with vertical projects compared with the other disciplines. Non-User Profile: Engineers by Discipline Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 NU_QS1 Users Non-Users Civil Engineer Structural Engineer Other Engineers 32% 48% 52% 60% 40% 68% McGraw-Hill Construction   39 SmartMarket Report
  • 42. Sidebar:  Non-Users Comments by Users: Converting Non-Users to Adopt BIM for Infrastructure Every organization currently using BIM on its infrastructure projectsTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE was, at some point, a non-user and made the transition to become a user. Although the specific triggers for how this happens at each organization are unique, there are three general paths to conversion. Starting With civil group in 2010, where the firm BIM by an owner requirement. This Vertical BIM I continues to innovate in applying is taking place at all levels from n some cases the organization BIM technologies and processes to local airport authorities, to state was already successfully infrastructure projects. departments of transportation, engaged with BIM on its vertical to large federal agencies such as work, then discovered some Growing BIM the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. specific, tangible application of it to Organically Robert Bank, Chief of the Civil a unique aspect of an infrastructure Organizations that specialize in Works Branch, Engineering & project, and subsequently started the infrastructure typically have not Construction of the Corps sees adoption process. had the chance to build BIM BIM as a fundamental part of the This happened with Sundt expertise on vertical work and have Corps’ approach of “solutioneering, Construction of Tempe AZ, where had to adopt BIM for infrastructure basically finding creative and president Doug Pruitt championed more organically. collaborative solutions to problems. the firm’s adoption of BIM in 2006 Infrastructure engineering As the projects get more complex, by forming an internal group called powerhouse Parsons Brinckerhoff our smart A/E industry partners are SIMCON, which provides BIM (PB) provides an example of this going to respond to the challenge.” services to its project teams. From approach, where some business It is most effective when an owner there its use grew steadily on Sundt’s units started leveraging 3D for is committed to BIM from the very vertical projects, especially with the visualization in the early 1990s, beginning of a project and will, as self-perform concrete group. including detailed rebar models George Pontikes, CEO of contractor In 2009 the firm found the right and computational fluid dynamics Satterfield & Pontikes, puts it, opportunity to apply BIM to Phase II in addition to 3D representations “drive the BIM train,” ensuring that of a light rail project, the first phase of of proposed dams, bridges and all team members understand the which Sundt had built conventionally. highways for client presentations. importance of compliance. Such Coordination of underground utilities “Our culture at PB has always been committed owners are critical for had been a major challenge on Phase very supportive of innovation,” driving industry-wide adoption. ■ I, and by modeling underground data says Jay Mezher, manager of virtual from 700 locations on Phase II, they design and construction in PB’s discovered over 1,000 issues that New York City office and part of the would have created field problems. global technology team of parent This successful proof-of-concept company Balfour Beatty, which led to a more ambitious application has mandated an all-BIM policy of BIM involving laser scanning by 2014. “Visualization of complex and modeling of dangerously engineering solutions is so critical,” deteriorating civil and structural he continues, “that at this point every conditions on a complex and group in PB is modeling.” time-critical bridge replacement. Establishing BIM’s clear value in Owner-Driven Adoption that instance, SIMCON placed Much infrastructure work is a permanent BIM engineer in government related, and many Sundt’s self-performing heavy organizations are brought into using SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   40
  • 43. Non-Users  CONTINUED Non-User Profile: Organization Size and Location The size of an organization has a clear correlationTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA with BIM usage for infrastructure projects. Of the organizations that are not using BIM for infrastructure projects, almost three quarters (73%) are small or small to medium sized. (Refer to Methodology on page 60 for organization size definitions.) Only 16% of the non-users are large organizations. This may be due in part to the resources available for larger organizations that make the original investment in BIM technology and training more manageable. However, findings from the organizations that use BIM suggest that once small organizations adopt it, they more quickly achieve a high level of BIM implementation than larger organizations, demonstrating BIM’s applicability for these groups. (See page 13 for more information on BIM implementation by organization size.) Variation by Region An organization’s location within North America  seems to influence whether they have adopted BIM  for infrastructure. ■■T  he highest percentage (30%) of non-users are located the Southern U.S. ■■T  he Northeastern U.S. (17%) and Canada (9%) have the lowest percentages of non-users. Non-User Profile: Organization Size Non-User Profile: Location Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 37% 36% 30% 23% 21% 16% 17% 11% 9% Small to Medium Outside Small Medium to Large Large Northeast Midwest South West USA McGraw-Hill Construction   41 SmartMarket Report
  • 44. Non-Users  CONTINUED Non-User Profile: Project Type There are clear correlations between the types of Non-User Profile: Project TypeTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA infrastructure projects undertaken by organizations and Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 the percentage of those organizations that have begun User using BIM. Again, these results support the general trend Non-User that organizations that do a combination of infrastructure and vertical (building) construction are more likely to use Water BIM for infrastructure than organizations that do little 50% vertical construction. 52% Water Projects Roads, Highways & Bridges Projects involving water supply, treatment and recovery 39% are the most commonly reported infrastructure project 48% type. They are almost equally divided between users Public Parks & Recreation and non-users. Water treatment and recovery projects 37% typically involve some minor building work in addition to horizontal infrastructure work. 36% Energy Roads, Highways and Bridges 39% These projects were also done by a large percentage of 24% respondents, but they have the greatest proportion of non-users. A/E firms and contractors that specialize in Rail, Transit & Aviation this type of construction typically do not do very much 30% vertical work. 22% Waste Other Project Types 23% Energy, aviation and rail/transit projects show the largest proportion of BIM users, and again, these projects are 19% more typically handled by organizations that also do Other vertical construction. 33% 29% Nu_QS14 SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   42
  • 45. Non-Users  CONTINUED Non-User Attitude Toward BIM for Infrastructure Despite not currently using BIM for infrastructure, Variation by PlayerTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA non-users’ attitudes towards BIM are predominantly Among non-users, contractors and owners are the most positive (79%). Firms that have rejected BIM after engaged with the possibility of using BIM, with A/E firms experience with comprise a very small fraction of the comprising the largest percentage of non-users that are total (5% of A/E firms and 3% of contractors). A few more simply not interested in using it. have not tried it and are just not interested in using it, but This may be because many of the top benefits by far the majority indicate that they are interested in reported by contractors and owners, such as reduced exploring BIM adoption in the future, with well over 10% conflicts and changes during construction and currently in the process of actively evaluating it. prefabrication of larger, complex parts, are typically more These results are roughly equivalent, if slightly less tangible, measurable and visible than those enjoyed by positive, than those of the non-users of BIM for buildings A/E firms during the design phase, such as improved in MHC’s 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket review and approval cycles. Report, where almost one quarter of respondents were Also, the majority of North American A/E firms are already evaluating it and 11% reported having no interest small, and their resource limitations may reduce their in using it. Infrastructure has historically been a very interest in adoption. This conclusion is supported by traditional segment of the construction industry, and two of the top reasons that A/E firms cite for delaying slightly more skepticism is not surprising. adoption—the cost required and the view that BIM is less efficient for smaller projects (see page 48). Non-User Attitude Toward BIM for Infrastructure Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 A/E Firms Contractors Owners Negative 21% Positive 79% 58% 51% 43% 24% 22% 13%14% 14% 14% 14% 14% 11% 5% 3% We have We have not We have not We have not We have not used it but used it and used it but are used it and used it but are decided have no open to believe it will actively not to use interest exploring be valuable evaluating it it any more in using it its potential for us McGraw-Hill Construction    43 SmartMarket Report
  • 46. Non-Users  CONTINUED Non-User Forecast: Importance of BIM to the Infrastructure Industry in Five Years The generally positive forecast of the importance of BIM The positive perception of the future importance ofTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA to the infrastructure industry in five years by current BIM for infrastructure by owner non-users signals an non-users is another leading indicator of increased impending increase in demand from that sector, which will adoption of BIM for infrastructure projects. Only 4% of all have a major impact on driving adoption by other players. non-users believe it will have no importance in five years. Other findings in this study bear out the importance Even more promising, 25% believe it will have high or of owner demand in increasing adoption, including the very high importance. fact that nearly half of the A/E and contractor non-users Even with this optimistic forecast, infrastructure believe that owner demand for BIM will drive non-user respondents are more conservative than their building adoption, and that well over half of the A/E and contractor counterparts in the 2009 survey, where 81% expected non-users (67% of A/E firms and 57% of contractors) BIM to be very important in the next five years. Again, this believe that lack of demand is the biggest factor may be a cultural difference between infrastructure and influencing the decision to not use BIM. (See pages 50 building organizations. and 49 for more information.) A/E FIRMS Variation by Player In contrast, A/E firms appear to be the most skeptical of OWNERS BIM’s value for infrastructure. They represent the highest Owner non-users place the highest value on the proportion of those who expect that BIM will have no or importance of BIM in the future, with 43% of the low importance and the lowest proportion of those who owners indicating that BIM will have high or very believe it will have high or very high importance. high importance and 78% expecting it to have at least moderate importance. Non-User Forecast: Importance of BIM to Infrastructure Industry in 5 Years Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 A/E Firms Contractors Owners Low/No Importance 30% Moderate-Very High Importance 70% 54% 42% 35% 34% 27% 27% 20% 21% 9% 9% 7% 5% 5% 3% 2% Moderate High Very High None Low Importance Importance Importance Importance SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   44
  • 47. Non-Users  CONTINUED AEC Perception: BIM Usage for Infrastructure by Competitors When asked about their awareness of BIM usage in Non-User Perception of Competitors Use of BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA their markets, 71% of the A/E and contractor non-users (A/E Firms and Contractors) indicate that they believe their competitors are using Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 BIM. Strong perception of use by competitors could be a factor in the high level of interest in BIM adoption (see A/E Firms Contractors page 43 for the breakdown of non-users that express interest in BIM). Do Not Perceive Even though most of these non-users believe BIM is Perceive 29% Competitors being used by their competitors, they do not think that Use BIM 71% the level of implementation is very high. Most non-users (55% on average) perceive that a low level (<15% of 57% projects) of BIM use for infrastructure is taking place. 52% These results are strikingly similar to the perception of competitor use of BIM for buildings reported in MHC’s 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report, with almost every category within a few percentage points of the 2009 non-users. This suggests that, despite their 30% 28% more conservative estimates about the importance of BIM, non-users may feel competitive pressure to begin exploring it, which will expose them to the benefits 17% already reported by those using BIM for infrastructure. 10% Variation by Player 3% 3% While 28% of the A/E firms perceive no competitive BIM use, that percentage shrinks to 11% when considering <15% of 15%-30% 31% + of architects alone. In addition, while the percentage is small Not at All Projects of Projects Projects (3%), architects are the only firm type that believes that competitors are using BIM on more than 30% of their projects. Given the higher adoption levels by A/E firms involved in infrastructure evident in this survey, this estimation is consistent with the industry. In contrast, 37% of specialty contractors and 31% of engineers do not perceive any BIM use by their competitors, far more than the architect respondents. NU_Q4 McGraw-Hill Construction    45 SmartMarket Report
  • 48. Non-Users  CONTINUED AEC Perception: BIM Usage for Infrastructure by Clients 78% of A/E and contractor non-users believe that their Non-User Perception of Clients Use of BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA clients use BIM. While the overall pattern echoes the (A/E Firms and Contractors) perceptions of competitor use (see page 45), there are Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 some important variations, both in the expectations of overall use and by firm type. A/E Firms Contractors One critical difference is that client use is perceived to be more widespread and more intensive than competitor use. Perceive Perceive No Client Clients Use A  higher percentage of non-users believe that their clients ■■ BIM Use 22% BIM 78% are using BIM than believe that their competitors are. 58% 57% ■■ 2  0% of non-users believe their clients are using BIM on more than 15% of their projects, compared to 16% who perceive a similarly high level of use among their competitors. These results are in striking contrast the level of client usage expected by non-users of BIM for buildings in the 2009 survey. Only 66% of them believed their clients were 23% 22% using BIM, and only 13% believed that the owners were using BIM on 15% or more of their projects. This suggests 17% that in infrastructure, the expectation that owners 13% are using BIM may be a more significant factor in BIM 6% adoption rates than it was for buildings in 2009. 4% Variation by Player <15% of 15%-30% 31% of Like their perception of competitor use, more speciality Not at All Projects of Projects Projects contractors and engineers believe that clients are using no BIM compared to architects. However, the percentage that think there is no use is much lower. ■■  ngineers: 23% perceive no BIM use by their clients, E compared to 31% by their competitors. ■■  ontractors: 26% perceive no BIM use by their clients, C compared to 37% by their competitors. Only a small fraction (5%) of firms believe that clients are using BIM on more than 30% of their projects, a similar result to the evaluation of competitors’ BIM use. However, in this case, the few non-users perceiving these high levels of BIM implementation include architects, engineers and contractors, whereas only architects perceived high implementation levels among their competitors. NU_Q5 The percentage of architects that expect a high level of implementation among their clients is also greater than those that have similar expectations of their competitors—11% compared to only 3%. SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   46
  • 49. Non-Users  CONTINUED Owner Perceptions of BIM Usage for Infrastructure BIM Use by Design Perception of Industry Use of BIMTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA and Construction Firms (According to Owners) 73% of non-user owners believe that A/E firms and Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 contractors are using BIM. This is very similar to the estimation the non-user A/E firms and contractors have None for BIM use for infrastructure among their competitors. Low (less than 15% of Projects) In addition, non-user owners perceive the levels of Medium (15%-30% of Projects) implementation comparable to those reported by the High (31% or More of Projects) other player types. 5  4% believe that A/E firms and contractors use BIM on ■■ less than 15% of infrastructure projects. Perceived A/E Firm and Contractor Use of BIM 1  9% believe that A/E firms and contractors use BIM ■■ 4% on 15% or more of infrastructure projects, with a very small percentage believing BIM use on more than 30% of projects. 15% 27% BIM Usage by Other Owners Owners that do not use BIM for infrastructure are also similar in the estimation of the overall use of BIM by their peers to non-user A/E firms and contractor—23% 54% perceive no BIM use by other owners. On the other hand, the owners that do expect some level of BIM use in their peers perceive a much higher level of used compared to the perceptions of the other Perceived Use of BIM by Other Owners players—35% believe that other owners are using BIM on 15% or more of their projects. The level of BIM use that infrastructure owners perceive among their peers is notably higher than the 23% level of use that building owners perceived among their 35% peers in the 2009 BIM study, in which only 23% believed that other owners were using BIM on 15% or more of their projects. This more optimistic view of other owners’ use of 42% BIM is interesting, especially since owners currently are the lowest-usage group. The perception may stem from broad publicity related to comprehensive BIM programs being undertaken by large infrastructure owners such as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. NU_Q6Q7 McGraw-Hill Construction   47 SmartMarket Report
  • 50. Non-Users  CONTINUED Why BIM is Not Being Adopted for Infrastructure All of the top five reasons for delaying the adoption of Top Reasons for Delaying the Adoption ofTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA BIM for infrastructure were selected by over 40% of the BIM for Infrastructure non-user respondents. This demonstrates that several Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 issues may need to be addressed to encourage non-users A/E Firms to begin using BIM. The leading reason for delaying adoption among all Contractors three types of non-user respondents is the belief that Owners it is less efficient for smaller projects. This correlates Less Efficient for Smaller Projects with the lower rate of adoption among small and small 64% to medium sized organizations, whose projects would 59% generally be smaller. (See the Methodology section on page 60 for a breakdown of the size of the participants.) 64% Cost Required Variation by Player 50% A/E FIRMS 51% While important to all three groups, A/E firms are 50% especially concerned about training time for BIM. This is Training Time Required not surprising considering that dedicated time for staff 53% training is not generally as high a priority in A/E firms as in construction companies and owner organizations. 42% 43% OWNERS Owners find a lack of internal understanding of BIM to be Software Cost the second most important reason to delay adoption, and 46% significantly more of them are concerned about this issue 45% compared to other players. 41% Given the critical role that owner adoption can play Lack of Internal Understanding of BIM in encouraging the industry at large to adopt BIM, this finding indicates an important gap that software 41% companies and industry organizations should address. 44% 55% NU_Q10 SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   48
  • 51. Non-Users  CONTINUED Factors Influencing Lack of BIM Adoption for Infrastructure When non-users were asked to rate the importance of Top Influences on the Decision to Not UseTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA factors that impact their decisions not to use BIM for BIM for Infrastructure infrastructure projects, the overwhelmingly dominant Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 influence against adoption for A/E firms and contractors A/E Firms is the lack of demand by customers. This is most keenly Contractors felt by A/E firms. This finding also echoes the findings of MHC’s 2009 SmartMarket Report on BIM adoption for Owners buildings, revealing the importance of owner influence in Not Enough Demand all project sectors to encourage BIM adoption. 67% The impact of most other influences varied by player 57% type, which demonstrates the importance of targeting the 0% approach for BIM adoption to specific players. However, a couple of categories have roughly equal impact across Software Too Expensive all respondents. Insufficient time to evaluate the adoption 52% of BIM appears to be a problem for all involved. This 33% indicates a need that software companies and industry 36% organizations should address. On the other hand, few of the respondents from all Insufficient Time to Evaluate three players cite insurance or liability concerns as having 42% an influence on their not adopting BIM for infrastructure. 40% 43% Variation by Player Processes Dont Apply Well to What We Do A/E FIRMS 44% W  hile the cost for both software and hardware is an ■■ 31% important issue across the board, more A/E firms 36% report it as important. Hardware Upgrades Too Expensive M  ore A/E firms, compared to other players, feel that ■■ 36% BIM processes do not apply well to what they do and 30% that their current methods are better. This probably 30% relates directly to the concern among this group that BIM is less efficient for smaller projects. Insufficient Training Available 27% B  ecause they are responsible for authoring design ■■ 30% models and documents, more A/E firms are concerned about poor interoperability with CAD and the difficulty 36% of using BIM compared to contractors or owners. Poor Interoperability with CAD Applications CONTRACTORS 35% Contractors show the least concern with interoperability 22% issues related to existing authoring tools. 25% OWNERS Current Methods Are Better Lack of sufficient training is a particular concern of 35% owners (36%), which aligns with their reported lack of 20% internal understanding of BIM. 27% McGraw-Hill Construction    49 NU_Q3 SmartMarket Report
  • 52. Non-Users  CONTINUED Benefits that Would Encourage BIM Adoption for Infrastructure Even more than the factors that prevent BIM adoption, Top Factors That Can Drive Non-User AdoptionTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA the top factors that drive BIM adoption vary strongly of BIM for Infrastructure by player type. This is due to the different ways that Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 these organizations typically use BIM, and again strongly suggests that the approach to encouraging BIM A/E Firms adoption needs to vary strongly by player. In particular, Contractors the greatest differences are between owners and the Owners other two groups. More Accurate Construction Documents More accurate construction documents and improved 49% communications were considered important factors to 59% drive non-user adoption for buildings in the 2009 BIM SmartMarket Report. However, reduced construction 73% costs and schedule is selected as important by more Reduced Construction Costs & Schedule infrastructure respondents in the current survey than 46% building respondents in 2009. 59% 61% Variation by Player Improved Communication A/E FIRMS AND CONTRACTORS 41% Since not enough demand is the top reason influencing 56% non-adoption among A/E firms and contractors, it is not 52% surprising that they name owner demand as a top factor encouraging BIM adoption. Less Time Drafting & More Time Designing* Another important benefit to these firm types is the 49% ability to offer new services. 0% A/E Firms ■■ 0% A/E firms want proof that BIM will lead to less time Owner Demand** drafting and more time designing. 44% ■■Contractors 47% Contractors find the improved ability to do digital 0% fabrication to be a compelling benefit. MHC’s 2011 Reduced Number of RFIs & Change Orders Prefabrication and Modularization SmartMarket 40% Report revealed the importance of BIM to encourage prefabrication in vertical construction, and the same 44% principle clearly applies in infrastructure for contractors. 57% OWNERS * Asked of A/E Firms Only Owners feel most strongly about benefits that would ** Asked of A/E Firms and Contractors Only accrue directly to projects, likely due to the fact that project outcomes are the main way that they measure performance. • More Accurate Construction Documents: 73% MHC’s 2010 Green BIM SmartMarket Report, industry • Reduced Construction Cost and Schedule: 61% Nu_Q8 practitioners who use BIM for green projects reported • Reduced Number of RFIs and Change Orders: 57% significant benefits in conducting energy modeling and Owners are also interested in seeing evidence that BIM improving building performance, and they indicated will improve operations and maintenance (O&M), as the value that greater use of BIM to monitor building well as their ability to do sustainable construction. In performance for greener O&M would provide. SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   50
  • 53. ca se st ud y Use of BIM on Park and Recreation Projects C omplex park projects, “The fountain work was the Undulation on the site created THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE particularly those in urban most complicated part,” says Jeff challenges with grade changes. “We areas, can face a myriad Ruschau, project executive at Messer modeled the [topography] and found of civil, structural and Construction. “We didn’t have any that some of the pipe came up into the hydrological challenges. As with opportunities to make mistakes.” frost line, so we had to move that,” vertical buildings, multiple overlapping Seven different entities on the project, says Mike Kaiser, virtual construction systems create ample reasons for some including the fountain contractor, modeler at Messer. designers and contractors to model were involved in modeling the site. The team also held regular model park projects . The architect provided the team with reviews with the owner. “They were DWG [drawing] files. Messer modeled able to visualize the piping,” Kaiser Scioto Riverfront some architectural features, structural, says. “They had concerns about A $44 million transformation of the topography, some civil elements and access around the pumps and head Scioto Riverfront in Columbus, Ohio, the existing utilities in-house. The clearance, which they were able to into grand public spaces spurred electrical contractor modeled its own identify in the model.” the first use of BIM for underground elements, and the civil contractor Additional design changes were modeling on a public project in Ohio. modeled storm-sewer and water lines. made to the fountains while the project The five-acre project, which broke “We knew we had a one-time shot was underway, which caused changes ground in 2009, features a promenade, at this,” Ruschau says. “We needed in the piping. “Without a model, it would a plaza, numerous green spaces everyone to weigh in about everything have been a real challenge to figure and the 15,000 square foot signature going into the ground.” out if we could accommodate these Scioto Mile Fountain. The fountain Large concrete and stone architectural changes,” Ruschau says. features five stainless steel halos features were built above much of The coordination effort paid off. No that reach up to 24 feet in height and the piping on the site. The granite was underground rework was required. support more than 1,000 nozzles. An prefabricated and shipped to the site, Kaiser estimates that between the additional 1,000 ground-level jets can so piping had to align perfectly with model coordination and streamlined propel water up to 70 feet in the air. the nozzle openings. The stainless redesign process, the team saved Due to the complexity of the steel features were also in the model, roughly half the time that would have fountain, the team chose to model the including how they were bolted down. been required for those tasks on a project’s five miles of underground Among the team’s early discoveries traditional project. Overall, the project plumbing and electrical conduit. was a 12-foot-wide by 7-foot-high came in five months ahead of schedule Piping was as large as 14 inches in stormwater outfall that would have and under budget. diameter and was stacked up to 7 interfered with the fountain’s foundation The owner was also provided pipes deep. and piping design. with a 3D model for future facilities management. Rory Meyers Children’s Adventure Garden A myriad of potential underground conflicts led the team on the $50 million Rory Meyers Children’s Adventure Garden addition to the Dallas Arboretum to create detailedImage courtesy of Ikerd Consulting 3D models. Subgrade utilities run throughout the seven-acre site, which is being topped At the Dallas Arboretum, subgrade utilities, structural piers and setbacks around with numerous landscape features each of the park’s hundreds of trees were modeled for coordination. that will require hundreds of piers. In CONTINUED McGraw-Hill Construction   51 SmartMarket Report
  • 54. y ud Use of BIM on Park and Recreation Projects st ED se U N ca TI N CO addition, crews have to be cautious THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE because of the delicate root systems around the hundreds of trees on site. The project, which was in planning for a decade, was designed in 2D. The Beck Group brought in Ikerd Consulting to model the site for coordination. “This was the most progressive use of BIM for a public park and recreation area we have seen,” says Will Ikerd, principal of Ikerd Consulting. Ikerd says the project’s numerous man-made landscape features were “driven by the landscape architect’s Due to the complexity of the Scioto Mile Fountain, the project’s five miles of decisions, not the civil engineer, so all underground plumbing and electrical conduit were modeled. dimensional control was very artistic.” Because of construction sequencing, Mill River in Yonkers, New York. In storm sewers were also improved as utilities were installed on the site first. the 1920s, the U.S. Army Corps of part of the project. The team then had to coordinate the Engineers diverted the river, which Through the model, Fleming existing and newly placed utilities with was heavily polluted by local mills, says, PS&S was effectively able to the landscape features. Ikerd modeled into a flume that carried it under carry out hydraulic and storm-water subgrade utilities and structural piers, portions of the city. Officials recently runoff analysis. as well as setbacks around each of the restored the river, “daylighting” it and PS&S adjusted and validated the 100- park’s hundreds of trees, using data creating inviting public spaces around year flood flows from 1,600 cubic feet provided by the project arborist. the city’s Larkin Plaza. per second [as previously estimated] “The utilities and the structural However, the river experiences a to 2,000 cubic feet per second. Fleming piers supporting these landscape wide range of water flows that could says its analysis also ensured that the features are scattered throughout like threaten to flood portions of the city city wouldn’t “overbuild” the system. a minefield,” Ikerd says. “Based on the once exposed. The river has a long- “The city suggested raising everything original design, we found several piers reach watershed upstream and tidal by a foot,” he adds. “By having accurate that were stabbing those utilities. Had issues created downstream by the models, it gave us confidence in [crew members] gone and drilled piers, Hudson River. addressing the city’s concerns. As a they would have hit utilities that had “Understanding the flow regime consultant, you can expect to be second been installed.” through modeling was critical,” guessed on every decision, so that In addition to saving time and says Joseph Fleming, executive added confidence helped us through reducing errors through coordination, vice president at design firm Paulus, the design process.” the team used BIM to help make critical Sokolowski & Sartor (PS&S). The team was able to test its analysis value-engineering decisions. Ikerd “Especially since this was not just in a 100-year flood event when says the model was set up for quantity a straight-line Corps of Engineers- Hurricane Irene hit the state in 2011. “I takeoffs and that schedule could be tied type channel. We wanted to was able to stand over and watch at the to the model for look-aheads. “I don’t undulate this thing and give it some diversion chamber and see the force ofImage courtesy of Messer Construction know how this job could have been feel and some character.” this system pouring in,” Fleming recalls. done effectively in 2D,” he adds. The river was designed to curve “Our assumptions proved out, and gently through the plaza, featuring a everything survived.” ■ Saw Mill River new public park along its banks and a Modeling played a critical role in pedestrian bridge crossing. Adjacent restoring public access to the Saw water mains, sanitary sewer and SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   52
  • 55. Data:­Looking Ahead BIM Value for Infrastructure Projects in the Future Determining the most important drivers of value in the Most Important Factors for IncreasingTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA future is important since these drivers will encourage BIM Value on Infrastructure Projects wider adoption, accelerate user implementation and Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 ultimately establish BIM as the industry standard A/E Firms approach to infrastructure projects. Contractors To determine these drivers, current users were asked to rate the importance of thirteen factors based on how Owners much it will impact their organization’s future ability to More Owners Asking for BIM experience business benefits from BIM on infrastructure 66% projects. Seven of the thirteen factors received high or 59% very high ratings from at least half of the respondents. The most important driver overall is more owners 71% asking for BIM, with a total average of 64%. Interestingly, Improved Functionality of Software Supporting BIM more owners (71%) rate this as important compared 70% to other players. Owner adoption is clearly considered 55% critical across the industry to drive more value. 53% In addition, a relatively comparable number of A/E firms, contractors and owners express a shared belief Improved Interoperability between Software that the willingness of authorities having jurisdiction to 63% accept models will increase BIM value. 57% 59% Variation by Player More Internal Staff with BIM Skills A/E FIRMS 67% A greater number of A/E firms (range of 60%–70%) consider six other top-rated factors important, 49% compared to the number of owners or contractors 47% reporting the same. Contracts to Aid Collaboration & Define BIM Deliverables 7  0% of A/E firms rate improved functionality of ■■ 62% software supporting BIM to be an important factor 56% increasing BIM value. This correlates with their focus 47% on authoring and analyzing models. Willingness of AHJs to Accept Models O  ver two thirds (67%) highly value having more internal ■■ 61% staff with BIM skills as a way to increase BIM’s value for 52% infrastructure. Less than half of the other respondents rate this as being important, again reflecting A/E firms’ 53% need to generate models. More External Organizations with BIM Skills 6  3% find improved interoperability between software ■■ 61% programs to be highly important. The relatively 47% comparable number of other players reporting the 41% same reflects an industry-wide need. ■■ 6  7% of A/E firms assign value to more external OWNERS organizations with BIM skills, significantly higher than Only 47% of owners forecast high impact from the other players. This reinforces the importance A/E improving contracts to aid collaboration and define BIM firms place on working with BIM-knowledgeable firms Ahead_Q32 deliverables, which is surprising given the importance of (see page 26). team formation for owners. McGraw-Hill Construction   53 SmartMarket Report
  • 56. Looking Ahead  CONTINUED Where Help Is Needed When current users were asked to identify the areas Areas Requiring Assistance in ImplementingTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE  DATA where they need help in order to increase their BIM for Infrastructure implementation of BIM for infrastructure, a significant Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 number request help with all the issues raised. This A/E Firms finding loudly signals the need for industry-wide Contractors education, targeted consulting services, broadly Owners accepted standards for practices and procedures, and active involvement by the full range of professional Software Interoperability associations that serve our industry. 29% Several individual issues were also considered 29% important by respondents. 26% T  he need for assistance with issues related to software ■■ Basic BIM Education interoperability garnered the most unanimity among 25% all players. 23% C  hallenges related to project management on work ■■ 32% that involves BIM also attracted roughly equal proportions of the three players, highlighting an Legal/Contractual Issues opportunity for industry associations to meet a broadly 24% held need. 13% 32% Variation by Player Project Management OWNERS 19% Owners are most concerned with basic BIM education, 20% reinforcing the finding reported previously that the lack 16% of internal understanding of BIM is a top reason that non-users in this group are delaying adoption (see page All of the Above 48 for more information). 30% Although relatively fewer owners ascribe future 27% importance to contracts to aid collaboration and define 21% BIM deliverables when predicting drivers of BIM value in the future (see page 53), one third report the need for help with legal/contractual issues. This may indicate a belief that if these issues can be ironed out in the near term, they will exert less influence in the future. Ahead_Q39 SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   54
  • 57. Interview:­ hought Leaders T Robert A. Bank, P.E., F.ASCE The Owner Perspective on BIM InfrastructureTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE Chief, Civil Works Branch, Engineering & Construction, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Bob Bank is responsible for policy development and supervision “Several years ago, when we talked about BIM, of agency technical leaders and communities of practice in the everyone would say, ‘How much does it cost?’ And broad disciplines related to civil now, it’s: ‘How much does it cost to not use BIM?’” works in USACE, engineering and construction information technology (IT) systems, and life- the natural environment, which is BANK: We first created [models] for safety programs. constantly changing. Infrastructure a series of standard facilities in our is getting more and more complex military transformation program by BIM adoption for infrastructure to adapt to those changes. More having a contractual requirement for lags behind adoption on vertical complex tools can integrate all the BIM deliverables. Several years ago, building projects. What’s your information and data analysis, to when we talked about BIM, everyone perspective on that? better design, better plan and better would say, “How much does it cost?” BANK: I think that a lot of it is operate these projects. And now, it’s “How much does it perception. People see buildings cost to not use BIM?” The Corps as complex systems where BIM What are the unique cultural already pushed a little bit by having is helpful because of advanced issues related to using BIM on some specific requirements. Now mechanical, structural, energy infrastructure work? companies have caught on. analysis and architecture tools. BANK: One of the challenges today Those tools have been out there so is attracting kids to engineering, so What are your thoughts people associate that with BIM. But we need to keep engineering fun about the future of BIM for I think infrastructure BIM is getting and relevant. Younger people were infrastructure? there, and as people continue to raised on video games incorporating BANK: GIS [geographic information see how BIM improves vertical virtual reality, basically virtual walk- systems] and BIM linked together. We construction, I think it’s going to throughs of scenarios, towns and do a lot of environmental analysis of keep expanding into horizontal buildings. So kids can relate to conditions in the field which is GIS- construction. We have to do it with horizontal construction and BIM; based and need to pull that together small steps, keeping it simple and they’re already there. The cultural into an integrated design. Also [we getting people to make incremental shift is for the older folks. We need are incorporating] real-time data moves in that direction. to partner older, more experienced from monitoring sensors linked to our engineers and technical people with operating projects. We are prioritizing Are there benefits of BIM that younger technology-savvy people our repair investments by risk. are unique to infrastructure who can adopt those technologies We’re doing that on our dam safety projects? more quickly and be comfortable in program, analyzing which projects BANK: Absolutely. The main reason them. That’s one of the big cultural present the most risk to public safety, BIM has caught on for buildings opportunities that we have. and dealing with those first. Einstein is because of systems. Well, said that we cannot solve today’s infrastructure is systems also. The How do you get companies on problems at the same level of thinking real opportunity is how infrastructure a project team to use BIM in the as when we created them. That’s is closely linked and connected to ways that you want them to? really what this is about. ■ McGraw-Hill Construction   55 SmartMarket Report
  • 58. Interview:­ hought Leaders T Richard Humphrey, ASCE, LEED AP The Technology Industry Perspective Director, Industry Strategy & DevelopmentTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE Engineering, Natural Resources & Infrastructure Industry (ENI) Autodesk, Inc. Richard Humphrey has worked with leaders in the building and infrastructure industries to drive “Once (engineers) start getting used to the new sustainable design, technology methods, new tools and processes, then the question innovation and BIM. He is is, ‘How come you didn’t give this to me sooner?’” responsible for directing and driving the success of Autodesk’s business in the transportation, land, water, oil 3D visualization. [That visualization] How do you see the industry and gas, mining, engineering and conveys the design intent of the adopting BIM for infrastructure? heavy construction segments. infrastructure asset in the context HUMPHREY: You’re seeing pockets of the real world in a much different of acceptance and mandates of BIM adoption for infrastructure way than reviewing construction BIM policies, and I think that’s lags behind adoption on vertical plans, which I would say nine out of going to accelerate. There’s a lot of building projects. What’s your 10 people really don’t understand. awareness around BIM as a potential perspective on that? That’s huge. tool and process to ensure that HUMPHREY: There’s a lot of the predictability and risk is well evangelism around BIM with What are the unique cultural understood for large projects. So building information modeling, issues related to using BIM on I would say that you’re probably so it took a while for the rest of infrastructure work? going to see some policy setting the AEC industry, particularly HUMPHREY: BIM does require a that includes BIM process or BIM infrastructure and engineering, new way of thinking. In the past, a deliverables in the infrastructure to realize BIM wasn’t just in the civil road designer just carried out space. You’re already seeing it at the context of buildings. They started to the alignment in the road design. state and local agency level, whether understand that it was a process and When he got to a bridge, he just it’s Caltrans [California Department that they can leverage the learning let the bridge designer do their of Transportation], Wisconsin from the building industry and thing. It would be more beneficial [Department of Transportation] the success that happened there. to have the bridge engineer, the or other state agencies that are That’s why we see adoption really civil, geotech and utilities people beginning to adopt BIM. accelerating now. all working together along the same database. Once the rest of What are your thoughts Are there benefits of BIM that the organization sees the success about the future of BIM for are unique to infrastructure and the benefits [of BIM], then it infrastructure? projects? becomes viral and everyone wants HUMPHREY: A lot of the work that HUMPHREY: They’re very, very to leverage the technology instead happens in the industry is out in large, complex public projects. of complaining that you’re trying the field. The more we can leverage Owners and consultants have a to make them do something new. technology to bring field-mobility- significant challenge to get through Once they start getting used to type tools to the industry, the better the public approval process and the new methods, new tools and off we can be. We also need to engage the public more. We see processes, then the question is, attract new engineers by putting BIM as a great process to help do “How come you didn’t give this to engineering back into a real-world this. One of the outputs is realistic me sooner?” context through technology. ■ SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   56
  • 59. Interview:­ hought Leaders T Dana Kennish “Deke” Smith, FAIA The Industry Association Perspective on BIM InfrastructureTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE Executive Director, Building Seismic Safety Council and buildingSMART alliance, National Institute of Building Sciences Deke Smith was instrumental in the beginnings of the NIBS Construction “…the growing relationship between GIS and Criteria Base, now the Whole Building Design Guide (WBDG). BIM will help civil engineers to get engaged because GIS is already widely accepted with BIM adoption for infrastructure the infrastructure side of the community .” is behind adoption on vertical building projects. What’s your perspective on that? What are the unique cultural we have to come up with a whole SMITH: I think the name, building issues related to using BIM on new way of teaching. We also are information modeling, has been infrastructure work? working with TAP [Technology in a big issue. People who are into SMITH: It is very much a cultural Architectural Practice] on the AIA virtual design and construction— change issue. I remember the [American Institute of Architects] VDC—don’t even identify with BIM. transition to CAD and how side, with AGC [the Associated We spent a lot of time early in the significant the impact was. It was General Contractors of America] and whole process trying to decide if really only automating an existing with IFMA [the International Facility there was a better name, but there process, drafting, and only affected Management Association] trying to was enough groundswell with design, but you would have thought put together some programs. the use of the word BIM that it is we were changing the world! BIM probably easier to go with it and affects every aspect of the industry What are your thoughts let people know that it has greater and every practitioner. It’s more about the future of BIM for meaning than just buildings. There disruptive than CAD ever was, infrastructure? are all kinds of words that you can but I’m not sure that most people SMITH: IFCs [Industry Foundation substitute for [the] B [Building] to recognize that BIM even applies Classes] have come of age—that is include all the different pieces that to infrastructure yet. This report our future. IFC for infrastructure is we see going into BIM. should help that, but a lot of culture a huge step in the right direction. It change still has to occur. started with CSTB [the Computer Are there benefits of BIM that Science and Telecommunications are unique to infrastructure What do you think is the key to Board] in France and we’re building projects? driving BIM adoption? on what was already done. IFCs SMITH: A lot of the benefits of BIM SMITH: Education. How do we gear enable Open BIM, which is about for buildings are also true with the next generation to come out and how the vendors can all work infrastructure. I think the bigger really hit the ground at full speed? together in order for us to have basic issue is that we haven’t taken At the buildingSMART alliance interoperability. Also, the growing advantage of a lot of them yet in we’ve been focusing on colleges and relationship between GIS [geographic any project type. We’re still so universities. Last year we had 25 at information system] and BIM will much in the infancy of this whole our event talking about how they’re help civil engineers to get engaged effort that most people probably changing the curriculum to teach because GIS is already widely really haven’t grasped the full BIM. But we can’t just keep putting accepted with the infrastructure side opportunity that’s out there. more courses into the curriculum; of the community. ■ McGraw-Hill Construction   57 SmartMarket Report
  • 60. Interview:­ hought Leaders T Cory Dippold The Engineer Perspective on BIM InfrastructureTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE Professional Engineer and Associate, Hatch Mott MacDonald Cory Dippold has over ten years of structural design and project “…we don’t look at BIM as a 3-D model. We management experience. At HMM, look at BIM as the future of our project he championed the implementation delivery protocol… We intend to deliver of BIM technology, and he now digital models and stand behind the data.” serves as the BIM director for their North American operations. to it. We built an internal content library are rapidly picking it up. of all the pipes, fittings, valves, pumps BIM adoption for infrastructure and equipment that we need, to design How do you get other firms on lags behind adoption on vertical any wet infrastructure, and the benefits a project team to use BIM in the building projects. What’s your we’re receiving are enormous. Now ways that you want them to? perspective on that? our process engineers, structural DIPPOLD: Right now firms have DIPPOLD: BIM as most people engineers and designers are in the widely varying degrees of think of it was originally conceived same room working on the same proficiency across project types. around the architectural field as a model, and we can lay out a complete One might be extremely proficient more effective and collaborative facility, with better tolerances on lay in tunneling BIM work, but have no way to produce project data for new lengths and fittings, much more quickly ability to do bridge work. We are architectural projects. The building and accurately than ever before. trying to do our due diligence up environment is a finite world that front to make sure we partner with computers deal with very well. What are the unique cultural compatible firms on a given project Working with existing conditions issues related to using BIM on that can actively engage with us on infrastructure projects, there’s infrastructure work? and add value to the team. a lot of interpolation that goes on. DIPPOLD: The cultural challenges You can set the center line elevation are probably the most significant What are your thoughts and crossfall for a new road, but at part of moving from a traditional about the future of BIM for some point you need to tie it into project delivery approach to a BIM infrastructure? infrastructure that already exists project delivery approach. And DIPPOLD: The concept of the and work around things like utilities to be clear, we don’t look at BIM drawing—as we’ve come to know or pipes in your way. That’s hard as a 3D model. We look at BIM as it—is going the way of the dodo. It is for a computer to understand. That the future of our project delivery only a matter of time. On some of our interpolation or “fiddle factor,” which protocol. It’s not “Let’s build a model design-build highway work, we don’t is traditionally handled in the field, is and create a drawing.” It is about deliver drawings to the contractor; something we need to work through using this integrated technology they simply prefer electronic as an industry. to combine our analytical systems deliverables. We still make record with our production systems, with drawings for the owner, but I see Are there benefits of BIM that our project context evaluation, with the trend of model deliverables are unique to infrastructure our reporting systems, with our risk getting stronger. We intend to deliver projects? identification and beyond. Getting digital models and stand behind the DIPPOLD: Definitely. Water people to work in that integrated data. Although infrastructure lags infrastructure is a good example environment can be a challenge, but behind commercial work, it is because there are a lot of finite aspects we’re finding that our younger staff absolutely coming. ■ SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction   58
  • 61. Interview:­ hought Leaders T Joseph H. Jarboe The General Contractor Perspective on BIM InfrastructureTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE President, AGC of America and Senior Vice President, Clark Construction Group LLC Joe Jarboe has been with Clark since 1982. He has headed corporate “One issue that has to be dealt with is the estimating/preconstruction activities willingness of the owners and designers and evaluated potential opportunities to share their electronic designs.” nationwide for more than 20 years. BIM adoption for infrastructure also useful information downstream many trade contractors. You’ve got is behind adoption on vertical for both quantity analysis and work a lot of self-perform people who do building projects. What’s your sequencing. And once you have all of their own work with their own perspective on that? that, uploading that data into your equipment. It’s not like the building JARBOE: It’s a somewhat natural field equipment will lend itself to side where a significant portion is progression. With buildings, some GPS surveying and automated subcontracted. of the biggest benefits are clash machine data systems to increase detection and spatial coordination your field efficiency and reduce What are your thoughts ­ of very complex systems in close potential safety issues. about the future of BIM ­ proximity to each other, which are for infrastructure? very difficult to accurately coordinate What are the unique cultural JARBOE: I’ll give you an example. with traditional 2D drawings. This issues related to using BIM on A contractor I know is using state- gave a lot of people very early infrastructure work? standard details they’ve entered incentive to begin using BIM to JARBOE: One issue that has to be dealt into their computer. When a job avoid problems. Then mechanical with is the willingness of the owners requires a retaining wall, they draw and structural subcontractors found and designers to share their electronic two dots and a straight line, and the they could fabricate directly from designs. Liability concerns are the computer generates that wall based the model, which improved their biggest impediment in this area. We on the design criteria and the state quality and cost. It also expedited the went through that on the building side standard details. They add in the schedule. And now we have CIM, civil too, but it’s an issue that needs to be grades, and it makes the wall smaller information modeling. resolved. Also, contracts are design- or larger, whatever is required. It also bid-build in many of these types of generates all the quantities. The same Are there benefits of BIM that projects, and they really haven’t started thing is true with trenching. There’s are unique to infrastructure to use alternative procurement. There also modeling of bridges where you projects? hasn’t been the incentive yet. These are locate the post-tension strands and JARBOE: Yes, there are several, cultural changes on the procurement elevations for your embeds. In all actually. CIM offers many of side. Once you do that, and people start these areas, things will really start to the same conflict identification to use it and see the benefit of it, they’ll speed up. ■ attributes, such as identifying and become adopters. resolving utility conflicts or other unknown underground conditions. How do you get other companies These are important because they on a project team to use BIM in have a significant impact on traffic the ways that you want them to? movements helping resolve issues JARBOE: It’s a bit simpler on the once construction has begun. It’s civil side because you don’t have as McGraw-Hill Construction   59 SmartMarket Report
  • 62. Methodology:­ Infrastructure Building Information Modeling Research McGraw-Hill Construction (MHC) in the past year to be considered valid. • Non-Users: State that theyTHE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE conducted the 2011 Infrastructure The following are the types of are “not using BIM” or “don’t Building Information Modeling Study to infrastructure projects conducted by understand BIM.” assess the overall incidence of the use of the respondents, by the percentage of • Users: State that they are BIM on infrastructure projects and gauge responses for each type: “creating models,” “using but not the value that organizations perceive • Roads and Bridges: 24% creating models,” or “creating and they are receiving by implementing • Water (Drinking / Waste / Stormwater): analyzing models.” BIM on such projects. The research was 21% conducted through an Internet survey • Other Transportation (Aviation, Rail, In the analysis, the respondents were industry professionals between October Transit): 17% grouped into three categories: 25 and November 22, 2011. The 466 • Public Parks and Recreation: 10% • A/E Firms: All respondents who work respondents sample size benchmarks at • Energy: 9% at architecture, engineering or A/E a 95% confidence interval with a margin • Dams, Levees, Inland Waterways: firms (Note that at times responses of error of less than 5%. 8% from architects and engineers are The sample for the study was • Hazardous / Solid Waste: 7% analyzed individually.) provided by five associations plus • Other: 4% • Contractors: Construction managers, players in MHC’s proprietary databases. general contractors, speciality In the data analysis, respondents are The respondents were screened based contractors and fabricators classified as BIM users or non-users on their involvement in infrastructure • Owners: Owners and all remaining based on their use of BIM on projects. All respondents were required respondents, such as consultants infrastructure projects. to have worked on infrastructure projects and educators n Distribution by Size of Organization Respondents by Firm Type Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012 Organization Size A/E Firm Billings Contractor/Owner Organization Revenue Owner Small Organization < $500,000 < $25 Million Specialty Contractor Fabricator Small to Medium $500,000 to < $5 Million $25 Million to < $100 Million GC Medium to Large $5 Million to < $10 Million $100 Million to < $500 Million Architect Large Organization $10 Million and Over $500 Million and Over Engineering Other (Includes A/E Firms and Owners Allocated to the A/E and Owner A/E Contractors Owners Categories in the Charts and Analysis) 44% 42% 40% 9% 8% 33% 7% 29% 27% 7% 18% 18% 35% 16% 16% 22% 9% 9% 12% Small Small to Medium Medium to Large Large SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction    60 Meth_Chart
  • 63. SmartMarket ReportResourcesOrganizations, websites and publications that can help youget smarter about using BIM for infrastructure projects. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors wish to thank our premier partners, Autodesk and the American Society of Civil Engineers, for helping us bring this informationMcGraw Hill Construction to the market. Specifically, we would like to thank Phil Bernstein andMain Website : Catherine Palmer of Autodesk for their long-standing support of McGraw-Research & Analytics : Hill Construction research. Additionally, we would like to thank Pat and Jim Rossberg at ASCE.Engineering News-Record : enr.comArchitectural Record : We would also like to thank Jay Mezher of Parsons Brinckerhoff and EricGreenSource : Cylwik of Sundt Construction for their insight and expertise. We appreciateSweets : the participation of Robert Bank of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Cory Dippold of Hatch Mott MacDonald; Richard Humphrey of Autodesk; Joseph Jarboe of Clark Construction; and Deke Smith of the National Institute of Building Sciences who agreed to be interviewed and offered their insights. Finally, we would also like to thank the firms that provided information about their infrastructure projects and use of BIM in the case studies, as well as for their assistance in helping us secure images to supplement their project information. American Society of Civil Engineers Premier Corporate Partner Premier Association Partner Autodesk American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Partners Other Resources buildingSMART Alliance : Associated Builders & Contractors : American Institute of Steel Construction : The Associated General Contractors American Road & Transportation Produced with support from of America : Builders Association : Construction Users Roundtable : Design-Build Institute of America : BIMForum : American Public Works Association : Lean Construction Forum : Lean Construction Institute : National Institute of Building Sciences : U.S. Army Corps of Engineers : U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration :
  • 64. ■ Design and Construction Intelligence SmartMarket Report Construction SmartMarket Reports™Get smart about the latest industry trends.For more information on these reports and others, ⁄market _ research Association Research Partners: