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Pm in noisy envronments






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Pm in noisy envronments Pm in noisy envronments Presentation Transcript

  • Project Management in Noisy Environments Alex Dominguez jadoming@mail.unitec.mx Universidad Tecnológica de México Conference at POMS, Boston, May 2006
  • Projects and reactions A project is A project an endeavor tends to undertaken breakdown an to create a established set unique of rules of how product, work has been service, or executed in result past These expressions A project interfere in the generates transmission and among parties understanding •Commentaries of messages •Opinions •Rumors •Gossips 2
  • Project manager communication model (Max Wideman www.maxwideman.com) Clients and sponsors provide direction and financial support Direction and Progress clarification reports Organization Project policies direction Managers, other project Top managers provide organizational support Project managers, and personnel Manager require coordination and and stimulus support in negotiations Status and Status prevision reports reports Project Progress and guidelines prevision reports Project team and providers Formal require leading, planning Informal communication and coordination communication 3
  • Noise in Project Management  Noise is produced  As a result of parties expressions  When certain parties do not receive the corresponding project messages they expect from other parties  When messages received do not correspond to project facts  NOISE compromises the original meaning of messages Encode Message Encode Medium Noise Sender Receiver Decode Decode Feedback - Message Noise 4
  • Some literature 1. Brenner, R (2002). Responding to Rumors. www.chacocanyon.com/pointlookout/020424.shtml 2. Brenner, R (2003). There is no Rumor Mill. www.chacocanyon.com/pointlookout/030326.shtml 3. Burgess, H. and M. Maiese. Rumor Control. www.beyondintractability.org/m/rumor_control.jsp 4. Clements, J. and C. Drake. Dealing with Rumors. www.comminit.com/strategicthinking/stepicom/sld-1681.html. 5. Daniel, M. Rumor Management Strategy. http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/mgm/danielm/Rumor%20Management%2 0Strategy.htm. 6. DiFonzo, N. and P. Bordia. How Top PR Professionals Handle Hot Air: Types of Corporate Rumors, Their Effects, and Strategies to Manage Them: A study to the Institute for Public Relations. www.instituteforpr.com/pdf/1999_rumor-study.pdf 7. PD Webapge. Rumors/Urban Legends. http://home.att.net/~eccentricstar/cs_rumors.html 8. Yang, S. The Human Communication Process. www.wam.umd.edu/~suyang/Ch%201_Spring05.ppt 5
  • Noise effects in project progress trend Project (a) Temporary disruption Project (b) Change of rate or direction progress progress threshold Time threshold Time (c) Displacement (d) Disruption Project Project progress progress threshold Time threshold Time 6
  • Bandwagon effect produced by noise  About bandwagon effect  People often do (or believe) Project things because many other progress people do (or believe) the same planned trend  It does not represent the way parties behave individually, but as a group overshoots having a random behavior  Consequences on noise noise  It becomes stronger and more difficult to stop over time Time threshold  It is random and persistent obscuring or reducing the message's clarity 7
  • Noise categorization according to noise sources Type of Noise Source Environmental Outside interference that prevents project manager from gaining noise project messages Physiological- Interference caused by parties’ physical problems that can block impairment noise his/her effective sending or receiving of project messages Syntactical noise Interference caused by parties’ incorrect use of communication language rules (e.g., grammar) Psychological Interference produced by parties’ stress, frustration, irritation, etc. noise Intellectual noise Interference caused by parties’ great amount of opinions and points of view about project messages Cultural noise Interference produced by parties’ preconceived, unyielding (influence) attitudes due to cultural group belonging. Being “closed-minded” Organizational Interference caused by the way messages are arranged in order noise (confusion) Semantic noise Interference caused by words meaning, such as project management or project technical jargon, dialect, etc. 8
  • Noise categorization according to rumor intentions Type of Noise Intension Intentional It is generated to achieve a purpose noise Premature It is an early version of what will eventually become the truth noise Malicious It is generated to damage project manager, some noise stakeholders, or to tend relations among them Outrageous It is composed of stories so unbelievable that most parties noise think they cannot have been made up Nearly true It is built around a kernel of truth noise “Birthday” It comes around as regularly as birthdays noise 9
  • Project manager attention to noise over time Project manager attention to noise High Low Project time 10
  • What to do: Preventive actions Strive to increase and Anticipate noise maintain trust and credibility Keep Tailor each communication stakeholders informed Set up a “hotline” Be judicious about communication channel communication openness Fill voids by complementing and Anticipate parties’ anxiety repeating information given Monitor possible effects of noise with respect to external events, stakeholder attitudes, and parties´ behavior 11
  • What to do: Corrective actions – Questions to be answered What type of noise is this? Are there credible third Is this any truth to it? parties who might help Does it point to a problem dispel noise? I need to fix? What is the state of my relationship with parties Is the issue important influenced by noise? to stakeholders? Could/should I do anything to Which ones? improve that relationship? Why? What is the underlying Are stakeholders paying concern or anxiety attention to noise? expressed by noise? What is their response to it? Can I do anything constructive Do they want to hear something to address it? from me about it? Can I provide information that might dispel noise? Do I need to be more open with information in general? 12
  • What to do: Corrective actions 13
  • Challenges  Expect to encounter harmful noise during all of the project management phases  Take into account that noise often starts from the very first conception of project  Be alert to the possible negative effects of noise within  Consequences to project and project management  Stakeholder attitudes  Third party behaviors  Formulate a plan to prevent and correct noise  Inhibit noise activity and its associated effects by  Reducing and/or placing bounds upon uncertainty  Reducing belief in noise through effective formal communications 14
  • Constraints  Resources for rapid response to noise are rarely budgeted  This is always certain if project is managed with limit resources  Stakeholders and sponsors pay insufficient attention to communication versus attention to “technical priorities”  Rapid respond to noise is not always possible if project is decentralized 15
  • Questions and some answers 16