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Alex Domínguez                               alexdfar@yahoo.com                          jadoming@mail.unitec.mx          ...
Contents     From the point of view of non-IT management, the main objective of this course is to   • Understand the relat...
Information Technology RequirementsHardware• Lap Top computer, if possible• SpeakersSoftware applications• Acrobat Reader ...
BibliographyBooks• Groff, T.R. Introduction to Knowledge Management: KM in Business. Butherworth-  Heinemann, UK, 2003.• M...
Symbols, Data, and Information                                                                                    From fac...
Symbols, Data, and Information                                                                              From symbols t...
Symbols, Data, and Information                                                                         From data to inform...
Symbols, Data, and Information                                             Organisation and immediacy of information      ...
Symbols, Data, and Information                                 Information and the Principle of Uncertainty               ...
Paper: Project Management in Noisy                           Environments                     Objective Dimension the impo...
On Knowledge                                             From information to knowledge               Knowledge of a fact i...
On Knowledge                                                            Knowledge properties                              ...
On Knowledge                                Types of knowledge: Tacit and explicit                 Tacit knowledge is pers...
On Knowledge                            Types of knowledge: Tacit and explicit  Characteristics               Tacit Knowle...
On Knowledge               From tacit to explicit knowledge                                             15
On Knowledge                            Where do we acquire knowledge?                                          Procedures...
On Knowledge                                            The 3 basic processes of knowledge                                ...
On Knowledge                                                           Forms of knowledge                                 ...
On Knowledge                                                       Knowledge versus learning                              ...
On Knowledge                            Knowledge and individual learning                             Knowledge begins wit...
On Knowledge                                         Optimal characteristics of learners               Motivation to try p...
On Knowledge                                  Knowledge and models of reality                            A model is an abs...
On Knowledge                                                                                     Paradigms                ...
On Knowledge               Born of new paradigms (paradigm shift)                                                   24
On Knowledge                                                       Paradigm shift and paralysis                       Imag...
On Knowledge                                                   The Principle of Darkness                                  ...
On Knowledge                                What is Knowledge Management?                Knowledge Management (KM) is the ...
On Knowledge                                              What KM is not about               KM is not knowledge engineeri...
On Knowledge                                                From knowledge to wisdom               Knowledge of a fact is ...
On Knowledge               From facts to wisdom: a final map                                              30
On Knowledge               Importance of KM to your organisation                                                  31
On Knowledge               Lessons learned – Discover what you know                                                     32
KM practice: Managing your knowledgeDirections • Each practice is 20 minutes long + 10 minutes for group discussion • Mind...
The Problem of KM in Organisation                                                  Organisational isles of information and...
The Problem of KM in Organisation                                            Knowledge transfer velocity and viscosity    ...
The Problem of KM in Organisation                                    Organisational culture                               ...
The Problem of KM in Organisation                                                                                         ...
The Problem of KM in Organisation                                              Resistance to change                       ...
The Problem of KM in Organisation                                                            Where is knowledge into organ...
The Learning Organisations                                                                                       Organisat...
The Learning Organisations                                                                           Levels of organisatio...
The Learning Organisations                                                                       Learning organisation    ...
The Learning Organisations                             Some components of a learning organisation                         ...
The Learning Organisations                                                How a learning organisation looks like          ...
The Learning Organisations                             The learning organisation: the 5 disciplines                       ...
The Learning Organisations46                   Managed learning
The Learning Organisations                             Sorting out the “M”s – Domains & Relationships                     ...
The Learning Organisations                                                          Relationship among IT, IM and KM      ...
The Learning Organisations                                                                        The essence of KM       ...
Case – Learning organisations versus places to                                                  learnThink about your expe...
Knowledge Sharing                    Knowledge sharing - Interplay of four factors                                       P...
Knowledge Sharing                                   Knowledge sharing needs all of these                    People        ...
Knowledge Sharing                                                              Why knowledge sharing?                     ...
Knowledge Sharing                        What knowledge is sharing?                                 • Knowledge that has b...
Knowledge Sharing                         How is knowledge captured and shared?                     Individual       Colla...
Knowledge Sharing                                      What happens when the K-line is crossed?                           ...
Knowledge Sharing                    Sharing or not sharing?                      Why do people share?                    ...
Knowledge Sharing                                                     How to share knowledge?                             ...
Knowledge Sharing                             Lessons learned – Organisational “does / does                               ...
Knowledge Sharing                    Organisational challenges to KM/KS                            Culture                ...
Videocase: Igloo - Global Issues Network                                                                        1. What ca...
Social Networks                                 Knowledge networks and knowledge flows                                  Kn...
Social Networks                                             Social Network Analysis (SNA)                  SNA is focused ...
Social Networks                                                                                                           ...
Social Networks                  Discussion - SNA applications                                              65
Organisational Culture                                                                                    What is culture?...
Organisational Culture                                                          How employees absorb culture              ...
Organisational Culture                                                                        Cultural typologies         ...
Organisational Culture                         Aspects and steps that determine KM success                                ...
Organisational Culture                                   Any KM programme requires a Change                               ...
Videocase: Duracell Xcells (Industrial)                                                                          1.How doe...
Communities of Practice                                                      Communities of Practice (COP)                ...
Communities of Practice                                                               Components and benefits of COPs     ...
Storytelling                                                                           Storytelling                 Storyt...
Storytelling                                                     Six steps in storytelling                            Defi...
Videocase: Cisco on Change Management                                                                                1. Wh...
KM Technology                Layers of a KM technology platform                                                77
Technology aspect of KM                                                                                                   ...
KM Technology                                            Messaging and collaboration                  Tacit               ...
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  1. 1. Alex Domínguez alexdfar@yahoo.com jadoming@mail.unitec.mx www.unitec.mxLecture notes, Grenoble Graduate School of Business, France, May 2008.
  2. 2. Contents From the point of view of non-IT management, the main objective of this course is to • Understand the relationship between knowledge, information and data • Understand why knowledge management is an issue today, when it never was before • Understand how to specify and implement a knowledge management project in an organisation 1. Symbols, 3. The Problem 2. On 4. The Learning 5. Knowledge Data and of KM in Knowledge Organisations Sharing Information Organisations 7. 10. KM 8. Communities 6. Social 9. Storytelling Organisation’s Technology of Practice Networks Culture 13. KM 14. The Chief 12. Business11. KM Strategy Framework and Knowledge Case for KM Processes Officer 2
  3. 3. Information Technology RequirementsHardware• Lap Top computer, if possible• SpeakersSoftware applications• Acrobat Reader – Version 7 or higher• Windows Media Player – Version 9 or higher• MindManager software (you can download a 21-days free trial version on www.mindjet.com)Telecommunications• Internet Connection 3
  4. 4. BibliographyBooks• Groff, T.R. Introduction to Knowledge Management: KM in Business. Butherworth- Heinemann, UK, 2003.• MacDonald, J. Understanding Knowledge Management in a Week. Institute of Management. Hodder &Stoughton, UK, 1999.• O‟Dell, C. The Executive‟s Role in Knowledge Management. APQC Publications, USA, 2004.• Liebowitz, J. (Editor). Knowledge Management Handbook. CRC Press, USA, 1999.• Rumizen, M.C. The Complete Idiot‟s Guide to Knowledge Management. Alpha Books, USA, 2003.• Skyrme, D.J. Knowledge Networking: Creating the Collaborative Enterprise. Butherworth-Heinemann, UK, 1999.• Tiwana, A. The Knowledge Management Toolkit. 2nd Edition. Prentice-Hall, PTR, USA, 2002.Websites• BRINT: Knowledge Management: www.brint.com/km/• Knowledge Board, Your Global Community: http://www.knowledgeboard.com/• Knowledge Connections, Home of the I3 Update: www.skyrme.com/index.htm• The Gurteen Knowledge Website: http://www.gurteen.com/• The Knowledge Management Advantage: www.providersedge.com/kma/index.html• The Knowledge Management Resource Centre: www.kmresource.com/ 4
  5. 5. Symbols, Data, and Information From facts to symbols Observer Fact or event Poor / no comprehension Poor / no understanding Symbols are objects, characters, figures, sounds or colors used to represent Abstraction / abstract ideas or concepts Representation At the lowest level of comprehension / understanding, a symbol has no structure 5
  6. 6. Symbols, Data, and Information From symbols to data 1. S  aSb {a, b} S S  aSb  aaSbb  aababb 2. S ba Symbols Start Production rules A structured symbol generated (no order) symbol (syntax rules) by production rules {ba, abab, aababb, aaababbb, …} Set of structured symbols (ordered symbols) Data are the representation of symbols (facts, concepts, text, numbers, sounds, pictures, …) in an organised manner suitable for communication or processing by human or automatic means Data give answer to “what” At the first level of comprehension / understanding, data have no meaning 6
  7. 7. Symbols, Data, and Information From data to information Condensate Calculate Data The five C‟s filter converts data to information Correct Contextualise Categorise Information Information is data endowed with relevance and purpose; i.e., meaning Information gives answer to “what”, “who”, “where”, and “when” At the second level of comprehension / understanding, information has no an established practice 7
  8. 8. Symbols, Data, and Information Organisation and immediacy of information Think of information as data that makes the difference Internal Location Conversati Cultural Hierarchy Alphabet onal 5 degrees The of information organisation immediacy of information News Reference Category Time 8
  9. 9. Symbols, Data, and Information Information and the Principle of Uncertainty Information about a fact reduces the uncertainty of that fact The Principle of Uncertainty Any interaction between an observer and the observed changes both. The more an observer probes, the more difficult it is for him to obtain INFORMATION about the initial STATE of what he observers and the more are his observations contaminated by his own efforts 9
  10. 10. Paper: Project Management in Noisy Environments Objective Dimension the importance of information in business DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Before lecture: Read the international teams paper (3 people)Discuss the paper in your Review the paper own team (5 minutes) (10 minutes)Explain your conclusions to Free discussion other teams (10 minutes) (3 minutes by team) 10
  11. 11. On Knowledge From information to knowledge Knowledge of a fact is when information of that fact is put in practice or used in many situations Information in situation 1 Information in Information in Knowledge situation 4 situation 2 Information in situation 3 11
  12. 12. On Knowledge Knowledge properties Consistent Precise and Shareable non-redundant Diffusive Trustable Time Transportable independent Substitutable Universal Compressible Expandable 12
  13. 13. On Knowledge Types of knowledge: Tacit and explicit Tacit knowledge is personal, context-specific knowledge that is difficult to formulate Explicit knowledge is that can be codified and transmitted in a systematic and formal language Explicit Knowledge What we What we know know we do not we know know Tacit Knowledge What we What we do not do not know we do not we know know Knowledge Assets Knowledge Gaps 13
  14. 14. On Knowledge Types of knowledge: Tacit and explicit Characteristics Tacit Knowledge Explicit KnowledgeNature Personal, context-specific Can be codified and explicated Difficult to formalise, record, encode, or Can be codified and transmitted in aFormalisation articulate systematic and formal languageDevelopment Developed through explication of tacit Developed through trial and errorProcess understanding and interpretation of information Stored in documents, databases, Web pages,Location Stored in the heads of people e-mails, charts, etc.Conversion Converted to explicit throughProcesses externalisation (metaphors and analogy) Hard to manage, share, or support withIT Support Well supported by existing IT ITMedium Can be transferred through conventional Needs a rich communication mediumsEnabled electronic channels 14
  15. 15. On Knowledge From tacit to explicit knowledge 15
  16. 16. On Knowledge Where do we acquire knowledge? Procedures • New sequence of operations or rules Principles Tools and • New concepts and values Methods applicable to • Conceptual decision skills making Knowledge is acquired from Structures Processes • Structure or • New sequence location of of phases of a organisation project 16
  17. 17. On Knowledge The 3 basic processes of knowledge Acquire Acquisition Acquire • The process of development and creation of insights, skills, Corroborate and relationships Corroborate • IT tools: Databases, Capture Tools (i.e., Mind Manager) Organise Organise Secure Secure Analyse Analyse Utilisation Sharing Utilise • Leaning is integrated on • Disseminating and Share daily basis making available what is • IT tools: Collaborative already known tools (e-mail, chat • IT tools: Communications applications, etc.) Networks 17
  18. 18. On Knowledge Forms of knowledge Know-how – a skill, procedures Know-where – a sense Know-who – who can of place, where is best help me with this to do something question or task Know-when – a sense Know-what – structural of timing, and rhythm knowledge, patterns Know-why – a deeper kind of knowledge understanding the wider context 18
  19. 19. On Knowledge Knowledge versus learning Learning: The acquisition and integration of knowledge so that it may be used and applied Knowledge: memorisation of facts or terms Comprehension: Evaluation: translating or placing a value paraphrasing judgment on data information or rules Types of learning Synthesis: Application: using constructing a new information in new idea from parts of situations, others applying rules Analysis: breaking information down into discrete parts 19
  20. 20. On Knowledge Knowledge and individual learning Knowledge begins with the individual Professional development and marketability Curiosity and Growth intellectual enjoyment Survive and Motivators Gain edge meet basic for over needs Learning competitors Knowledge workers must be lifelong learners • Skills must be continually renewed or become obsolete • New skills must be acquired • To respond to change and use new technologies, people must be enabled to learn how to create, innovate and employ new processes 20
  21. 21. On Knowledge Optimal characteristics of learners Motivation to try potentially better processes New or improved skill or ability desired Trust in abilities and validity of those providing knowledge Flexibility and agility Curiosity Safe environment Flow State • A sense of highly focused attention • Mental enjoyment of the activity for its own sake • A sense of being outside of time • A match between the challenge at hand and ones skill 21
  22. 22. On Knowledge Knowledge and models of reality A model is an abstraction of the reality Facts Symbols Data • Representation • Representation • Structured of reality of facts symbols Knowledge Information • Information put • Data with in practice meaning Knowledge about a fact produces a model of the real event that generates that fact The Principle of Incomplete Knowledge: The model embodied in a system is necessarily incomplete 22
  23. 23. On Knowledge Paradigms A paradigm is a a pattern or model; a collection of assumptions, concepts, practices, and values that constitutes a way of viewing reality, especially for an intellectual community that shares them Number of C solved problems B A Paradigm formation Time 23
  24. 24. On Knowledge Born of new paradigms (paradigm shift) 24
  25. 25. On Knowledge Paradigm shift and paralysis Image shows the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way Perhaps the greatest barrier to a paradigm shift, in some cases, is the reality of paradigm paralysis, the inability to see beyond the current models of thinking Examples on Paradigm Shift and Paralysis in Information Management (alternative link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxmuhzLzubM) 25
  26. 26. On Knowledge The Principle of Darkness The Principle of Darkness: Even though the knowledge of a part of the reality is incomplete, it can be MANAGED effectively (black box theory) Input KNOWLEDGE Output (black box) Knowledge gives answer to “what”, “who”, “where”, “when”, “how”, and “why” At this third level of comprehension / understanding, knowledge does not have rules to distinguish and generate new knowledge 26
  27. 27. On Knowledge What is Knowledge Management? Knowledge Management (KM) is the explicit and systematic management of vital knowledge and its associated processes of creating, gathering, organising, diffusion, use and exploitation, in pursuit of defined objectives Create Gather Organise KM Processes Diffuse Use Exploit 27
  28. 28. On Knowledge What KM is not about KM is not knowledge engineering KM is about processes, not just digital networks KM is not building a smarter intranet KM is not about a one-time investment KM is not about enterprise-wide “infobanks” 28
  29. 29. On Knowledge From knowledge to wisdom Knowledge of a fact is when information of that fact is put in practice or used in many situations Wisdom is the ultimate level of understanding This level is achieved when there are enough patterns and meta-patterns that that can be synthesised them and then used them in novel ways 29
  30. 30. On Knowledge From facts to wisdom: a final map 30
  31. 31. On Knowledge Importance of KM to your organisation 31
  32. 32. On Knowledge Lessons learned – Discover what you know 32
  33. 33. KM practice: Managing your knowledgeDirections • Each practice is 20 minutes long + 10 minutes for group discussion • MindManager software is needed (you can download a 21-days free trial version on www.mindjet.com) • Notice: No previous experience in using MindManager is neededPractice 1 - Understand your knowledge processing styles • Think about how you acquire information and make decisions • Mindmap your preferred ways of gaining knowledge • Mindmap what thinking processes and preferences guide your decision-makingPractice 2 - What sort of information manager are you? • Review a recent significant project or decision • Mindmap what information you felt you needed to do your best, how you went about finding it, how you processed it, and how it affected the outcome of your task • What have you now done with this information and how might you use it again? • After reviewing the check list, would you do something different next time you are in a similar situation? 33
  34. 34. The Problem of KM in Organisation Organisational isles of information and knowledge Functional Areas Organisational Levels Organisational Isles of Information and Knowledge 34
  35. 35. The Problem of KM in Organisation Knowledge transfer velocity and viscosity Tacit knowledge is more viscous than explicit knowledge Knowledge velocity Knowledge viscosity concerns concerns • How quickly the • The richness or knowledge moves thickness of the (knowledge speed) knowledge transferred • Whether the • Its resistance to flow knowledge gets to the appropriate organisational members (knowledge direction) Reduce knowledge viscosity by converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge whenever possible (e.g., standard operating procedures, best practices and lessons learned) 35
  36. 36. The Problem of KM in Organisation Organisational culture Observable symbols, ceremonies, stories, slogans, behaviours, dress, physical settings Underlying values, assumptions, beliefs, attitudes, feelings 36
  37. 37. The Problem of KM in Organisation Organisational growth Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Large Entrepreneurial Collective Formalisation Elaboration Split into small organisations Evolution continuation Growth through Decline Coordination Staff Crisis Organisational Size Growth through Delegation Control Crisis Growth through The Limiting Absorption Direction Autonomy Crisis Principle for Knowledge: In order to absorb more knowledge, an organisation Leadership crisis must change and have evolution Growth through Creativity Small 37
  38. 38. The Problem of KM in Organisation Resistance to change ACTIVE PASSIVE 38
  39. 39. The Problem of KM in Organisation Where is knowledge into organisations? Intellectual Capital Customer knowledge • Human Capital - • The most vital • In the minds of individuals (knowledge, knowledge in most Knowledge in competencies, experience, know-how, Knowledge organisations products and etc.) assets services • Structural Capital • Measuring and • Smarter • That which is left after employees go managing your solutions, home for the night (processes, intellectual customised to information systems, databases, etc.) capital users needs • Customer Capital • Customer relationships, brands, trademarks, etc. Knowledge in Knowledge into Knowledge in relationships Organisations people • Deep personal • Nurturing and knowledge that harnessing underpins brainpower, your successful most precious collaboration asset Organisational Knowledge in memory processes • Drawing on • Applying the lessons from the best know-how past or while performing elsewhere in the core tasks organisation 39
  40. 40. The Learning Organisations Organisational learning Organisational Learning • It is a process of knowledge acquisition or generation of an organisation, performed through individuals, which can be accomplished by teams • It is based on organisational memory that is expanded, which can improve organisational actions Organisational Learning Types External (from Internal (within an outside to inside organisation) organisations) Learning of implicit Learning of explicit Learning of implicit Learning of explicit knowledge knowledge knowledge knowledge Individual work in an Insiders that turn into Individual work in a Prepared material unstructured outsiders structured approach approach Team work in an Outsiders that Team work in a Unprepared material unstructured become insiders structured approach approach 40
  41. 41. The Learning Organisations Levels of organisational learning Single-loop Double-loop learning learning This occurs when errors are detected and corrected and This occurs when, in addition to detection and correction of organisations carry on with their present policies and goals errors, the organisation is involved in the questioning and modification of existing norms, procedures, policies, and objectives Deutero-learning This occurs when organisations learn how to carry out single- loop and double- loop learning 41
  42. 42. The Learning Organisations Learning organisation The term learning organisation refers to an organisation‟s capability of learning from its past experience (1) Meaning - Determining a vision of the learning organisation To build a learning organisation, it must tackle three critical issues: (3) (2) Measurement Management - Assessing - Determining the rate and how the level of organisation learning is to work 42
  43. 43. The Learning Organisations Some components of a learning organisation Systematic Problem Solving (using methodologies) Transferring knowledge quickly Experimentation and efficiently with new through out the approaches organisation Benchmarking / Learning from past Best practices experience 43
  44. 44. The Learning Organisations How a learning organisation looks like Organisational Learning system learns as a Organisation whole Tolerance for complexity and uncertainly People in Learning is a organisation continuous, recognise that Leadership process that is ongoing, Climate of involved and openness and integrated with organisation- “curiosity” supporting learning work wide learning is critical Resources committed to Systems quality perspective learning Perceived Processes for performance Organisation maximising gap between measures flow of data, current and progress information, desired and people 44 performance
  45. 45. The Learning Organisations The learning organisation: the 5 disciplines Personal Mastery • Clarify personal vision • Focus energy • See reality objectively Mental Models Systems Thinking • Identify assumptions • Seeing wholes • Open to change • Identifying patterns Team Learning Shared Vision • Synergy (2+2=5) • Create shared • Dialog, conversation commitment (not speechmaking) • Identify what we want 45
  46. 46. The Learning Organisations46 Managed learning
  47. 47. The Learning Organisations Sorting out the “M”s – Domains & Relationships Knowledge Mgmt Intellectual Capital • Tacit/Implicit Knowledge • Explicit Knowledge Social Capital Information “Resources” Information Mgmt • Communities/Networks (lifecycle mgmt) • Collaboration Mgmt Content • Culture Mgmt Technology Records Mgmt Human Capital Data Mgmt • Organisational Learning Mgmt (repositories) • Succession Planning (infrastructure) • Business Processes Document Mgmt • Versions Application • Workflow Information Services • Library Mgmt • Research • Knowledge repositories (static) Content (dynamic) Taxonomies/Metadata Facilitative IT Tools 47
  48. 48. The Learning Organisations Relationship among IT, IM and KM Human Capital Social Capital The Essence of Knowledge Corporate Capital Management Enabler  Data The Essence of  Successes  Relationships  Info Information  Lessons Learned  Mapping Management Enabler Technology Innovation The Essence of  Capability  Connectivity  Software Information  Capacity  Hardware Technology Enabler  Incentives Infrastructure  Education  IPTs  Physical  Training Assets 48
  49. 49. The Learning Organisations The essence of KM Tacit INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL Explicit HUMAN SOCIAL CORPORATE CAPITAL CAPITAL CAPITAL (Individual) (Team) (Organisation) – Expertise – Networks – Intellectual – Experience – Relationships Property – Capability – Interactions – Processes – Capacity – Language – Databases – Creativity – Patterning – Flexibility – Adaptability ENTERPRISE KNOWLEDGE 49
  50. 50. Case – Learning organisations versus places to learnThink about your experience in a university. Then think about that university as a learning organisation(make a distinction between a “place to learn” and a “learning organisation”).Say your point of view about the following topics (consider the learning environment and try to be impartialin your answers):• Climate of openness and “curiosity”• Tolerance for complexity and uncertainly• Leadership involved and supporting learning• Perceived performance gap between current and desired performance• Resources committed to quality learning• Organisation measures progress• Systems perspective• Processes for maximising flow of data, information, and peopleDo you think that a learning organisation needs a place to learn? Before you give an answer, analyse thefollowing videoTelefónica- Creating a Talent Pipeline(alternative link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O-x_9KVr4Kg ) DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Before lecture: Think about Review the case international teams this case (5 minutes) (3 people) Explain your conclusions to Discuss the case in your own Free discussion other teams team (10 minutes) (3 minutes by team) (10 minutes) 50
  51. 51. Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing - Interplay of four factors People Technology Processes Learning 51
  52. 52. Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing needs all of these People Places Things Create Where people Structured and knowledge with: can: unstructured Share ideas content: Colleagues Form Create Experts communities Classify Customers Learn Capture Partners and Create answers friends to problems Share 52
  53. 53. Knowledge Sharing Why knowledge sharing? Knowledge sharing leverages expertise and organisational know-how to improve . . . Responsiveness Innovation Competency Efficiency . . . helping enterprises do work more effectively and achieve corporate goals 53
  54. 54. Knowledge Sharing What knowledge is sharing? • Knowledge that has been articulated Explicit • Organisation • Mission knowledge • Hardware/software • Knowledge that can be articulated but Implicit is not • Analysing tasks involved in a knowledge process Tacit • Knowledge that cannot be articulated • Ability to recognise a person‟s face knowledge 54
  55. 55. Knowledge Sharing How is knowledge captured and shared? Individual Collaboration Organisational knowledge networks knowledge-base TACIT TO EXPLICIT 55
  56. 56. Knowledge Sharing What happens when the K-line is crossed? Enlightened Enterprise “Enlightened Innovation workplace” where Shared explicit Shared tacit knowledge knowledge knowledge is shared Context K-line Shift Old business Traditional Enterprise “Traditional workplace” Gated explicit Hoarded tacit where knowledge is not knowledge knowledge shared 56
  57. 57. Knowledge Sharing Sharing or not sharing? Why do people share? • They take pride in their expertise • They enjoy interacting with peers • They wish to learn • They expect others to reciprocate • They want to contribute to the common good • Their culture encourages sharing • They are loyal to the organisation Why does not people share? • It is not convenient • They do not know what they know • They do not know the value of what they know • They believe knowledge hoarding is job security • They do not get credit for it • They do not have the time 57
  58. 58. Knowledge Sharing How to share knowledge? Share your knowledge and encourage your peers to do the same Do not stigmatise Network with your others for not peers knowing Value and reward Seek expert advice the continuous throughout the pursuit of enterprise knowledge 58
  59. 59. Knowledge Sharing Lessons learned – Organisational “does / does not” for knowledge sharing Organisation does How organisations implement • Integrate into Knowledge Management • Business strategy • Daily work Intranet 47% • Provide Repository 33% • Consistent and continual championship / Decision-support 33% leadership Groupware 33% • A trusting organisational environment People networks 24% • Time to engage in knowledge sharing Map links to expertise 18% • Appropriate incentives for participation • Institutionalise organisational, lifelong Source: ASTD Research learning Organisation does not • Create compensation systems that do not support knowledge sharing and teamwork • Build a “Grand Database in the Sky” • Allow technology to dictate development • Failure to coordinate and involve entire organisation 59
  60. 60. Knowledge Sharing Organisational challenges to KM/KS Culture clashes 60
  61. 61. Videocase: Igloo - Global Issues Network 1. What can you say about the following 4 factors? • People • Processes • Learning • Technology 2. How does people create and transform knowledge from tacit to implicit? 3. How is knowledge captured and shared? 4. How and where can people share knowledge? 5. How is content structured? 6. What can you say about responsiveness, innovation, competency and efficiency? 7. Say some examples of how the ideas described should be used into an organisationIgloo - Global Issues Network(alternative link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xdVmGBPGbg4) DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Before lecture: Watch the Review the video international teams video (10 minutes) (3 people) Explain your conclusions to Discuss the video in your own Free discussion other teams team (10 minutes) 61 (3 minutes by team) (10 minutes)
  62. 62. Social Networks Knowledge networks and knowledge flows Knowledge networks explain the flow or diffusion of knowledge across a network of individuals Transactive Memory Systems are knowledge repositories that Cognitive knowledge provide individuals networks essentially with access to more answer “who knows knowledge than any who knows what?” one individual could possibly possess alone 62
  63. 63. Social Networks Social Network Analysis (SNA) SNA is focused on uncovering the patterns of peoples interconnectedness and interactions • The success or failure of organisations and societies may depend on these patterns • Analysis can produce understanding as well as action SN use Content is people to used to find find people content 63
  64. 64. Social Networks Why do a SNA? To build better networks, we have to communicate more I already know Everybody should what is going on be connected to in my network everybody else Six Myths about Informal Networks* Central people who have become We can not do bottlenecks much to aid should make informal networks themselves more accessible How people fit in is a matter of personality (which can not be changed) *Rob Cross, Nitin Nohria, and Andrew Parker, MIT Sloan Management Review, Spring 2002 64
  65. 65. Social Networks Discussion - SNA applications 65
  66. 66. Organisational Culture What is culture? Tradition and history, cultural strength Shared values Jargon Culture Physical environment, Belief systems cultural artifacts, Rituals, Status folkways, symbols mores, norms 66
  67. 67. Organisational Culture How employees absorb culture Stories The ability of an organisation to learn, develop memory, Social Rituals and share knowledge is learning dependent on its culture Over time organisations learn what works and what does not work Reward / Symbols punishment Generally when a IT project fails, it is because the technology does not match the organisation‟s culture Heroes Language 67
  68. 68. Organisational Culture Cultural typologies Strong culture is said to exist where staff respond to stimulus because of their alignment to organisational values Weak culture is said to exist where there is little alignment with organisational values and control must be exercised through extensive procedures and bureaucracy Deal & Kennedy - Risk and feedback • Focus on executive decision making Reinmann & Wiener - Values • Focus on values and source of values Schein - Every organisation is unique • Culture is the most difficult organisational attribute to change Sonnenfeld - Academy, club, baseball team, fortress • Focus on attraction of personalities 68
  69. 69. Organisational Culture Aspects and steps that determine KM success Understand organisational culture Culture – Process view • Ways to facilitate collaborative Analyse it processes, learning dynamics and problem solving Technology – Object view Get into the network and understand the characters • Focus on databases or other storage devices, mechanisms for sharing knowledge Manage it products such as documents, and terms such as knowledge transfer Change it 69
  70. 70. Organisational Culture Any KM programme requires a Change Management approach Attempts to introduce changes that are radically different than the existing culture usually are not successful CURRENT STATE Values Norms Practices Attempts to introduce changes that are generally consistent with the current culture usually are successful 70
  71. 71. Videocase: Duracell Xcells (Industrial) 1.How does Duracell define quality? 2.Describe the process used by Duracell to get the concept of quality 3.What can you say about shared values? 4.Is the culture of Duracell a strong or weak? 5.What is the type of culture implicit in Duracell? 6.Why could Duracell change its organisational culture?Duracell Xcells (Industrial)(alternative link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vBkGZ124Tjk) DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Before lecture: Watch the Review the video international teams video (10 minutes) (3 people) Explain your conclusions to Discuss the video in your own Free discussion other teams team (10 minutes) 71 (3 minutes by team) (10 minutes)
  72. 72. Communities of Practice Communities of Practice (COP) A COP is a group of self-governing people whose practice is aligned with strategic imperatives and are challenged to create shareholder value by generating knowledge and increasing capabilities Define Community Project • Identify community elements • Set context • Outline project Establish Community Components • Identify issues and approaches • Plan project tasks Launch Community Establish Community • Develop sense of community Assess: Progress & Value • Solicit feedback on development 72
  73. 73. Communities of Practice Components and benefits of COPs Governance • Community conventions & norms Accelerates the generation of capabilities Membership • Community participants Improves and enhances meta-capabilities Technology • Enabling infrastructure Shapes a “boundary-less” culture for User support greater synergy • Maximising collaborative tools Content Connects people into a network for greater • Community knowledge base speed Learning • Capability to participate in community Promotes innovation through collaboration and problem-solving situated in work Facilitation • Moving the community forward; realising purpose Prevents knowledge loss from the organisation through exchange of cross- Communication plan generational expertise • Establishing credibility, sharing the value proposition 73
  74. 74. Storytelling Storytelling Storytelling is the skilled delivery of stories use to present anecdotal evidence, clarify a point, support a point of view and crystallise ideas Storytelling is the connecting device between data and reality Stories can share a "truth" that data can not Storytelling can help bridge the gap between data and knowledge It also could be the result of integrating information Knowledge managers use storytelling as a device and tool for sharing knowledge Communicate quickly Communicate naturally Communicate truthfully Potential Benefits Communicate collaboratively Communicate persuasively Communicate intuitively 74 Communicate movingly
  75. 75. Storytelling Six steps in storytelling Definition of objectives; assignment of commentators Plan and interviewees; selection of the events Collecting personal views; searching for „puzzle Interview stones‟ Extract Selection of momentous statements Preparation of the Write experience document Feedback of the Validate citations to the interviewees Propagate 75
  76. 76. Videocase: Cisco on Change Management 1. What are the main stages of CISCO Change Road Map? 2. What are the main reasons to implement change? 3. What is the team project? 4. What are the team components? (issues, approaches, plan, and project tasks) 5. How is the team launched? 6. How is it developed a sense of team? 7. How was it assed the progress and value of the team? 8. Is the team a COP?Cisco – Change Management Training Video(alternative link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bG5na7JD7rE) DIRECTIONS Create multidisciplinary Before lecture: Watch the Review the video international teams video (10 minutes) (3 people) Explain your conclusions to Discuss the video in your own Free discussion other teams team (10 minutes) (3 minutes by team) (10 minutes) 76
  77. 77. KM Technology Layers of a KM technology platform 77
  78. 78. Technology aspect of KM 78 Data Analysis (Data Warehouse and Business Intelligence) Messaging and Collaboration Enabling Technologies Real Time Collaboration Complete Intranet Content Management Portals and Search Communities, Teams and Experts Pre-RequisitesKM Technology
  79. 79. KM Technology Messaging and collaboration Tacit Explicit Desktop Knowledge Knowledge • Easy-to-use productivity • Comfortable e-mail systems • Web browser • Simple search functionalities KM Information Services Base • Collaboration services • Web services  eate mult1
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