• The Romanian educational system is based on a tuition-free system.• Access to free education till 18 years old is guaranteed by Article 32 in the Constitution of Romania.
• Compulsory education includes 11 grades. Theoretically, children become pupils at the age of 6 and finish compulsory school at the age of 17.
The structure of the pre-university education isthe result of the reform process started in the early 90’s and assisted by the EU through pre-integration programmes.
Romanian educational system includes• Pre-school Education• Primary Education• Lower Secondary Education - gymnazium• Higher Secondary Education• Post-high school Education• Higher Education
VET in RomaniaVET is including: Initial VET named TVET Continuing VET named CVTTVET is delivred through the formal system and, in the near future, also through apprenticeship schemes by enterprises in cooperation with education and training providers
The structure of TVET systemTVET is developed in the new law at secondary education levelcontaining two alternatives, as follows:The technological high-school, includes: – the lower cycle, namely grades X-XI, that are leading to acquiring general (non-certificated) competences in a number of domains, part of three profiles: resources, techniques, and services; at the end of the 11th grade , after a practical training stage the students can acquire a professional qualification of level 2 (level 3 EQF) – the upper cycle, grades XI – XII, that are leading to level ISCED 3 and professional qualification level 3 level 4 EQF 8
• The vocational school, includes: – training programmes ( with a duration of 6months-2 years) based on occupational standards conducting to a professional qualification of lower level
The TVET system also includes:• The Post-high schools that represent a specialised TVET route of 1-3 years leading to acquiring certificated competences for vocational qualifications level 3 advanced (level 5 EQF). 10
TVET profilesThree major profiles relate to the envisaged trades andspecialisations, as follows: – Techniques, comprising the fields of mechanics, electromechanical and electrical, electronics and, automation, constructions and civil works, telecommunications, light industry, transports, industrial chemistry, wood processing 11
– Services, comprising the fields of tourism and catering, food & beverage, commerce and related services, post, economics and public administration, health and social assistance, as well as other services deserving industry and population– Resources, comprising the fields of food industry, forestry, agriculture, agro-tourism, animal breeding and veterinary, environment protection
TVET providers• Public vocational and technical education (part of the secondary education) is financed mainly from the public budget.• The system includes also private units of all types of schools.• Public and private schools are subject to accreditation of programmes, and a quality assurance methodology, which enables TVET schools to produce annual self-assessment reports and improvement plans - subject to external audits. 13
Institutions having roles in TVET• Ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport for TVET delivred through education system• Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Protection for VET delivred through apprenticeship system and for CVT National Authority for Qualifications, supported by Sectoral Committees, reorganised by unifying National Adult Training Board and National Agency for Qualifications in Higher Education 14
MoERYS- institutional structures involved in TVET• National Centre for Evaluation in Pre-university Education• National Centre for TVET Development• National Agency for Quality Assurance in Pre-university Education- ARACIP• Institute of Educational Sciences 15
Regional intervention is made predominately by the County School Inspectorates.
National TVET schools network National TVET schools network1600 1474 14951400 1367 1316 1266 126612001000 844 800 713 692 611 600 558 518 516 516 400 200 0 2003 - 2004 2004 - 2005 2005 - 2006 2006 - 2007 2007 - 2008 2008 - 2009 2009 - 2010 schools units schools units in rural area 17