From trading settlement to CrownColony• StraitsSettlementbecame a______________________• under directcontrol ofColonial Officein London• Singapore nowbelonged toQueen Victoriaof Britain.
British Administration in Singapore(1867 – 1942) Recap! What did the Straits Settlement consist of?
British Administration in Singapore(1867 – 1942) In this form of government, who had more power: the British or the locals?
Local Involvement in GovernmentLook at the picture of the Legislative Council belowand answer the questions on the next slide:
Local Involvement in Government How many Europeans can you see? How many locals can you see? How do you think this affected the way inwhich the views / opinions / feelings of thelocal population were represented in thegovernment? Was it very easy for the ‘localvoice’ to be heard and supported in thegovernment? Why or why not? Why do you think Singapore was run in thismanner? How do you think this made the localpopulation feel?
Local Involvement in Government As pressure for more local involvement increased, thenumber of non-official members in the LegislativeCouncil increased. In 1924, there was an equal number of non-official andofficial members in the Legislative Council. Did increasing the number of non-official members lead to more localinvolvement? Why do you think the British listened to the demands for more non-officialmembers?
Local Involvement in Government Two important locals were Dr. Lim Boon Keng andEunos Abdullah.
1. Chinese Secret Societies Committed a number of illegal acts: Robbery, murder,running of opium houses, brothels and gambling dens“Illegal acts have been committedlately all over the island by thesesecret society members. Numerousworkshops and warehouses belongingto Chinese Christians have beendestroyed. These acts, especially themore recent outrageous attack uponthe police in Bukit Timah, showevidence of a dangerous threat topublic security and peace.” Why do you think this was amajor concern for theBritish?
2. Abuse of Immigrants Two groups of people who were frequently abused were________ and Chinese women who came to Singapore.Many new immigrants were keptunder guard on the coolie shipsor locked up in filthy conditionsand forcibly re-shipped to otherplaces in Southeast Asia whereconditions were too terrible toattract free labour…The sale of girls into brothelsstarts with the ‘pocket-mother’bringing the girls from China toSingapore. The ‘pocket-mother’receives the money paid for her‘daughter’, who signs an IOU forthe amount with heavy interest.The girls work to pay off theirdebts… Some, after six yearswere still repaying their debtseven though the sums had beenpaid over and over again…
3. Piracy A great danger to the lives, property and trade of themerchant community in Singapore Many trading ships were attacked, after which thecargoes were stolen and the people were either killed orsold as slaves How did the governmentrespond?Do you remember howSingapore was depicted inthe movie Pirates of theCarribean 3: At World’s
Improving Law and Order Police force was ineffective. Few people wanted to join aspolicemen were poorly paid andequipped Many policemen accepted bribes Not many Chinese policemen, so itwas hard to get information from theChinese local population Army often had to be called in toassist the police Why were there so few Chinese policemen?
Improving Law and Order The British realised there was a need to improve thepolice force. Increased pay and provided proper training Employed capable officials who could speak both Malay and theChinese dialects Set up Detective Branch in 1862 to look into the activities of thesecret societies; Chinese detectives were recruited by 1906. This was renamed the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) in1931. Modern methods, like finger-printing, were introduced Set up a _________________________________ under WilliamPickering, to address problems related to the Chinese community
Improving Law and Order William Pickering was in charge of theChinese Protectorate, and was known as thefirst Protector of the Chinese from May 1877. Accomplishments of the Chinese Protectorate: Obtained the support of the Chinese leaders People settled their disputes through theProtectorate, weakening the power of the secretsocieties Improved welfare of the coolies and immigrantChinese women Increased trust between the British and the localChinese community
Improving Social Services: Education Throughout the 19thcentury, theBritish were happy to leaveeducation in the hands of_________________institutions. However, this attitude changedin the late 19thcentury. Demand for people trained inEnglish in places such asgovernment offices and tradingcompanies
Improving Social Services: Education The government made several steps to improve theeducation system:
Improving Social Services: Education However, not all schools weretreated equally. English and Malay schools were givenmore money The British believed that Chineseschools bred _________________feelings among their students Favoured _________________ andpro-British schools
Improving Social Services: HealthCommon killingdiseases such astubercolosis, beriberi and malariawere serious. Theywere caused bypoverty,overcrowding,malnutrition and dirt.There was neitheradequate watersupply nor a propersystem of wastedisposal.The prosperity of Singapore depended entirelyupon its use as a commercial emporium. This isgravely threatened by dangerous infectiousdiseases that other places had begun to imposequarantine regulations against Singapore. What were some of the factors that led to thewidespread health problems? What effect did it have on Singapore as a tradecentre?
Improving Social Services: Health The government made several steps to improve thehealth system:
British Government’s View on theLocal Population“I believe theBritish race isthe greatest ofgoverning racesthe world hasever seen!” Asians were often discriminated by the Britishgovernment: In general however, there was order, security and animproved standard of living.
Recap Questions What were the two councils that assisted the Governorin running the Straits Settlement? Who were Eunos Abdullah and Dr Lim Boon Keng?What were their contributions? What problems did the British face in maintaining lawand order in Singapore? How did the British improve law and order in Singapore? How did the British improve education services? How did the British improve health services? What were the British views on the local population?