Windmill power generation using mult generator and single rotor (horizontal and vertical blade)

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Windmill power generation using mult generator and single rotor (horizontal and vertical blade)

  1. 1. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2012Windmill Power Generation Using Mult-Generator and Single Rotor (Horizontal and Vertical Blade) S. Siva Sakthi Velan1*, G. Muthukumaran1 S. Balasubramaniyan2 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, 2. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Mailam Engineering College, Mailam post, Tindivanam Taluk, Villupuram District, Tamilnadu state, India – 604304. * E-mail of the corresponding author: sivasakthivelan.s@gmail.comAbstractWind energy is the environmental pollution free, hazardless and one of the best renewable energy for generation ofelectric power. The main aim of the paper is “to produce current using multi generator and single rotor”. This paperproposes multi-generator to address potential challenges: dimension, cost and reliability. The two electromagneticinduction generators are desired to share the single shaft through straight bevel gears. These poles of the twogenerators will be changed as alternate to parallel. This paper discussed about the design procedure of gears, gear lifeand wind turbine rotors. The output current is stored in series of battery to appliances through converter and step uptransformer. The Construction, working, parts of windmill, materials are discussed detailed in this paper.Keywords: Electromagnetic Induction Generator, Wind Turbine, Straight Bevel Gear, Poles of Generator.1. IntroductionThe wind energy is an environment-friendly and efficient source of renewable energy. The kinetic energy of the windcan be used to do work. This energy is harnessed by windmill in the past to do mechanical work. This is used forwater lifting pump and generating electricity. To generate the electricity, the rotary motion of, the windmill is used toturn the turbine of the electric generator. The output of single windmill is quite small and cannot be used forcommercial purposes. Therefore, a number of windmills are erected over a large area, which is known as windenergy farm. The each and every windmill is coupled together to get a electricity for commercial purposes. The windspeed should be higher than 15 Km/hr.2. Literature reviewWind farms are created when multiple wind turbines are placed in the same location for the purpose of generatinglarge amounts of electric power. Due to rising energy prices and the resultant search for alternatives, there are nowthousands of wind farms in many countries around the world. There is still a lot of controversy surrounding the prosand cons of wind power and its local impact. The articles listed on this page explore news and information aboutwind farms.The three-bladed rotor proliferates and typically has a separate front bearing, with low speed shaft connected to agearbox that provides an output speed suitable for the most popular four-pole (or two -pole) generators. This generalarchitecture commonly, with the largest wind turbines, the blade pitch will be varied continuously under activecontrol to regulate power in higher operational wind speeds. Support structures are most commonly tubular steeltowers tapering in some way, both in metal wall thickness and in diameter from tower base to tower top. Concretetowers, concrete bases with steel upper sections and lattice towers, are also used but are much less prevalent. Towerheight is rather site specific and turbines are commonly available with three or more tower height options.The author Fujin Deng used a variable speed wind turbine, where multiple permanent magnet synchronousgenerators (MPMSGs) drive-train configuration is employed in the wind turbine. A cascaded multilevel converterinterface based on the MPMSGs is developed to synthesize a desired high ac sinusoidal output voltage, which couldbe directly connected to the grids. What is more, such arrangement has been made so that the output ac voltagehaving a selected phase angle difference among the stator windings of multiple generators. The multiple polePermanent magnet synchronous generators are cost effective duo to multiple pole it induces eddy current andHysteresis losses so it is reduced by proposed method. 11
  2. 2. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 20123. Materials and methods3.1 Windmill using multi generatorThe two electromagnetic induction generator are connected in both end of the shaft through coupling. The windmillrotor transmit the power to the two generator through straight bevel gear. The power output of multi- generator usedwindmill will be two times of single generator used windmill.3.2 Principle of the methodsThe windmill is works on the principle of generating power through the force of the nature (air). The blades ofwindmill are rotated due to the force of wind strikes them. The rotating blades are transmitting the power to thegenerator through the shaft and gear box and generate the electricity.3.3 Construction of the methodsFor Horizontal blade wind turbine, the main parts are follows below: • Blades and rotor, • Electromagnetic Induction Generator (2Qty), • Gears (straight bevel gear mechanism), • Shaft. Figure 1. Experimental setup for horizontal wind turbineThe blades are attached with rotor by using bolt and nut. The rotor connected with gear through shaft and balance bybearing. The gear box consists of driver and driven gear. The driven gear teeth are mesh with driver gear. The oneend of the low speed shaft is connected with driver gear and other end is connected with rotor turbine of thewindmill. The long high speed shaft is connected at the center of the driven gear. The both end of the shaft isconnected with two same or different generator through coupling.For vertical blade wind turbine, the main parts are follows below: • Blades and rotor, • Electromagnetic Induction Generator (2Qty), • Gears (straight bevel gear mechanism), • Shaft. 12
  3. 3. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2012 Figure 2. Experimental setup for vertical wind turbineThe blade is attached with rotor. The rotor connected with straight bevel gear through shaft. The gear box consists ofdriver and driven gear. The one end of the low speed shaft is connected with driver gear and other end is connectedwith rotor turbine of the windmill. The long high speed shaft is connected at the center of the driven gear. The bothend of the shaft is connected with two same or different generator through coupling. 13
  4. 4. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 20123.4 Poles of generator Figure 3. poles of generatorThe one of the Generator is rotated at clockwise and other one is rotated at anticlockwise. The anticlockwise rotatingGenerator is not giving the current. So, we change the poles inside the motor. The poles of two motor is parallel andconnected with driven gear through long shaft.3.5 Working of the MethodThe rotor is rotated due to the force of wind strikes the blades of windmill. The rotating blades are transmitting thepower to the gear box (driver gear) through rotor from the shaft. In gear box, the straight bevel gear mechanism isused which consist of driver and driven gears. The driver gear is transmitting power to the driven gear. Finally, thegear box is transmitting power to the two Generator through shaft in driven gear. The Generator shaft is rotated andsame torque is produced. Because, torque is product of force and area so we balance the force and area the torquewill be same. The Generator generates current.3.6 Power and Torque transmission in bevel and spur gear Figure 4. Power and Torque flow of transmission in spur gearIn spur gear, when the power and torque produced from the wind turbine rotors flows to the driver spur gear anddivided into two ways: one is part goes straight and become a loss of power and torque another side goes to drivenspur gear then again divided into two ways one is right side which is used by generator and opposite side is loss ofpower and torque. so, the windmill carries maximum efficiency is 50%. 14
  5. 5. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2012 Figure 5. Power and Torque flow of transmission in bevel gearIn bevel gear, when the power and torque produced from the wind turbine rotors flows to the driver bevel gear andagain goes to driven bevel gear then again divided into two ways one is right side which is used by Generator G2 andopposite side is also used by Generator G1. so, the windmill carries efficiency is increased when compare to usingspur gear.4. Parts of windmillthe main parts of windmill are follows below: • Blades and rotor, • Shaft. • Gears (straight bevel gear mechanism), • Generator (2Qty), • Tower4.1 Blades and RotorThe blades are basically the sails of the system; in their simplest form, they act as barriers to the wind (more modernblade designs go beyond the barrier method). When the wind forces the blades to move, it has transferred some of itsenergy to the rotor. They are two types of blades as follows: Horizontal and Vertical blades. Then rotor whichconverts the energy in the wind to rotational shaft energy. 15
  6. 6. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2012 Figure 6. Horizontal and Vertical Blade and Rotor of wind turbine4.2 ShaftThe wind-turbine shaft is connected to the center of the rotor. When the rotor spins, the shaft spins as well. In thisway, the rotor transfers its mechanical, rotational energy to the shaft, which enters an electrical generator on the otherend. Figure 7. Shaft of wind turbine 16
  7. 7. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 20124.3 Gear (bevel gear) Figure 8. Specification of straight bevel gearBevel gears are useful when the direction of a shafts rotation needs to be changed. They are usually mounted onshafts that are 90 degrees apart, but can be designed to work at other angles as well4.4 GeneratorAt its most basic, a generator is a pretty simple device. It uses the properties of electromagnetic induction to produceelectrical voltage - a difference in electrical charge. Voltage is essentially electrical pressure - it is the force thatmoves electricity, or electrical current, from one point to another. So generating voltage is in effect generatingcurrent. A simple generator consists of magnets and a conductor. The conductor is typically a coiled wire. Inside thegenerator, the shaft connects to an assembly of permanent magnets that surrounds the coil of wire. In electromagneticinduction, if you have a conductor surrounded by magnets, and one of those parts is rotating relative to the other, itinduces voltage in the conductor. When the rotor spins the shaft, the shaft spins the assembly of magnets, generatingvoltage in the coil of wire. That voltage drives electrical current (typically alternating current, or AC power) outthrough power lines for distribution Figure 9. Induction generator4.5 TowerThe Tower that supports the rotor and drive train and other equipment, including controls, electrical cables, groundsupport equipment, and interconnection equipment. 17
  8. 8. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2012 Figure 10. Tower5. Material specification5.1 40 Ni 2 Cr 1 Mo 28Alloy steel: 40 Ni 2 Cr 1 Mo 28 [Case Hardened]This material is used to make of shaft, gear, bolt and nut.• I.S specification as per IS 10343: 4D, C1• Chemical composition:Carbon C: 0.35 - 0.45 %Manganese Mn: 0.45 - 0.70 %Chromium Cr: 1.0 - 1.40 %Nickel Ni: 1.30 - 1.80 %Others: molybdenum Mo= 0.20 - 0.35 %• Mechanical properties:Tensile strength: 90 – 120 kg/mm2Yield strength: 70 – 105 kg/mm2BHN hardness: 270 – 400• Physical properties: • Alloy Steels for medium to high strength, applications. • Good strengh ductility, shock & fatigue strength. • Used for brackets, levers etc.5.2 AlluminiumThis material is used to make blades of rotor turbine. 18
  9. 9. Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2012 • Aluminium is a soft, durable, lightweight, ductile and malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray, depending on the surface roughness. • Aluminium is nonmagnetic and does not easily ignite. • Aluminium has about one-third the density and stiffness of steel. • It is easily machined, cast, drawn and extruded. • Corrosion resistance can be excellent due to a thin surface layer of aluminium oxide that forms when the metal is exposed to air, effectively preventing further oxidation. • The strongest aluminium alloys are less corrosion resistant due to galvanic reactions with alloyed copper. • This corrosion resistance is also often greatly reduced when many aqueous salts are present, particularly in the presence of dissimilar metals.6. Advantages and Limitations of the methods6.1 Advantages • It generates more power • It is not necessary connect the same generator and also connect different generator in serious shaft • We will use all type of generators like permanent magnet D.C. generator, synchronous generator and induction generator • Gear box is not used, only two straight bevel or spiral bevel gear is used (driver and driven gear) • The power output is double compare to single windmill.6.2 Limitations • Initial cost is high • Efficiency low . • Maintenance is important and high • Design is complement for gear and rotor turbine • It require lot of space7. Conclusions This paper presents a new methodology for power generation using two same generators of single rotor,further advantage of the method is cost efficient and generating high power with a same torque. Theoretical analysisand experimental work is carried out confirm validity of the analytical work. we conclude that high power producedby single rotor which is the double of the one set of DC generator and rotor.8. ReferencesS. N. Bhadra, D. kastha, S. Banerjee (2005), wind electrical system, New Delhi: oxford university press, ISBN – 13:978-0-19-567093-6; ISBN – 10: 0-19-567093-0.Faculty of mechanical engineering (2011), design data book of engineering, Coimbatore: kalaikathir achagam pageno.: 1.40, 8.1 – 8.53.Fujin Deng, Zhe Chen (2010), wind turbine based on multiple generators drive-train configuration, E-ISBN: 978-1-4244-8509-3, Print ISBN: 978-1-4244-8508-6 page no.: 1- 8.Shigley J. E., Mischke. C.R., Mechanical Engineering Design, Sixth Edition, Tata Mcgraw – Hill, 2003.Ugural A. C., Mechanical Design An Integrated Approach, Mcraw – Hill, 2003.Bhandari. V. B., Design of Machine Elements, Tata Mcgraw – Hill Publishing Company Ltd., 1994. 19
  10. 10. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. Prospective authors ofIISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page:http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar

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