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Mathematical Theory and Modeling
ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)
Vol.3, No.11, 2013

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Mathematical Theory and Modeling
ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)
Vol.3, No.11, 2013

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Mathematical Theory and Modeling
ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)
Vol.3, No.11, 2013
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Mathematical Theory and Modeling
ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)
Vol.3, No.11, 2013

www.iiste.org

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Mathematical Theory and Modeling
ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)
Vol.3, No.11, 2013

www.iiste.org

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This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,
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Oscillatory flow and particle suspension in a fluid through an elastic tube

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Oscillatory flow and particle suspension in a fluid through an elastic tube

  1. 1. Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online) Vol.3, No.11, 2013 www.iiste.org Oscillatory Flow and Particle Suspension in a Fluid Through an Elastic Tube P. N. Habu* M. A. Mbah Department of Mathematics, Federal University Lafia, P. M. B 146, Lafia, Nigeria. * E-mail: peterhabu68@gmail.com Abstract Womersley gave a solution for the case of a thin-walled elastic tube, it being assumed that the effect of the inertia term in the equations of viscous fluid motion can be neglected. He did not consider the presence of particles, to account for the blood cells in the blood, within the viscous flow through the tube (artery). In this paper, the corresponding solution for an oscillatory flow and particle suspension in a fluid (blood), to account for blood cells, through an elastic tube is obtained. This solution is the frequency equation as it was obtained by Womersley but it has a different structure. If the volume fraction particle density , is removed from this solution it collapses to give the same equation as Womersley’s case, without particles. Keywords: Oscillatory flow, Particle suspension, Elastic tube, Periodic function 1. Introduction: The problem of blood flow and wave propagation in the arterial system has stimulated the interest of physiologists and mathematicians for years. Its fundamental importance for present day research can be traced to Witzig and later to the works of Womersley [10]. The contributions of Womersley [10] represent the best attempt to date in developing a complete, practical, unified theory of arterial blood flow and pressure propagation [6]. A survey of the published literature on the propagation of waves in the arterial system will show a large variation of assumptions on the nature of flow conditions, fluid properties, and types of vessel walls. The analytical solutions for pulsatile flow in rigid tubes are therefore based on a combination of different assumptions, just the same as those of oscillatory flow through elastic tube. The model used in this paper consists of three phases as against two phases by Womersley. The three phases are the fluid phase, particulate phase and the equations of motion of the tube. According to Womersley, the simple solution for the oscillatory motion of viscous liquid in a rigid tube, under a simple-harmonic pressure gradient, was given by Lambossay who gave the formula for velocity and viscous drag solely concerned with the effect of the viscous drag on the frequency response of pressure recording instruments. Womersley obtained the same result independently, in a different form and derived the expression for the rate of flow. For the equations of the elastic tube, we adopt Oslen J.W et al [7] and Womersley [10]. All the assumptions by Womersley are adopted and applied in this paper alongside his method of solution. The only variation between Womersley and this approach is the introduction of the particulate phase, with , as the volume fraction particle density, so that we now simulate blood properly, with proper consideration to the existence of blood cells, as the particles. 2. Methods 2.1 Assumptions and Nomenclature ( , ) denote fluid phase velocities, ( , ) denote particulate phase velocities, and, are the actual is the fluid phase densities of the materials constituting fluid and particulate phase respectively, (1 − ) density, the particulate phase density, P denotes the pressure, denotes the volume fraction density of the particles, is the particle fluid mixture viscosity and S is the drag coefficient of interaction for the force exerted by one phase on the other. Inertia terms of the equations of motion are neglected, diffusivity terms are also neglected. is chosen as constant, and we assume that the pressure wave is harmonic in time having frequency n and wave velocity c. 2.2 Formulation of the Model A porous tapered elastic tube filled with a viscous fluid is considered as a model of a vascular bed in which successive branching of the blood cells leads to a rapid decrease in diameter with distance. The porosity of the tapered tube is adjusted to simulate the effect of branching The motion of the fluid is assumed to be cycisymetric and governed by the Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible fluid, now modified to simulate the effect of particle suspension as follows: (1− )[ + + ] = −(1− ) +(1− ) [ 109 + + ]+ ( − ) (1)
  2. 2. Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online) Vol.3, No.11, 2013 (1− )[ + ] = −(1− ) With equation of continuity as, www.iiste.org +(1− ) [ + − + ]+ ( − ) (2) [(1− ) ]+ [(1− ) ]+ = 0, (3) where ! are the axial and radial components of velocity, P is the pressure and and are the density and viscosity of the fluid respectively. The problem of determining the motion of a liquid in an elastic tube when subjected to a pressure – gradient which is a periodic function of the time arises in connection with the flow of blood in the larger arteries. The equations of motion of the tube from [6] are: ( " + = = #$ " # %& − , %# [ ' . - + * " # & & / + + & ]'( + 0 ) ) # [ " + * + & ] (4) (5) Together with the boundary conditions for the motion of the fluid, + = 12=1 = 12=1 The particulate phase: The equations of motion of the particles are: " [ + 3 3 + 3 ]=− [ + + ]=− and their equation of continuity is: [ ]+ [ ]+ 3 = 0 With boundary conditions + = 12=1 3 3 + ( + ( − − ) (7) ) (8) (9) 12=1 " = 3 (6) (10) A 3. Solution: The expression for the drag coefficient for the present study is selected as, = 4 6$ 9 8 (:) 57 , where 89 (:) = ;<=>?; = [5 = ] @ +3 Where C is the fluid viscosity, and ‘a’ is the radius of the particle. Relation where 89 (:) represents the classical Stokes’ drag for small particle Reynolds number, modified to account for the finite particulate fractional volume through the function 89 (:), obtained by [9]. In order to investigate the Pulsatile flow along the axis of the tube, we assume that the pressure wave is harmonic in time having frequency n and wave velocity c. We therefore assume that, (F), 5 (F), 5 (F)] exp [in (t− )] (D, , , , , )= [E (F), (F), (11) G We shall be concerned with the motion in which H& , , 3 , 3 , are small, i.e when the wave velocity, c is very large, as compared to , , , , and nR. G G G G G From (11) we can write P = E (r)exp[in(t− )] I = J= I = J = = G G (r)exp[in(t− )] = (12) 5 (r)exp[in(t− G )] 5 (r)exp[in(t− G )] K =0 KL = − = G (r)exp[in(t− )] A G in exp[in(t− )] A G G exp[in(t− )] A G exp[in(t− )] (13) G exp[in(t− )] 110
  3. 3. Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online) Vol.3, No.11, 2013 = A = A NH G = = G exp[in(t− )] M exp[in(t− )] =− = www.iiste.org A G A G G exp[in(t− )] G (13 cont.) exp[in(t− )] A G exp[in(t− )] G exp[in(t− )] =− in exp[in(t− )] G G Neglecting the inertia terms in (1), we can write equation (1) as = −(1− ) (1− ) +(1− ) [ + + ]+ ( − ) (14) Now substituting equations (12) and (13) into equation (14) and neglecting the diffusivity terms Equation (14) simplifies to ' A + ' ' + ' ' A − =− NH& Let P = Q( ) R5 ⇒ P 5 = " " Substituting (16) in (15), we get ' A H A − MP 5 =− − & ,A NH 6G & H " & ,A NH 6G − & O 6( & 6( O ) ) [ [ − ] − ] 5 5 (15) (16) (17) (1− ) =−(1− ) +(1− ) [ + − + Now substituting equations (12) and (13) into (18), we get ]+ Similarly in equation (2), neglecting inertia terms, can be written as M =− Let 2 = ⇒ A ' & + ,A # + " A + " A −P + # ( O ) [ 5 − ] T − U ⇒ F = 2Q, therefore equation (18) can be written as A ' − MP 5 ' & H − ' A = & ,A 6 ' − & 6( V ) [ 5 we have, − ] (18) (19) (20) Where P 5 = " For equations (19) and (20), the conservation of mass equation can be written using (12) and (13) and simplifying, we get ( A ') NH& A = (21) ' G ' Equations (19) and (20) are now the equations of motion of the fluid and equation (21) is the conservation of mass equation. 3.1 Evaluating the particulate phase Now neglecting the inertia terms in equation (7), we can write equation (7) as [ 3] = − + + ( − ) Now substituting (12) and (13) into (22), we have V A A = − &[#3 NH<V] #3 NH<V (22) ' (23) =− + ( − ) Substituting equations (12) and (13) into (24), we get V A A NH = + Also equation (8) can similarly be written as 3 G[#3 NH<V] (24) #3 NH<V (25) The equation of conservation of mass of the particles can be written using (12) and (13) as ( ') NH& = ' ' G (26) We can now re-arrange the equations of motion of the particles to be written from (23), (25) and (26) to have: V A A = − #3 NH<V V A = &>#3 NH<V@ A NH G[#3 NH<V] + #3 NH<V ' (27) with the equation of continuity as 111
  4. 4. Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online) Vol.3, No.11, 2013 ( ' ') ' = www.iiste.org NH& G Now to solve equations (19) and (20) [i.e. equations of motion of the fluid] From equation (23), equation (19) can be written as + A ' + A ' ' ' ' − ' − + WM = P 5 + A + M =P 5Y5 6( & = Equation (28), can be written as A ' A ' A where Y 5 = 1 + + − ' − ' & N Z "A ( O & 6& )T#3 NH<VU + M =[5 = Equation (29) can be written as A ' A ' ' A Where [ = P Y O )T#3 NH<VU & 6& !] =1+( [1 + − − 6( & V N Z "A ( A ' & V 6( ) V X ) ] )(#3 NH<V) = & 6& A [1 + 6( V ) − #3 NH<V ] A ' (28) ' (29) (30) V )(#3 NH<V) Using Bessel function, the solution of equation (30), expressing E = ^ _C (`2), where k is to be determined. Then A = ^ a_ (a2), therefore equation (29) can be written as + A ' = ' A ' ' + M =[5 A − bA c$ (N Z d ') = & 6& ]^ a_ (a2) With the solution complementary and particular solutions respectively, giving, = c$ (N Z d ) b c$ (N Z d ') − & efA cA (e') & 6 NZd = G + , where G ! e are the (31) Similarly equation (20) has the solution, c$ (N Z d ) NH& fA c$ (e') NZd e (32) Now using the approximation, Womersley [10], to equations (31) and (32), where from the equation of continuity of the fluid we get the identities, GA NH& = G d N G N H & Z gfA = G 6 NH&gA⁄ and &e fA 6 ⇒a= , so that _C (a2) becomes _C i G Also, we use the approximation = _C i H&gA⁄ G H&g A⁄ G NH&gA⁄ j=1 G 2j = 1 and _ (a2) becomes M_ i H&gA⁄ G 2j = NH&'gA⁄ 5G And =_ i j. 5G G Inserting these approximations in equations (31) and (32) we get H&'g A⁄ = = − bA cA (N Z d ') c$ (N Z d ) b c$ (N Z d ') c$ (N Z d ) − H&g A⁄ & efA cA (e') & 6 NZd N& HgfA 6GN Z d H&'g A⁄ Since _C (a2) = _C i = b c$ (N Z d ') c$ (N Z d ) + G gfA # G- e . On further simplification we get j = 1 and M = [ 5 − a 5 = M = [ 5 similarly, , after simplification At the inner surface of the tube, i.e. when y=1, equation (33) and (34) become respectively, NH& NH& gfA = k5 l C ([) + 5 G 5 G # G- Where, l C ([) = And = 5cA (N Z d ) d N Z c$ (N Z d ) gfA = k5 + [ # G- + = #$ " # %# %& − ) # [ ' + & ]'( + * " & + + & ] (34) (35) (36) [ + The equations of motion of the tube are: " (33) ) # " * + & ] (37) (38) Together with the boundary conditions for the motion of the liquid, + = 12=1 112
  5. 5. Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online) Vol.3, No.11, 2013 www.iiste.org = 12=1 If it is now assumed that from (12) and (13) 8 = m exp [M (1 − q⁄k )] and P = r exp [M (1 − q⁄k )], where m and r are arbitrary constants, the boundary conditions for and , using the boundary conditions for the motion of the liquid we have: + = m inexp[M (1 − q⁄k )] = (39) But = m exp [M (1 − q⁄k )] from (39) Therefore = m M (40) From (36), we can write (37) as NH& gfA M m = [k5 l C ([) + ] (41) " 5 G # G- Also = r inexp[M (1 − q⁄k )] = But from (12), = exp [M (1 − q⁄k )], this implies " M r = = k5 + gfA # G- Therefore M r = k5 + ] gfA # G- ] (43) From (37) and (40), the equations of the tube become f ) c NHu v m 5 = A − [ i− Aj + A −r (42) %# # & G & # " 5 = 5 = W− M [ k5 l C ([) %#& 5 + H & g G # - X + .− ) # H uA G + i− c & NHvA G (44) j0, (45) Equations (41), (43), (44) and (45) are four homogeneous equations in the arbitrary constants w, ^ ,k5 , m and r . Eliminating them will give a frequency equation, which will determine the wave velocity c, in terms of the elastic properties of the tube and the non-dimensional parameter [. The result of the elimination is: x kY 5 1 M Ql C 2k M Qx 2k 5 Y 5 −[ P 5 1 ℎ −M 5 0 Q5 x + 5 Px 5 Q ] 2k = Y 5 ℎQ −M 0 N# &H- − A$ 5%# − 0 ) #& NHc{ #&G NHc{ 5 (1 − #&G ) #G = 0 (46) ) H & Operating on the rows and columns of equation (46) and neglecting and continuing operating on rows and G d columns until we get x 1 0 1 g A$ −1 0 | 5 5 | } *} =0 (47) 0 |e | e e *} } 1− 0 − l CY5 where a = %# # & 5 , !L= e) # G Equation (47) can be written as x 1 x lC | 5 0 | Y e 0 −2 −L −~L e 1 0 | −~L | = 0 (a − L) 0 5 Whose solution is g [x(1 − ~ 5 )(1 − l C )]L 5 − .2Y 5 + ax(1 − l C ) + l C Y 5 i − ~ − ~xj0 L + 2aY 5 + l C Y ; = 0 5 This reduces to A$ - e 113 (48) (49)
  6. 6. Mathematical Theory and Modeling ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online) Vol.3, No.11, 2013 www.iiste.org (1 − ~ 5 )(1 − l C )L 5 − .2 + a(1 − l C ) + l C i − 2~j0 L + 2a + l C = 0 5 I.e. when x = 1 and Y 5 = 1 in (48), i.e., when = 0, since x=( < V )(#3 NH<V) and Y 5 = G Z "A ( & V )(#3 NH<V) − ( (50) & V )N Z "A Using Womersley [10], the roots of equation (49) are given by (1 − ~ 5 )L = • ± [• 5 − (1 − ~ 5 )•] R5 where • = ‚ A W ƒ <„ *X ( A$ ) + + e 5 *W When Y 5 = 1 and x = 1, i.e. A$ ‚ i < A jX AT ƒ „ ( A$ ) (51) A$ - U = 0 equation (51) reduces to • = [10] solution for the case without suspension and the same as [6]. 4. Conclusion In terms of the notation used in the case of the solid case, …A$ A . < *0 „ ( A$ ) (52) + + ~ − , which is Womersley’s e 5 ; = exp(−M†) /]9 C so that the quantities required to compute the roots of equation (49) are already available. When ˆ C ([) is complex, L is always complex and the motion is either damped or unstable. If we write ((1 − ~ 5 ) LR2) R5 = ‰ − MŠ and denote by wC the velocity for the perfect fluid, then if w is the w wave-velocity, CRw = ‰ and over a distance of one wavelength the amplitude will be reduced to the ratio exp (−2‹ ŠR‰ ) [6] [10]. Since Womersley’s case without suspension is considered as the first best description of blood flow in arteries, we have now further proved that our model is in line with this best description of blood flow and the propagation of waves in the arterial system. Acknowledgement We wish to acknowledge the contribution of Dr. L. M. Srivastava towards his guide in the M.Sc thesis (1986), “Flow of Particle-Fluid Suspension in Elastic Tube”, at the Department of Mathematics, A.B.U, Zaria, Nigeria. This contribution is one of the two major sources, which made this publication possible. Also, to Associate Professor M. E. Nja of the Mathematics Department, Federal University Lafia, Nigeria. For his great motivation and encouragement for this research. We thank you all. References 1. Atabek, H.B. (1996). Wave propagation through a viscous incompressible fluid contained in an initially stressed elastic tube. Biophysical Journal volume 6, pp 481-501 2. Cox, R.H. (1968) “Wave propagation through a Newtonian fluid contained within a thick-walled, viscoelastic tube”, Biophysical Journal, volume 8, pp 691-708. 3. Evans, R.L. “Pulsatile flow in vessels whose distinsibility and size vary with site”. Physics in Medicine and Biology, volume 7, pp 105-115. 4. Iberall, S.A. (1964) “study of the General Dynamics of the physical-chemical systems in Mammals”, NASA CR-120 5. Lambert, J. W. (1958). “On the non-linearities of fluid flow in nonrigid tubes”, J. Franklin inst. 266, 83. 6. Ngbo, P.H, (1986), “Flow of Particle-Fluid Suspension in Elastic Tube”, M.Sc Thesis (unpublished), Department of Mathematics, A.B.U, Zaria, Nigeria. 7. Oslen, J.H. et al (1967) “Large- amplitude unsteady flow in liquid filled elastic tubes”, J. Fluid mech, vol 33, pp 513. 8. Pennisi, L.L. (1976) “Elements of complex variables”, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, pp 17-23. 9. Tam, C.K.W. (1969) “The drag on a cloud of spherical particles in low Reynolds number flow”, J. Fluid Mech, volume 38, pp 537-546. 10. Womersley, J.R. (1955) Oscillatory motion of a viscous liquid in a thin-walled elastic tube 1. The linear approximation for long waves, philosophical mag, volume 46, pp 199-215. 114
  7. 7. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science, Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open Access Publishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute is Accelerating Global Knowledge Sharing. More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage: http://www.iiste.org CALL FOR JOURNAL PAPERS The IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals and collaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline for submission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/journals/ The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualified submissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to the readers all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of the journals is also available upon request of readers and authors. MORE RESOURCES Book publication information: http://www.iiste.org/book/ Recent conferences: http://www.iiste.org/conference/ IISTE Knowledge Sharing Partners EBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP Open Archives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, Elektronische Zeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe Digtial Library , NewJour, Google Scholar

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