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Live on charity

  1. 1. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgLive on Charity: The Nature and Extent of Begging in Dhaka City Saleh Mahmud (Corresponding Author) Assistant Professor Sociology Discipline Khulna University Khulna-9209AbstractThis study is an attempt to investigate the socioeconomic and demographic profile, and livelihood pattern ofbeggars in Dhaka City. The more specific objectives are to obtain information about the individual and socialbackground of beggars, the circumstances of entrance into this profession, nature of profession and professionalharassments range of income and expenditure and so on. The data come from a field based survey covered asample of 150 beggars that was conducted in different parts of Dhaka City. The study found that anoverwhelming majority of the respondents come into begging voluntarily and are continuing this profession onregular basis. The accommodation status, food habit, and hygienic practice of beggars are all in bad shape. Therange of per day income fluctuates from below Tk 50 to over Tk 300, while the average number of dependentfamily members is three. Now it is a major question cropped up in mind to transform this significant number ofpoor people into a productive workforce to ensure the entire nation progress. The government, the NGOs, stakeholders, corporate body and the philanthropist come together in this regard.Key Words: Beggar, begging, charity, livelihood. 1. IntroductionThe social scenario in the country has been changing fast due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. In thisprocess, certain categories of population, due to their vulnerability, have failed to cope with these rapid changes.Therefore, beggary has become a social problem intricately interwoven with the socio-cultural and economicmilieu. On the other hand, it is one of the traditional methods of assisting poor, destitute, disable anddisadvantaged people in all over the world, which has been generated from the social and religious sentiments.Begging is viewed as a humiliating yet necessary means of survival for those who are homeless or at risk ofhomelessness.Begging was defined as asking for money without an exchange of services. In some countries it is much moretolerated and in certain cases encouraged. In many, perhaps most, traditional religions, it is considered that aperson who gives alms to a worthy beggar. Begging was distinguished from other street level economicactivities, such as basking or being authorized to sell items, because no services were offered in return for thecash requirement (Fitzpatrick & Kennedy, 2000). It may also be defined as the act of asking for alms or charity,where alms refer to relief given out of pity to the poor (Macdonald, 1972). This issue may further be definedaccording to its place within state legislation and therefore, council strategy. One who habitually solicits moneyor other goods from those not socially responsible for his maintenance, without offering anything of equivalentvalue in return (Dictionary of Sociology, 1966). A person found asking for alms in any public place in suchcondition or manner or makes it likely that such person exists by asking for alms (Government of East Pakistan,1962). On the other hand, many religious orders adhere to a mendicant way of life, including the Catholicmendicant orders, Hindu ascetics, some dervishes of Sufi Islam, and the monastic orders of Buddhism.A literature search on the issue of begging found that very little robust research has been conducted locally andglobally. Both the international and Victorian data highlight the complexity of issues surrounding begging. Studyconducted by RMIT in 1998 investigated the incidence of homelessness and disadvantaged people in Melbourne,and found a complex relationship existed between poverty, begging, drug use and homelessness (Driscoll &Wood, 1998). Study carried out in the United Kingdom, Kemp (1997) found that begging is one outcome of arange of previous life experiences that have resulted in social exclusion and isolation. Further more reports fromthe UK state that media reports in the 1990s promoted begging as an activity, which earned “bogus beggars”more than respectable professions (Wardhaugh & Jones, 1999). Also that begging could be viewed as a streetlevel resource for the poor and powerless (Jordan, 1999). 28
  2. 2. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgIn the national level study on begging is very much limited which obstacle to get the precise picture of beggar.Ahmadullah et al. (1962) revealed that among other reasons physical disability, lack of employment, poverty,religious sentiments, lack of possessing the power of act due to elderly, natural disaster, expired of earningmembers drive to begging in Bangladesh. Many homeless and poverty stricken individuals used begging as ameans through which they could supplement their income. Beggary is a social problem of great magnitude andgrave concern in developing countries like Bangladesh. It is the real oldest profession across the world, inBangladesh, beggars are today everywhere just as they were 2 000 years ago. It is very difficult to generalizehow and where panhandling begins. Kamat (1997) found that some beggar inherited from their ancestors, whileothers period of begging spans from five minutes to fifty years. Survey reports by many NGOs say there aremore than 300 000 circumstantial beggars in rural Bangladesh (Rashid, 2005). In the Dhaka city alone, thenumber of beggars is estimated to be about 1 00 000 (Huda, 2010). They are being treated as lower caste andthey are being isolated. The beggars do not have values and not even having minimum respect in the society(CSID, 2008). Because of increasing internal migration, unemployment and underemployment, natural disaster,old aged problems, childlessness, the number of beggars in the urban areas especially in the Dhaka City is goingup every day. There are different kinds of beggars seen mostly begging near mosque, railway and bus station,graveyards, mazar, houses, sometimes either in a group or alone with disability.Research into begging has been carried out in different countries demonstrate that begging is most oftenassociated with homelessness in both industrialised and developing nations, come from unstable familialbackgrounds and have low education and possess inadequate professional skills to survive in the moderneconomy. Generally, the elderly, the disabled, and the unemployed take to begging (Kamat, 1997). Begging isviewed as a humiliating yet necessary means of survival for those who are homeless or at risk of homelessness(Taylor, 1999; Weiner & Weaver, 1974; Acton, 1996; Ojanuga, 1990; Shichor & Ellis, 1981; Gmelch &Gmelch, 1978; Gutierrez, 1970). This is true for the disabled beggars who are isolated and deprived from basicrights such as education, employment, health care and access to information. Because of their sheer illiteracy,ignorance and poverty, most of the poor people cannot find any other way out to support themselves.Furthermore, often many poor people have chosen begging suffering from old age crisis who are left at themercy of their near relatives or neighbors.The nation cannot progress unless the poorest of the poor like the beggars, are made productive members ofsociety. It is cardinal issue to transform this significant number of poor people into a productive workforce.2. ObjectivesThe broad objective of this study was to assess the livelihood pattern and social adaptation of the beggars inBangladesh. With this view in mind, the specific objectives were as follows: 1. To present information about the individual and social background of the beggars; 2. To elicit information about the circumstances of entrance into begging profession; 3. To understand the livelihood pattern and living standard of the beggars; and 4. To depict the nature of profession and the professional harassment of the respondents.2. MethodologyWith the above objectives in mind, the study started with an exploratory research phase and tried to gain insightinto the research problem by investigation. In this phase, the study was conducted through survey method, anddata were collected through comprehensive structured interview by using a well-reformed questionnaire. Focusgroup discussion, observation and participation as research tools were also incorporated in the process of datacollection. A total of 150 beggars were selected by purposive sampling from the different areas of Dhaka City. Inaddition to matter socioeconomic factors, the questionnaire also incorporated questions related through which afactual account of the livelihood pattern of beggars as well as their professional status and professionalharassment could be obtained.The data were collected from both primary and secondary sources to strengthen the rationality of the study andfor better and comprehensive analysis. To ensure reliability of the data, cross section of the respondents wereinterviewed and further cross checked. The data were then put in the table for processing and subsequentanalyses. Missing values were excluded from frequency tables so that frequency percentages only relate to those 29
  3. 3. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgwho answered the question. Proportional percentage, average, graph and frequency distribution in terms ofspecific category were followed to give the research a proper logical quantitative ground.3. Result and Discussion:3.1 Place of Birth and Gender of the RespondentsIn the survey the respondents were selected randomly whereas 69.3 per cent were male and 30.7 per cent werefemale. It should also be noted that, perhaps, contrary to common perceptions, a substantial proportion of thesample was male. Despite occupational likeliness, the survey depicted that an overwhelming majority (94.7 percent) of the respondents were of rural family origin, while only just over 5 per cent were in urban origin. Thedata indicate that the rural poverty is more prone than that of urban, which instigates the rural people to migrateto city, and consequently provoke to begging.3.2. Age of the RespondentsThe present study reveals that average age of the respondents in the sample was about 65 years, indicating thatthe aged people are more prone to begging due to lack of old age security. The age distribution of beggars showsthat majority (24 per cent) of the respondents were in the age group between 50 and 59 years, followed by about23 per cent between 40 and 49, 14 per cent between 30 and 39. Moreover, it was also found that just over 1 percent of the respondents were below 19 years, while about 15 per cent were over 70 years.3.3. Marital Status of the RespondentsDifferent categories of people comprising married, unmarried, divorced, separated were found to be engaged inbegging profession. The study revealed that there was substantial difference between married people and the restof the each category. It was found that majority (78 per cent) of respondents were married, while there was nosignificant difference in the percentage between divorced (8 per cent) and separated (9 per cent) and unmarried(5 per cent). As is observed in the survey, 143 out of 150 respondents comprises about 95 per cent of the totalwere found to be got married. In the case of number of getting married, about 77 per cent got married for a once,followed by just over 18 per cent twice, 3.5 per cent thrice and 1.4 per cent four times.3.4. Level of Education of the RespondentsThe sample was not homogeneous with respect to educational attainment. The literacy rate was very poor amongthe study groups, when about 55 per cent were illiterate, followed by about 27 per cent ‘can sign only’, 4 percent ‘can sign and read only’. It was also found that only 8 per cent of the respondents had completed the courseof a five-year education, whereas just over 3 per cent were between the class six to ten.3.5. Accommodation Status and Living Partner of the RespondentsThe case history data of the survey demonstrated that about half of the total respondents were living in slum,followed by 16 per cent in low rented house, just beyond 15 per cent in street or footpath. There were nosubstantial variations in percentage in the case of living places in shelter centre, house of sardar and market,which accounted 2.7 per cent, 2 per cent and 1.3 per cent respectively. This suggests that independent housingcircumstances may not have been a feasible option for this group either financially or with respect to having thenecessary living skills. As is observed earlier, 78 per cent of the respondents were married of whom just shorthalf (49.3 per cent) lived with family along with husband/wife and children, whereas 34 per cent of therespondents lived in alienation without having family members or any other else. In addition, it was also evidentthat about 13 per cent stayed with peer workers and only 1.3 per cent with owner/employer/sardar with whomthey shared their income.3.6. Professional Duration of the RespondentsThe study indicates that a considerable number of the beggars started this profession over six years ago whichaccounted 48.7 per cent of the respondents, followed by 12.7 per cent between the years 4 and 5 and 8.7 per cent 30
  4. 4. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgbetween the years 5 and 6. It was found that about 5 per cent of the respondents were involved in this professionbelow 1 year ago, while about 11 per cent between the years 2 and 3.3.7. Mode of ProfessionThe study shows that overwhelming majority (80.7 per cent) of the respondents reported that they were used todo this profession on regular basis, while about 16 per cent irregularly and 3.3 per cent rare. It was also foundthat among the total respondents, about 11 per cent accompanied by another companion for begging, while 89per cent were operating alone.3.8. Immediate Previous Profession of the RespondentsAmong the total respondents, about 27 per cent and 13 per cent were unemployed and underemployedrespectively before coming into this profession. The study revealed that the respondents were day labour (16.7per cent), factory workers (12 per cent), housemaid (10 per cent) and small business (8 per cent) prior tobegging. Some of the respondents reported that they were engaged in other profession but they were not satisfiedwith the income. So, they changed their previous profession and joined as beggar for better earning.3.9. Motivating Factors of the Respondents for Entering into BeggingMultiple responses were evident for choosing the profession of begging. The study found that about half (49.3per cent) of the respondents chose this profession as a voluntary measure of livelihood, while just over 47 percent was unable to work other jobs. It also reveals that 22 per cent of the respondents indicate begging professionas an ‘easy source of earning’, 19 per cent to support the family, whereas about 15 per cent was physicallydisable, and 12 per cent had no family care.3.10. Guardians’ Responses Regarding the Profession of the RespondentsThe survey stated that just over 61 (92 out of 150) per cent of the respondents entered into this profession withthe consent of their guardians, followed by about 39 per cent came beyond such acknowledgement. Theypretended that they worked in a garment factory or in other jobs in the city. In case of showing guardians’responses to begging, Table 4 indicates that 31.5 per cent of the respondents reported that their guardians tookshows this profession positively, while about 21 negatively considering the social recognition of the profession.On the other hand, significant portion (47.8 per cent) did not demonstrate any responses either positive ornegative; it may be happened, as the respondents could not contact with their guardians consecutively.3.11. Places of Begging of the RespondentsThe beggars move from one place to another and they do not maintain any specific area for begging as a resultmultiple responses were found in this regard. Street or road and mosque or mazar were the most prioritized placefor begging which accounted 78 per cent and 38 per cent of the respondents respectively. Among othershome/houses were 34 per cent, bus/train terminal was about 33 per cent and market was 22 per cent.3.12. Level of Income of the RespondentsThe beggars have a means of estimating and budgeting income and expenses. The present study reveals thatoverwhelming majority (67 per cent) of the respondents’ per day income varies from Tk 50 to Tk 149 at the timeof survey. As many as just over 27 per cent were in the income group of Tk 100-149, followed by about 11 percent between Tk 150 and 199 and 7 per cent between Tk 200 and 249. It was also found that about 7 per cent ofthe respondents earned below Tk 50, while only 3 per cent earned over Tk 300 per day. In addition, since thebeggars do not have a safe place to keep money, they carry with them all the time.3.13. Dependent Family Members on the Respondents’ Earning 31
  5. 5. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgIt was evident that a substantial portion (62.7 per cent) of the respondents did not have any other earningmembers in their family, while about 37 per cent shows the reverse result. About 41 per cent of the respondentsreported that the number of dependent family member were between 1 and 2, followed by just over 29 per centbetween 3 and 4 and about 23 per cent between 5 and 6. Only 7.3 per cent of the respondents revealed that over 6in this category.3.14. Involvement in Other Profession of the Respondents Other than BeggingIt was evident that the majority (119 out of 150) of the respondents did not have alternative source of income inaddition to begging, while about 21 per cent showed the reverse picture. Table 7 indicates that about 29 per cent(9 out of 31) of the respondents worked as housemaid along with begging, while about 31 per cent of the totalrespondents were female. The study also indicates that most of female beggars were involved in alternativeprofession, as their income level was less than that of male beggars. It was also found that just across 19 per centof respondents had small business operating in their family origin areas, and the equivalent figure did not havefixed alternative source of income i.e. underemployed. It was also noted that about 10 per cent of the respondentsworked as aide of criminal by providing information.3.15. Nature of Taking MealMultiple responses were evident in case of place of taking food. Table 8 indicates that 54 per cent of therespondents took their meal at home, which was close to the number of respondents (60 per cent) accommodatedat home. It was also found that about 43 per cent of the respondents completed their meal at floating that is lowcostly, followed by about 25 per cent fresh food of hotel, 14 per cent rotten food of hotel. It was noted that about11 per cent completed their meal through invitation in various occasions.The study also depicts that rice with vegetable and pulse, and rice with vorta and pulse were the main regularfood item of the respondents, which accounted about 79 per cent of the total respondents. Bread and banana (13per cent) was less significant as compared to the first two one, while only just over 5 per cent of the respondentstook rice with fish/meat as their regular food item. Nutritional status of beggars in general is very poor.The respondents were also asked about their Number of taking protein food items. It was observed from thestudy that about 23 per cent of the beggars took fish/meat over one month, followed by 36 per cent per month,just over 17 per cent per fortnight. On the other hand, only 1 per cent of the respondents took this type of foodeach day, while the same figure was found per three days and about 13 per cent were per week.3.16. Place of Bath and ToiletThere are lacks of the most basic facilities in Dhaka City along with the access to public bath and toilet for thefloating people. In this regard, the survey data illustrated that just over 33 per cent of the respondents did suchactions in the public bath/toilet, which is mostly facilitated by the Dhaka City Corporation. It also presents thatjust over 55 per cent of the respondents completed their bath and toilet functions at home that was comparable tothe number of beggars living in home (60 per cent), while about 31 per cent at open places. The beggar also usedmazar and market provided bath/toilets, which accounted about 13 per cent and 11 per cent respectively.3.17. Problems Faced by the RespondentsAn individual beggar had to face different types of problems. Table 9 indicates that ‘rebuke by using indecentwords was the foremost problems faced by a large number of the respondents (73 per cent), followed by physicalbeaten (28 per cent), problem created by police (23 per cent), give torn taka as beg (20 per cent) and moneydemanded by muscleman (12 per cent). It also explicates that 28 per cent of the beggars were given beat bypassengers mostly without any significant reasons.3.18. Techniques of Earning More 32
  6. 6. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgIt was found that the beggars contrived few techniques to convince the people to pay beg. In this regard, amongothers 42 per cent showed helplessness, 32 per cent demanded financial support for treatment, about 27 per centpretend to have physical disability, just over 23 per cent demanded food for child, about 13 per cent read Quaran,10 per cent tried to show aged and about 9 per cent claimed money to go back to home district.3.19. Entreating Special DaysThe respondents were asked how they celebrate the special days. In this case, 64 per cent of the respondentsreported that they come out to beg as like others days, followed by 29 per cent stay with family, 1.3 per centwatch movie, and only 0.7 per cent take rest.3.20. Self Assessment of the RespondentsThe respondents were asked to know their level of satisfaction in this profession through earning. It indicatesthat an overwhelming majority of the respondents (40 per cent) were not pleased with this profession, while justover 51 per cent were moderately satisfied and only 9 per cent were highly satisfied.4. ConclusionIn globalizing world, the modern capitalist social and economic structure creates the widest gaps between therich and the poor, which perpetuate the initiation of begging. Beggars do not grow in a vacuum and socially theyconstitute a class by themselves. Most of the beggars are originated from the rural areas, and they travel a lotfrom one place to another frequently as their original identity cannot be recognized by people from whom theyseek alms. Among other, the factors motivate them to get involve in begging were unable to work other job, easyearning, physical disability, lack of family or relative supports, natural disaster. The majority of them come intothis profession voluntarily as a means of livelihood, and in addition, the average age (65 years) of therespondents indicates that the aged people are more prone to begging due to lack of old age security.About half of the respondents live in slum with their family members. An overwhelming majority of therespondents are continuing begging on regular basis, while their length of profession varies between below oneyear and over six years. The range of income fluctuates from below Tk 50 to over Tk 300 that was notsatisfactory, while two third of the total respondents did not have any other earning member in their family andthe average dependent family members on their income were 3. In case of taking meal, mostly the beggars takerice with vegetable, vorta, pulse, bread and banana as their regular food menu, which protein value is very poorand therefore, the beggars suffers from diseases frequently.The beggars are handicapped in different ways-living on private charity; they are always looked down upon bythe society. The most of the poor people cannot find any other way out to support themselves or their family dueto their sheer illiteracy, ignorance and poverty. Furthermore, often many poor people have chosen beggingsuffering from old age crisis who are left at the mercy of their near relatives or neighbors. On the other hand,some also finds this an easy way out for maintaining livelihood, without being included in the work force. Thebeggar community feels that they need protection just like everyone especially in their savings and beggingzones.It is a major question cropped up in mind that a nation could not make any progress without transforming thissignificant number of poor people into a productive workforce. It is a good initiative that the government ofBangladesh has taken the decision in making the country free of beggars by 2021 by rehabilitating beggarsthrough employment and other incentives. In addition to government, the NGOs, Bank, stake holders, rich class,corporate body and the philanthropist people come together to take necessary and appropriate initiatives torehabilitate them through employment generation and social safety net programmes. 33
  7. 7. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgTable 1. Distribution of the Respondents by Living Places and Living Partner Place of Living Number % Slum 66 44.0 Low rented house 24 16.0 Street/footpath/bridge 23 15.3 Terminal 7 4.7 Beside mazar/mosque 6 4.0 Shelter centre 4 2.7 House of sardar 3 2.0 Market 2 1.3 Others 15 10.0 Total 150 100.0 Living Partner Family (husband-wife/children) 74 49.3 Alone 51 34.0 Peer worker 19 12.7 Owner/employer/sardar 2 1.3 Others 4 2.7 Total 150 100.0Table 2. Distribution of the Respondents by Prior Profession Prior Profession Number % Unemployed 40 26.7 Day labor 25 16.7 Underemployed 20 13.3 Garments/factory worker 18 12.0 Housemaid 15 10.0 Small business 12 8.0 Rickshaw puller 10 6.7 Others 10 6.7 Total 150 100.0Table 3. Distribution the Respondents by Causes of Entering into Begging Causes of Profession Number % Voluntarily for Livelihood 74 49.3 Unable to Work Other Job 71 47.3 Easy Earring 33 22.0 Support to Family Financially 33 19.0 Physical Disability 22 14.7 Lack of Family Care to me 18 12.0 River Erosion 15 10.0 Family Disorder 10 6.7 Others 4 2.7 Multiple Responses. 34
  8. 8. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgTable 4. Distribution of the Respondents by Guardians’ Responses Guardians’ Responses Number % Positively 29 31.5 Negatively 19 20.7 No Responses 44 47.8 Total 92 100.0Table 5. Distribution of the Respondents by Place of Begging Place of Begging Number % Street/Road 117 78.0 Mosque/Mazar 57 38.0 Home/Houses 51 34.0 Terminal (Bus/Train) 49 32.7 Market 33 22.0 Others 2 1.3 Multiple Responses.Table 6. Distribution of the Respondents by Per Day Income Income Range (in Tk) Number % Below 50 11 7.3 50-99 60 40.0 100-149 41 27.3 150-199 17 11.3 200-249 11 7.3 250-299 5 3.3 300 and over 5 3.3 Total 150 100.0Table 7. Distribution of the Respondents by Involvement of Other Job Other Professional Involvement Number % Housemaid 9 29.0 Small Business 6 19.4 Underemployed 6 19.4 Factory Worker 4 12.9 Assistant of Criminal 3 9.7 Work in Shop 2 6.5 Others 1 3.2 Total 31 100.0 35
  9. 9. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgTable 8. Distribution of the Respondents by Taking Meal Places (Multiple Responses) Number % Home 81 54.0 Floating hotel 64 42.7 Hotel 37 24.7 Rotten food of hotel 21 14.0 Invitation 16 10.7 Food provided from mess 6 4.0 Others 3 2.0 Food Item Rice with Vegetable and Pulse 62 41.3 Rice with Vorta and Pulse 57 38.0 Bread and Banana 20 13.3 Rice-fish/meat 8 5.3 Others 3 2.0 Taking Fish/Meat Each day 2 1.3 Per three day 2 1.3 Per week 20 13.3 Per ten day 11 7.3 Per fortnight 26 17.3 Per month 54 36.0 Over one Month 35 23.3 Total 150 100.0Table 9. Distribution of Problems Faced by the Respondents Types of Problems Number % Rebuke by Using Indecent Words 110 73.3 Beaten 42 28.0 Problem from Police 35 23.3 Give Torn Taka as Beg 30 20.0 Muscleman Demanded Money 18 12.0 Others 5 3.3 Multiple Responses.Table 10. Distribution of the Respondents by Techniques of Earning More Techniques of Earning More Number % Show Helplessness 63 42.0 Demand Money for Treatment 48 32.0 Show Physically Disability 40 26.7 Demand Food for Child 35 23.3 Read Quaran 19 12.7 Show More Age 15 10.0 Demand Money to Go back to Home 13 8.7 36
  10. 10. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 Demand Money for Deceased Funeral 12 8.0 Recite Religious Songs 9 6.0 Others 12 8.0 Multiple Responses.Table 11. Distribution of the Respondents by Celebrating Special Days Celebrating Special Days Number % Begging Like other Days 96 64.0 Stay with Family 43 28.7 Watching Movie and Film 2 1.3 By taking Sleep and Rest 1 0.7 Others 8 5.3 Total 150 100.0Acknowledgement: The author is grateful to the students Eastern University, Dhaka who worked as datacollectors.References:Acton, T.A. (1996). ‘Romani’, Migration World Magazine, Bhikshatane, Published in Mallige" Monthly, Kamat Potpourri, India.Ahmadullah, A.K. et al (1962). They Live on Charity, College of Social Welfare Research Centre, Dhaka.Center for Services and Information on Disability (CSID) (2008). Support Disable Beggars in Dhaka City, Dhaka.Dictionary of Sociology (1966). New Jersey: Littlefield, Adams and Co.Driscoll, K. & Wood, L. (1998). A Public Life: Disadvantage and Homelessness in the Capital City, Department of Social Science and Social Work, RMIT, Melbourne.Fitzpatrick, S. & Kennedy, C. (2000). Getting By: Begging, Rough Sleeping and the Big Issue in Glassgow and Edinburg, Bristol: Policy Press.Gmelch, G, & Gmelch, S B (1978). Begging in Dublin: The Strategies of a Marginal Urban Occupation, Urban Life 6(4):439-45.Government of East Pakistan, 1962. East Pakistan Code, Vol. 6, Law Department.Gutierrez, J. (1970). ‘Using a Clinical Methodology in a Social Study of Deviant Children’ Western Reserve Journal of Sociology, 4, 1-28.Huda, N. (2010). Street Beggars Flourish Despite Ban, The New Nation, Bangladesh’s Independent News Sources.Jordan, B. (1999). ‘Begging: the Global Context and International Comparisons’ in H Dean (ed), Begging Questions: Street level economic activity and social policy failure, The Policy Press, Bristol, UK.Kamat, K.L. (1997). “The Begging Profession”, Translated from Kannada original Kemp, P A (1997) ‘The Characteristics of Single Homeless People in England’ in R Burrows, N Pleace & D Quilgars (eds), Homelessness and Social Policy, Routledge, London.Kemp, P A (1997) ‘The characteristics of single homeless people in England’ in R Burrows, N Pleace & D Quilgars (eds), Homelessness and Social Policy, Routledge, London, 69-87.Macdonald, A.M. (ed) (1972). Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary, Chambers, Edinburgh. 37
  11. 11. European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.11 2011 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgOjanuga, D.N. 1990. ‘Kaduna Beggar Children: A Study of Child Abuse and Neglect in Northern Nigeria’ Child Welfare, 69(4), 371-80.Rashid, Mamun (2005). Banking for Beggar. The Daily Star, October 08, 2005.Shichor, D, & Ellis, R. (1981). ‘Begging in Israel: An Exploratory Study’, Deviant Behaviour, 2: , 109-25.Taylor, D.B. (1999). ‘Begging for Change: A Social Ecological Study of Aggressive Panhandling and Social Control in Los Angeles’, Dissertation Abstracts International, 60, 1775A-1776A.Wardaugh, J, & Jones, J, (1999). ‘Begging in Time and Space: Shadow Work and the Rural Context’, in H Dean (ed), Begging Questions: Street level economic activity and social policy failure, The Policy Press, Bristol.Weiner, S, & Weaver, L. (1974). ‘Begging and Social Deviance on Skid Row’, Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 35, 1307-15. 38