Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Influence of Flooding Level...
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Influence of flooding levels on changes in c, n and weight of rice straw in a paddy soil

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Influence of flooding levels on changes in c, n and weight of rice straw in a paddy soil

  1. 1. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Influence of Flooding Levels on Changes in C, N and1. Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIATAgricultural Research and Development (IAARD), Jl. Chr. Soplanit, Rumah Tiga Poka, Ambon,2. Dharma Wacana Agricultural High School, Metro, Jl. Ken* E-mail of the corresponding author: arivinrivaie@yahoo.comAbstractIt is imperative to have a better understanding of the effects of different flooding levels in paddy soils on changes insoil chemical properties, especially information on the N recovery and N mineralization when the rice straw isincorporated into soil as a source of soil organic matter under tropic conditions, such as in Metro, Lampung. Aglasshouse study was carried out to deterchanges in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) contents and weight of rice straw incorporated into paddy soil. The treatmentswere arranged in a completely randomized block design with sixthe rice straw at the beginning of the trial was 33flooding level of 10 cm the C content still decreased until 4 weeks after flooding. Andvalues tended to return to the initial values 8 weeks after flooding. Meanwhile, the N content at the beginning of thetrial was 0.56-0.60%. The N contents for all flooding levels increased with increasing time of observat(1.34-1.48%). The C:N ratios for all flooding levels at the beginning of the trial greatly decreased until 2 weeks afterflooding. Thereafter, the ratios decreased slightly until 8 weeks after flooding. Furthermore, flooding level of 2.5 cmgave the lowest weight of rice straw 8 weeks after flooding, whereas, flooding level of 10.0 cm gave the highestweight of rice straw, suggesting that the lesser the flooding level, the faster the litter decomposition rate. Thisconfirms other findings that at the dethe litter decomposed most rapidly.Keywords: Flooding levels, decomposition, C, N, rice straw1. IntroductionIn many Asian rice producing countries, such as in Indonesia, tis the elimination of straw by open-reduce disease and pest (Ponnamperuma 1984), but, this practice may also results in greeparticulate matter (Cao et al. 2008). After harvesting paddy rice, large quantities of rice straw were produced frompaddy fields as an agricultural waste, amounting 2the rice straw into the paddy soil has been widely accepted to be an alternative to burning of the straw (Cassman &Pingali 1995), although long-term experiments on continuous irrigated rice systems in the tropics reported that it mayreduce rice yields (Cassman et al. 1995).In paddy soil, soil organic matter (SOM) mainly results from plant litter and biomass (Quideau 2002; Sahrawat 2004)and this consisted of two types of compounds, namely nonsubstances (Quideau 2002). Studies have reported that SOM is one of important sources of N in paddy ecosystemsand several factors, including rice straw application influenced the accumulation of N in paddy rice soils(Ponnamperuma 1984; Golhaber & Kaplan 1995; Sundaresreported that the soil under flood fallow receiving application of rice straw significantly had higher N contentcompared to the soil under dry fallow without any rice straw application.Castillo et al. (1992) found that reducing the amount of waterreduced rice growth and yields. In addition, De Datta (1981) reported that the water should be available enoughalong the rice growing season to avoid yielJournal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)80Influence of Flooding Levels on Changes in C, N andStraw in a Paddy SoilA. Arivin Rivaie1*, Soni Isnaini2ssment Institute for Agricultural Technology (AIAT-BPTP) - Maluku of Indonesian Agency forAgricultural Research and Development (IAARD), Jl. Chr. Soplanit, Rumah Tiga Poka, Ambon,Maluku, IndonesiaDharma Wacana Agricultural High School, Metro, Jl. Kenanga No. 3 Mulyojati 16C Kota Metro,Lampung, Indonesiamail of the corresponding author: arivinrivaie@yahoo.comIt is imperative to have a better understanding of the effects of different flooding levels in paddy soils on changes inmical properties, especially information on the N recovery and N mineralization when the rice straw isincorporated into soil as a source of soil organic matter under tropic conditions, such as in Metro, Lampung. Aglasshouse study was carried out to determine the effects of different flooding levels (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 cm) onchanges in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) contents and weight of rice straw incorporated into paddy soil. The treatmentswere arranged in a completely randomized block design with six replications. The results showed that C content ofthe rice straw at the beginning of the trial was 33–40%. These values decreased 2 weeks after flooding except for theflooding level of 10 cm the C content still decreased until 4 weeks after flooding. And then for all flooding levels thevalues tended to return to the initial values 8 weeks after flooding. Meanwhile, the N content at the beginning of the0.60%. The N contents for all flooding levels increased with increasing time of observat1.48%). The C:N ratios for all flooding levels at the beginning of the trial greatly decreased until 2 weeks afterflooding. Thereafter, the ratios decreased slightly until 8 weeks after flooding. Furthermore, flooding level of 2.5 cmwest weight of rice straw 8 weeks after flooding, whereas, flooding level of 10.0 cm gave the highestweight of rice straw, suggesting that the lesser the flooding level, the faster the litter decomposition rate. Thisconfirms other findings that at the depth of 1-2 cm below water surface of a paddy field are an aerobic zone, wherethe litter decomposed most rapidly.looding levels, decomposition, C, N, rice strawIn many Asian rice producing countries, such as in Indonesia, the management practice of post-air burning to accelerate the growing season. Burning the straw may control orreduce disease and pest (Ponnamperuma 1984), but, this practice may also results in gree. 2008). After harvesting paddy rice, large quantities of rice straw were produced frompaddy fields as an agricultural waste, amounting 2-9 t/ha (Becker et al. 1994; Cao et al. 2008). The incorporation ofrice straw into the paddy soil has been widely accepted to be an alternative to burning of the straw (Cassman &term experiments on continuous irrigated rice systems in the tropics reported that it may. 1995).In paddy soil, soil organic matter (SOM) mainly results from plant litter and biomass (Quideau 2002; Sahrawat 2004)and this consisted of two types of compounds, namely non-humic substances, such as carbohydrates, and humicideau 2002). Studies have reported that SOM is one of important sources of N in paddy ecosystemsand several factors, including rice straw application influenced the accumulation of N in paddy rice soils(Ponnamperuma 1984; Golhaber & Kaplan 1995; Sundareshwar et al. 2003). Furthermore, Olkreported that the soil under flood fallow receiving application of rice straw significantly had higher N contentcompared to the soil under dry fallow without any rice straw application.(1992) found that reducing the amount of water-use for lowland paddy rice production significantlyreduced rice growth and yields. In addition, De Datta (1981) reported that the water should be available enoughalong the rice growing season to avoid yield reduction. For instance, soil moisture content ofwww.iiste.orgInfluence of Flooding Levels on Changes in C, N and Weight of RiceMaluku of Indonesian Agency forAgricultural Research and Development (IAARD), Jl. Chr. Soplanit, Rumah Tiga Poka, Ambon,anga No. 3 Mulyojati 16C Kota Metro,mail of the corresponding author: arivinrivaie@yahoo.comIt is imperative to have a better understanding of the effects of different flooding levels in paddy soils on changes inmical properties, especially information on the N recovery and N mineralization when the rice straw isincorporated into soil as a source of soil organic matter under tropic conditions, such as in Metro, Lampung. Amine the effects of different flooding levels (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 cm) onchanges in carbon (C), nitrogen (N) contents and weight of rice straw incorporated into paddy soil. The treatmentsreplications. The results showed that C content of40%. These values decreased 2 weeks after flooding except for thethen for all flooding levels thevalues tended to return to the initial values 8 weeks after flooding. Meanwhile, the N content at the beginning of the0.60%. The N contents for all flooding levels increased with increasing time of observation1.48%). The C:N ratios for all flooding levels at the beginning of the trial greatly decreased until 2 weeks afterflooding. Thereafter, the ratios decreased slightly until 8 weeks after flooding. Furthermore, flooding level of 2.5 cmwest weight of rice straw 8 weeks after flooding, whereas, flooding level of 10.0 cm gave the highestweight of rice straw, suggesting that the lesser the flooding level, the faster the litter decomposition rate. This2 cm below water surface of a paddy field are an aerobic zone, wherehe management practice of post-harvest rice residuesair burning to accelerate the growing season. Burning the straw may control orreduce disease and pest (Ponnamperuma 1984), but, this practice may also results in greenhouse gases and. 2008). After harvesting paddy rice, large quantities of rice straw were produced from. 2008). The incorporation ofrice straw into the paddy soil has been widely accepted to be an alternative to burning of the straw (Cassman &term experiments on continuous irrigated rice systems in the tropics reported that it mayIn paddy soil, soil organic matter (SOM) mainly results from plant litter and biomass (Quideau 2002; Sahrawat 2004)humic substances, such as carbohydrates, and humicideau 2002). Studies have reported that SOM is one of important sources of N in paddy ecosystemsand several factors, including rice straw application influenced the accumulation of N in paddy rice soils2003). Furthermore, Olk et al. (1996) alsoreported that the soil under flood fallow receiving application of rice straw significantly had higher N contentuse for lowland paddy rice production significantlyreduced rice growth and yields. In addition, De Datta (1981) reported that the water should be available enoughd reduction. For instance, soil moisture content of -50 kPa (slightly above
  2. 2. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013field capacity) may result in yield reduction by 20centimetre of water in their paddy fields. However, this conditionof the limited O2 supply and the increase of anaerobic microorganism that decay plant residues (Courreges 2004).Oxygen is one of most important factors controlling the decomposition of organic matter inflooded soils which increases oxygen availability increases the rates of soil organic matter decomposition and Nmineralization (Sahrawat 1983). Meanwhile, Howeler & Bouldin (1971) noted that lack of oxygen in submerged soilresulted in lower rate of organic matter decomposition. Therefore, it is imperative to have a better understanding ofthe effects of different flooding levels in paddy soils on changes in soil chemical properties, especially informationon the N recovery and N mineralization when the rice straw is returned to the soil as a source of SOM. Thisinformation is important to determine feasible water management practices that suitable for rice growth and yield inlowland paddy fields where the abundant straw is incorpoLampung. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different flooding levels on the carbon (C),nitrogen (N) contents and weight of rice straw incorporated into a paddy soil2. Materials and Methods2.1 Trial Design and ConductThis pot trial was carried out to observe the effects of different flooding levels (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 cm) on a paddysoil. The treatments were replicated six times in a completely randomized bltreatment was composed of 10 pots for the observations made every 2 (two) weeks and ended 8 (eight) weeks afterflooding (in accordance with the age of rice to reach the panicle initiation).Two weeks before the trial was started, a bulk sample of soil was taken from a wellof 0-10 cm, in Metro, Lampung, Indonesia in June, 2008. Airwas decomposed. Ten kilograms of soil (absolute dry weiion-free water. Afterwards, the soil was stirred to form slurry (rice field soil conditions). Rice straw as organicmaterial was cut to the size of 2-3 cm. The rice straw was dried in an open room. Tento absolute dry weight) were inserted into the nylon bag (10 cm x 15 cm) (Armbrust 1980). The nylon bags wereplaced at a depth of 5 cm below the soil surface. The weight decrease of rice straw biomass was calculated based othe initial weight of the straw (air-dry weight). The measurement was done every two weeks until the period of 56days to determine the content of total soil N and C from each pot.2.2 Statistical AnalysisData were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOused when the ANOVA results indicated that there were significant treatment effects (Steel3. Results and DiscussionThe result of the initial soil analysis showed that the ratin the paddy soil was progressing well. In addition, the value of Nwas very low. This is likely that the farmers always burn their rice straw.3.1 Changes in CCarbon (C) is the major element of organic compounds in plant tissue. Figure 1 shows that the content of C at thebeginning of the experiment ranged from 33% to 40%. For the flooding levels of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 cm, the C contentdecreased to approximately 30% until 2 weeks after flooding, and then it increased again. Whereas, for the floodinglevel of 10.0 cm the C content slightly decreased to about 33% until 4 weeks after flooding, and then it increasedagain. The dynamics of the C contenin general, the content of C for all treatments decreased again. This indicated that there was a reduction in C contentfor each observation time.Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)81field capacity) may result in yield reduction by 20-25. In general, to control weeds most of farmers keep severalcentimetre of water in their paddy fields. However, this condition results in an adverse affect on rice growth becauseof the limited O2 supply and the increase of anaerobic microorganism that decay plant residues (Courreges 2004).Oxygen is one of most important factors controlling the decomposition of organic matter inflooded soils which increases oxygen availability increases the rates of soil organic matter decomposition and Nmineralization (Sahrawat 1983). Meanwhile, Howeler & Bouldin (1971) noted that lack of oxygen in submerged soiled in lower rate of organic matter decomposition. Therefore, it is imperative to have a better understanding ofthe effects of different flooding levels in paddy soils on changes in soil chemical properties, especially informationineralization when the rice straw is returned to the soil as a source of SOM. Thisinformation is important to determine feasible water management practices that suitable for rice growth and yield inlowland paddy fields where the abundant straw is incorporated into the soil under tropic conditions, such as in Metro,Lampung. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different flooding levels on the carbon (C),nitrogen (N) contents and weight of rice straw incorporated into a paddy soil.This pot trial was carried out to observe the effects of different flooding levels (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 cm) on a paddysoil. The treatments were replicated six times in a completely randomized block design in a glasshouse. Eachtreatment was composed of 10 pots for the observations made every 2 (two) weeks and ended 8 (eight) weeks afterflooding (in accordance with the age of rice to reach the panicle initiation).tarted, a bulk sample of soil was taken from a well-irrigated paddy field at soil depth10 cm, in Metro, Lampung, Indonesia in June, 2008. Air-dry soil was used as the medium where the rice strawwas decomposed. Ten kilograms of soil (absolute dry weight) were inserted into the pot, and then flooded withfree water. Afterwards, the soil was stirred to form slurry (rice field soil conditions). Rice straw as organic3 cm. The rice straw was dried in an open room. Ten grams of the straw (equivalentto absolute dry weight) were inserted into the nylon bag (10 cm x 15 cm) (Armbrust 1980). The nylon bags wereplaced at a depth of 5 cm below the soil surface. The weight decrease of rice straw biomass was calculated based odry weight). The measurement was done every two weeks until the period of 56days to determine the content of total soil N and C from each pot.Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). The least significant difference (LSD) test at p < 0.05 wasused when the ANOVA results indicated that there were significant treatment effects (SteelThe result of the initial soil analysis showed that the ratio of C:N was 6.11 (below 15), indicating that mineralizationin the paddy soil was progressing well. In addition, the value of N-total in the soil (0.58%) prior to the experimentwas very low. This is likely that the farmers always burn their rice straw.Carbon (C) is the major element of organic compounds in plant tissue. Figure 1 shows that the content of C at thebeginning of the experiment ranged from 33% to 40%. For the flooding levels of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 cm, the C contentto approximately 30% until 2 weeks after flooding, and then it increased again. Whereas, for the floodinglevel of 10.0 cm the C content slightly decreased to about 33% until 4 weeks after flooding, and then it increasedagain. The dynamics of the C content for each treatment varied with observation time. At the end of the experiment,in general, the content of C for all treatments decreased again. This indicated that there was a reduction in C contentwww.iiste.org25. In general, to control weeds most of farmers keep severalresults in an adverse affect on rice growth becauseof the limited O2 supply and the increase of anaerobic microorganism that decay plant residues (Courreges 2004).Oxygen is one of most important factors controlling the decomposition of organic matter in rice soils. Drainage offlooded soils which increases oxygen availability increases the rates of soil organic matter decomposition and Nmineralization (Sahrawat 1983). Meanwhile, Howeler & Bouldin (1971) noted that lack of oxygen in submerged soiled in lower rate of organic matter decomposition. Therefore, it is imperative to have a better understanding ofthe effects of different flooding levels in paddy soils on changes in soil chemical properties, especially informationineralization when the rice straw is returned to the soil as a source of SOM. Thisinformation is important to determine feasible water management practices that suitable for rice growth and yield inrated into the soil under tropic conditions, such as in Metro,Lampung. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different flooding levels on the carbon (C),This pot trial was carried out to observe the effects of different flooding levels (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 cm) on a paddyock design in a glasshouse. Eachtreatment was composed of 10 pots for the observations made every 2 (two) weeks and ended 8 (eight) weeks afterirrigated paddy field at soil depthdry soil was used as the medium where the rice strawght) were inserted into the pot, and then flooded withfree water. Afterwards, the soil was stirred to form slurry (rice field soil conditions). Rice straw as organicgrams of the straw (equivalentto absolute dry weight) were inserted into the nylon bag (10 cm x 15 cm) (Armbrust 1980). The nylon bags wereplaced at a depth of 5 cm below the soil surface. The weight decrease of rice straw biomass was calculated based ondry weight). The measurement was done every two weeks until the period of 56VA). The least significant difference (LSD) test at p < 0.05 wasused when the ANOVA results indicated that there were significant treatment effects (Steel et al. 1997).io of C:N was 6.11 (below 15), indicating that mineralizationtotal in the soil (0.58%) prior to the experimentCarbon (C) is the major element of organic compounds in plant tissue. Figure 1 shows that the content of C at thebeginning of the experiment ranged from 33% to 40%. For the flooding levels of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 cm, the C contentto approximately 30% until 2 weeks after flooding, and then it increased again. Whereas, for the floodinglevel of 10.0 cm the C content slightly decreased to about 33% until 4 weeks after flooding, and then it increasedt for each treatment varied with observation time. At the end of the experiment,in general, the content of C for all treatments decreased again. This indicated that there was a reduction in C content
  3. 3. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Fig 1. Dynamics of C3.2 Changes in NAt the beginning of the experiment, the N content ranged from 0.56% to 0.60% (Figure 2). By the time the content ofN in the incorporated rice straw increased until 8 weeks afterincreased only until 6 weeks after flooding, and then it decreased again.Fig 2. Dynamics of N content in the rice straw under different flooding levels25.0027.5030.0032.5035.0037.5040.0042.500C(%)0.400.600.801.001.201.401.600N(%)Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)82Dynamics of C content in the rice straw under different flooding levelsAt the beginning of the experiment, the N content ranged from 0.56% to 0.60% (Figure 2). By the time the content ofN in the incorporated rice straw increased until 8 weeks after flooding, except for the flooding level of 2.5 cm, itincreased only until 6 weeks after flooding, and then it decreased again.Dynamics of N content in the rice straw under different flooding levels2 4 6 8Time (weeks)2.5 cm 5.0 cm7.5 cm 10.0 cm2 4 6 8Time (weeks)2.5 cm 5.0 cm7.5 cm 10.0 cmwww.iiste.orgcontent in the rice straw under different flooding levelsAt the beginning of the experiment, the N content ranged from 0.56% to 0.60% (Figure 2). By the time the content offlooding, except for the flooding level of 2.5 cm, itDynamics of N content in the rice straw under different flooding levels
  4. 4. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 20133.3 Ratio of C:NIn addition to C and N, the observation of C:N ratio is also one of important variables to measure decomposition oforganic matters. At the beginning of the study, the ratio of C:N ranged from 56.5 to 67 (Figure 3). After 2 weeks afterflooding, the ratio of C:N decreased by 83However, thereafter the ratio of C:N decreased slightly.Fig 3. Dynamics of C:N ratio in the rice straw under different flooding levels3.4 Weight of rice strawThe results in Table 1 showed that, in general, there was no difference in the weight of rice straw for the observationat 2 until 4 week after flooding. However, at 6 and 8 weeks after flooding, there were significant differences in theweight of the rice straw, especially bthe flooding level, the faster the organic matter decomposition rate.Table 1. Change in rice straw weight (g) under different flooding levelsFloodingLevels (cm) 0ns2.5 9.635.0 9.637.5 9.5010.0 9.70CV (%) 3.05Notes: 1Numbers within the same column followed by the same letters are not significantly different atp<0.05Weight reduction of organic material at the end of the experiment generated by the flooding level of 2.5 cm wassignificantly different from the flooding level of 7.5 and 10.0 cm, indicating that the paddy soils flooded by 2.5 cmhad a higher rate of organic matter weight reduction compared to the soils flooded by the deeper flooding (>5 cm).This could be related to the balance between oxygen in atmosphere with oxygen in the oxidation layer of the paddysoil. According to Sanchez (1976), the layer of 0Ponnamperuma (1972) stated that in the waterlogge20253035404550556065700 2C:Nratio2.5 cm7.5 cmJournal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)83, the observation of C:N ratio is also one of important variables to measure decomposition oforganic matters. At the beginning of the study, the ratio of C:N ranged from 56.5 to 67 (Figure 3). After 2 weeks afterflooding, the ratio of C:N decreased by 83-120%, indicated by a very steep line (ratio of C:N ranged 31However, thereafter the ratio of C:N decreased slightly.Dynamics of C:N ratio in the rice straw under different flooding levels1 showed that, in general, there was no difference in the weight of rice straw for the observationat 2 until 4 week after flooding. However, at 6 and 8 weeks after flooding, there were significant differences in theweight of the rice straw, especially between the flooding level of 2.5 cm and 10.0 cm. This indicated that the thinnerthe flooding level, the faster the organic matter decomposition rate.Table 1. Change in rice straw weight (g) under different flooding levels2nsTime of flood (weeks)4ns68.23 7.10 4.378.82 7.33 4.67 a8.53 7.43 4.70 a8.50 7.30 5.20 b6.82 6.41 5.91Numbers within the same column followed by the same letters are not significantly different atWeight reduction of organic material at the end of the experiment generated by the flooding level of 2.5 cm wasignificantly different from the flooding level of 7.5 and 10.0 cm, indicating that the paddy soils flooded by 2.5 cmhad a higher rate of organic matter weight reduction compared to the soils flooded by the deeper flooding (>5 cm).the balance between oxygen in atmosphere with oxygen in the oxidation layer of the paddysoil. According to Sanchez (1976), the layer of 0-1 cm of the top of the rice field is an oxidation zone. Meanwhile,Ponnamperuma (1972) stated that in the waterlogged soil, the layer 1-2 cm is an oxidation layer. This is one reason4 6 8Time (weeks)2.5 cm 5.0 cm7.5 cm 10.0 cmwww.iiste.org, the observation of C:N ratio is also one of important variables to measure decomposition oforganic matters. At the beginning of the study, the ratio of C:N ranged from 56.5 to 67 (Figure 3). After 2 weeks after120%, indicated by a very steep line (ratio of C:N ranged 31-37).Dynamics of C:N ratio in the rice straw under different flooding levels1 showed that, in general, there was no difference in the weight of rice straw for the observationat 2 until 4 week after flooding. However, at 6 and 8 weeks after flooding, there were significant differences in theetween the flooding level of 2.5 cm and 10.0 cm. This indicated that the thinner6 84.371a 1.90 a4.67 a 1.97 a4.70 a 2.08 b5.20 b 2.08 b5.91 3.67Numbers within the same column followed by the same letters are not significantly different atWeight reduction of organic material at the end of the experiment generated by the flooding level of 2.5 cm wasignificantly different from the flooding level of 7.5 and 10.0 cm, indicating that the paddy soils flooded by 2.5 cmhad a higher rate of organic matter weight reduction compared to the soils flooded by the deeper flooding (>5 cm).the balance between oxygen in atmosphere with oxygen in the oxidation layer of the paddy1 cm of the top of the rice field is an oxidation zone. Meanwhile,2 cm is an oxidation layer. This is one reason
  5. 5. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013why aerobic microorganisms are capable to utilize organic materials as a source of energy. In accordance with thefindings of Ponnamperuma (1972), Watanabe (1984) also reported that floodinrate of decomposition of organic material. In the present study, for each flooding level, the weight of the rice strawdecreased obviously, especially from 6 to 8 weeks after flooding, suggesting that the decompositiThe obvious loss of the straw weight is likely related to the release of carbon dioxide (COnutrients and re-synthesized organic carbon compounds during the decomposition process.4. ConclusionsThe different flooding levels of paddy soil had different effects on the decomposition rate of rice straw incorporatedinto the soil. The flooding level of 2.5 cm resulted in the highest decrease of the straw weight, suggesting that underconditions of flooding level about 2.0 cm, the rice straw spread on the paddy soil surface would be decomposed morerapidly than deeper flooding levels. To have a better management of the rice straw, in practical applications, ricestraw supposed to be spread on the soil surface followed bAcknowledgement: The first author thanks Umar Bamualim of BPTP Maluku for his suggestions on themanuscript.ReferencesArmbrust D.V. (1980). Tests to determine wheat straw decomposition.Becker M., Ladha J.K., Simpson I.C. & Ottow J.C.G. (1994). Parameters affecting residue nitrogen mineralization inflooded Soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 58Cao G.L., Zhang X.Y., Wang Y.Q. & Zheng F.C. (2008). Estimation of emissChina. Chinese Sci Bull. 53(5), 784-Cassman K.G., De Datta S.K., Olk D.C., Alcantara J., Gamson M., Descalsota J. & Dizon M. (1995). Yield declineand nitrogen economy of long-term experiments on continuous irrManagement: Experimental Basis for Sustainability and Environmental Quality. (Eds R. Lal, B.A. Stewart) pp.181-222.Castillo E.G., Buresh R.J. & Ingram K.T. (1992). Lowland rice yield as affected by timing ofnitrogen fertilization. Agron. J. 84,152Cassman K.G., Pingali P.L. (1995). Intensification of irrigated rice systems learning from the past to meet futurechallenges. Geo J. 35, 299-305.Courreges P. (2004). Rice fields plagued by mJune 12, 2004.De Datta, S.K. (1981). Principle and practices of rice production. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 618 p.Goldhaber M.B. & Kaplan I.R. (1975). Controls and consequences of sulfsediments. Soil Sci. 119, 42-55.Howeler, R.H. & Bouldin D.R. (1971). The diffusion and consumption of oxygen in submerged soils. Soil Sci. Soc.Am. Proc. 35:202-208Olk, D.C., Cassman K.G., Randall E.W., Kincheshproperties of organic matter with intensified rice cropping in tropical lowland soil.Ponnamperuma, F.N. (1972). The chemistry of submerged Soils.Ponnamperuma, F.N. (1984). Straw as a source of nutrients for wetland rice. In: Organic matter and rice.International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines, pp.117Quideau, S.A. (2002). Organic matter accumulation. In R.Lal (ed) Encypp. 891-894.Sahrawat, K.L. (1983). Nitrogen availability indexes for submerged rice soils.Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)84why aerobic microorganisms are capable to utilize organic materials as a source of energy. In accordance with thefindings of Ponnamperuma (1972), Watanabe (1984) also reported that flooding of paddy soil generally increases therate of decomposition of organic material. In the present study, for each flooding level, the weight of the rice strawdecreased obviously, especially from 6 to 8 weeks after flooding, suggesting that the decompositiThe obvious loss of the straw weight is likely related to the release of carbon dioxide (COsynthesized organic carbon compounds during the decomposition process.oding levels of paddy soil had different effects on the decomposition rate of rice straw incorporatedinto the soil. The flooding level of 2.5 cm resulted in the highest decrease of the straw weight, suggesting that under2.0 cm, the rice straw spread on the paddy soil surface would be decomposed morerapidly than deeper flooding levels. To have a better management of the rice straw, in practical applications, ricestraw supposed to be spread on the soil surface followed by a thin flooding, instead of to be burned.The first author thanks Umar Bamualim of BPTP Maluku for his suggestions on theArmbrust D.V. (1980). Tests to determine wheat straw decomposition. Agron. J. 72, 399-401.Becker M., Ladha J.K., Simpson I.C. & Ottow J.C.G. (1994). Parameters affecting residue nitrogen mineralization in58, 1666-1671.Cao G.L., Zhang X.Y., Wang Y.Q. & Zheng F.C. (2008). Estimation of emissions from field burning of crop straw in-790.Cassman K.G., De Datta S.K., Olk D.C., Alcantara J., Gamson M., Descalsota J. & Dizon M. (1995). Yield declineterm experiments on continuous irrigated rice systems in the tropics. In SoilManagement: Experimental Basis for Sustainability and Environmental Quality. (Eds R. Lal, B.A. Stewart) pp.Castillo E.G., Buresh R.J. & Ingram K.T. (1992). Lowland rice yield as affected by timing of,152-159.Cassman K.G., Pingali P.L. (1995). Intensification of irrigated rice systems learning from the past to meet futureCourreges P. (2004). Rice fields plagued by mystery malady. The Advocate News. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Saturday,De Datta, S.K. (1981). Principle and practices of rice production. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 618 p.Goldhaber M.B. & Kaplan I.R. (1975). Controls and consequences of sulfate reduction rate rates in recent marineHoweler, R.H. & Bouldin D.R. (1971). The diffusion and consumption of oxygen in submerged soils. Soil Sci. Soc.Olk, D.C., Cassman K.G., Randall E.W., Kinchesh P., Sanger L.J., & Anderson J.M. (1996). Changes in chemicalproperties of organic matter with intensified rice cropping in tropical lowland soil. European J. Soil SciPonnamperuma, F.N. (1972). The chemistry of submerged Soils. Adv. Agron. 24, 29-96.Ponnamperuma, F.N. (1984). Straw as a source of nutrients for wetland rice. In: Organic matter and rice.International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines, pp.117-136.Quideau, S.A. (2002). Organic matter accumulation. In R.Lal (ed) Encyclopedia of soil science. Dekker, New York.Sahrawat, K.L. (1983). Nitrogen availability indexes for submerged rice soils. Adv. Agron.www.iiste.orgwhy aerobic microorganisms are capable to utilize organic materials as a source of energy. In accordance with theg of paddy soil generally increases therate of decomposition of organic material. In the present study, for each flooding level, the weight of the rice strawdecreased obviously, especially from 6 to 8 weeks after flooding, suggesting that the decomposition was occurred.The obvious loss of the straw weight is likely related to the release of carbon dioxide (CO2), energy, water, plantsynthesized organic carbon compounds during the decomposition process.oding levels of paddy soil had different effects on the decomposition rate of rice straw incorporatedinto the soil. The flooding level of 2.5 cm resulted in the highest decrease of the straw weight, suggesting that under2.0 cm, the rice straw spread on the paddy soil surface would be decomposed morerapidly than deeper flooding levels. To have a better management of the rice straw, in practical applications, ricey a thin flooding, instead of to be burned.The first author thanks Umar Bamualim of BPTP Maluku for his suggestions on the401.Becker M., Ladha J.K., Simpson I.C. & Ottow J.C.G. (1994). Parameters affecting residue nitrogen mineralization inions from field burning of crop straw inCassman K.G., De Datta S.K., Olk D.C., Alcantara J., Gamson M., Descalsota J. & Dizon M. (1995). Yield declineigated rice systems in the tropics. In SoilManagement: Experimental Basis for Sustainability and Environmental Quality. (Eds R. Lal, B.A. Stewart) pp.Castillo E.G., Buresh R.J. & Ingram K.T. (1992). Lowland rice yield as affected by timing of water deficit andCassman K.G., Pingali P.L. (1995). Intensification of irrigated rice systems learning from the past to meet futureystery malady. The Advocate News. Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Saturday,De Datta, S.K. (1981). Principle and practices of rice production. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 618 p.ate reduction rate rates in recent marineHoweler, R.H. & Bouldin D.R. (1971). The diffusion and consumption of oxygen in submerged soils. Soil Sci. Soc.P., Sanger L.J., & Anderson J.M. (1996). Changes in chemicalEuropean J. Soil Sci. 47, 293-303.Ponnamperuma, F.N. (1984). Straw as a source of nutrients for wetland rice. In: Organic matter and rice.clopedia of soil science. Dekker, New York.. 36, 415-451.
  6. 6. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Sahrawat, K.L. (2004). Organic matter accumulation in submerged soils.Sanchez, P.A. (1976). Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics. John Willey & Sons, Inc.. New York.Steel R.G.D., Torrie J.H. & Dickey D.A. (1997). Analysis of Variance. In: Principle and Procedures of Statistics: aBiometrical Approach, (3rd edition). New York, USA: The McGrawSundareshwar, P.V., Morris J.T., Koepfler E.K. & Fornwalt B. (2003). Phosphorus limitation of coastal ecosystemprocesses. Science 299, 563-565.Watanabe, I. (1984). Anaerobic decomposition of oIRRI. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. pp. 237Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)85Sahrawat, K.L. (2004). Organic matter accumulation in submerged soils. Adv. Agron. 81,169Sanchez, P.A. (1976). Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics. John Willey & Sons, Inc.. New York.Steel R.G.D., Torrie J.H. & Dickey D.A. (1997). Analysis of Variance. In: Principle and Procedures of Statistics: aion). New York, USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., p. 672.Sundareshwar, P.V., Morris J.T., Koepfler E.K. & Fornwalt B. (2003). Phosphorus limitation of coastal ecosystemWatanabe, I. (1984). Anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in flooded rice soils. InIRRI. Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines. pp. 237-258.www.iiste.org,169-201.Sanchez, P.A. (1976). Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics. John Willey & Sons, Inc.. New York.Steel R.G.D., Torrie J.H. & Dickey D.A. (1997). Analysis of Variance. In: Principle and Procedures of Statistics: aHill Companies, Inc., p. 672.Sundareshwar, P.V., Morris J.T., Koepfler E.K. & Fornwalt B. (2003). Phosphorus limitation of coastal ecosystemIn Organic Matter and Rice.
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