Impact of contaminants on groundwater quality in patcham, south east england.
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Impact of contaminants on groundwater quality in patcham, south east england.

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Impact of contaminants on groundwater quality in patcham, south east england. Impact of contaminants on groundwater quality in patcham, south east england. Document Transcript

  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Impact of contaminants on groundwater quality in Patcham,Egbuna Chukwuemeka Kingsley1. Department of Civil Engineering,2. Department of Geology, University of Brig* E-mail of the corresponding author:AbstractThis paper investigated the impact ogroundwater in Patcham, South-East England. Data, obtained from the Campbell scientific weather stationinstalled in the Patcham catchment and Schlumberger Water Services (SWS), were used to imechanism and potential contaminant flow paths through the Chalk unsatdeployed in three boreholes present within the catchment. Laboratory and analytical techniques such as Ramanspectroscopy, Hach Spectrophotometer and YSI Multimeter equipped with Ion selective electrode were used toinvestigate the influence of these contaminates on groundwater flow chemistry and quality from the sevenboreholes sites was studied. This research used the data obtained fthe field to analyse and examine the quality trend observing for major environmental pollutants. Results showedthat all the water parameters analysed were within the WHO guideline values, thus indicating that thethis area is quite safe for usage.Keywords: Contaminants, groundwater, Chalk, water table, water chemistry1. IntroductionGroundwater is a great natural resource. It is estimated that universally, over 2 billion people depend mainly ongroundwater for their daily need (Chaplin, 2001; Kemper, 2004: Egbuna and Duvbiama, 2013). Majority of theworld’s industries as well as large number of world’s agriculture and irrigation mostly depend on groundwater.In regions like Tunisia, with prominent dryagricultural development is widely considered (Ravigroundwater to life. Groundwater is known to usually have a suitable quality (NolaEgbuna, 2012) although depending on the hydrological condition it may also be of poor condition.The Chalk aquifer is an important source of water in North West Europe, particularly in the United Kingdom,Belgium, North of France and Germany. In south east of England, the Chalk aquifer provides about 40% of allpotable water and about 80% of total water (Pinaultof UK groundwater-abstracted drinking water (Howden60% of the chalk aquifer recharge are extracted and used as water supply in the UK. However, the sustainabilityof groundwater reduces by the day all over the world, problems of depletion due to use withoutsalinization and pollution or other human activities affects groundwater. In a study by Lunzhang (1994) in theHenan province of China, results showed a decline of 0.75monitoring the water table from 358 observation wells in approximately 2million hectares of irrigated lands.Chalk aquifers are usually karstic in nature, which means that they contain holes otherwise known as swallow(sink) holes that may allow infiltration of surface pollutantsfactors such as increasing population and development, personal water consumption increase, impacts ofpollution (hydrocarbon) and climate change have put the groundwater from the English chalk aquifer under grepressure (Edmunds, 2008). Figure 1 shows the outcrop of the UK chalk aquiferThe chalk has proven to be a good aquifer due its porosity and permeability, but the karstic nature of it makes itquite easy for surface contaminants to infiltrate into the ain nature, this solubility makes possible the presence of features in a chalk such as solution pipes, swallow holesand also sink holes. These are surface features that appear as subsidence sinkholesextend to depths. Studies carried out have confirmed the existence of such features and are characterized by thedry valley uplands rather than forming surface streams from rainwater (Edmonds, 2008). Thus, this paper aims toinvestigate the impact of contaminants on groundwater flow chemistry and the quality of groundwater in thePatcham Catchment, UK.2. Study AreaPatcham, the study area is situated in the City of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, South East England. PatchamJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)55Impact of contaminants on groundwater quality in Patcham,South East England.Egbuna Chukwuemeka Kingsley1*Musa Abba Jato2Department of Civil Engineering, University of Bristol, United KingdomDepartment of Geology, University of Brighton, United Kingdommail of the corresponding author: cke10@uni.brighton.ac.ukThis paper investigated the impact of contaminants on groundwater flow chemistry and the quality ofEast England. Data, obtained from the Campbell scientific weather stationinstalled in the Patcham catchment and Schlumberger Water Services (SWS), were used to imechanism and potential contaminant flow paths through the Chalk unsaturated zone. CTD Divers were alsodeployed in three boreholes present within the catchment. Laboratory and analytical techniques such as Ramantrophotometer and YSI Multimeter equipped with Ion selective electrode were used toinvestigate the influence of these contaminates on groundwater flow chemistry and quality from the sevenboreholes sites was studied. This research used the data obtained from the loggers and samples collected fromthe field to analyse and examine the quality trend observing for major environmental pollutants. Results showedthat all the water parameters analysed were within the WHO guideline values, thus indicating that theContaminants, groundwater, Chalk, water table, water chemistryGroundwater is a great natural resource. It is estimated that universally, over 2 billion people depend mainly onater for their daily need (Chaplin, 2001; Kemper, 2004: Egbuna and Duvbiama, 2013). Majority of theworld’s industries as well as large number of world’s agriculture and irrigation mostly depend on groundwater.In regions like Tunisia, with prominent dry season, groundwater is used as a primary source of irrigation inagricultural development is widely considered (Ravi et al., 2009). This further illustrates the necessity ofgroundwater to life. Groundwater is known to usually have a suitable quality (Nola et al.Egbuna, 2012) although depending on the hydrological condition it may also be of poor condition.The Chalk aquifer is an important source of water in North West Europe, particularly in the United Kingdom,and Germany. In south east of England, the Chalk aquifer provides about 40% of allpotable water and about 80% of total water (Pinault et al., 2005; Brouyere, 2006). The Chalk also provides 55%abstracted drinking water (Howden et al., 2004). Aldrich (2006) further expressed that about60% of the chalk aquifer recharge are extracted and used as water supply in the UK. However, the sustainabilityof groundwater reduces by the day all over the world, problems of depletion due to use withoutsalinization and pollution or other human activities affects groundwater. In a study by Lunzhang (1994) in theHenan province of China, results showed a decline of 0.75-3.68m from 1975-1987 of the water table, afterfrom 358 observation wells in approximately 2million hectares of irrigated lands.Chalk aquifers are usually karstic in nature, which means that they contain holes otherwise known as swallow(sink) holes that may allow infiltration of surface pollutants having contaminants in them. However, recentfactors such as increasing population and development, personal water consumption increase, impacts ofpollution (hydrocarbon) and climate change have put the groundwater from the English chalk aquifer under grepressure (Edmunds, 2008). Figure 1 shows the outcrop of the UK chalk aquiferThe chalk has proven to be a good aquifer due its porosity and permeability, but the karstic nature of it makes itquite easy for surface contaminants to infiltrate into the aquifer. Chalk is a carbonate rock and therefore solublein nature, this solubility makes possible the presence of features in a chalk such as solution pipes, swallow holesand also sink holes. These are surface features that appear as subsidence sinkholes or pipe like features thatextend to depths. Studies carried out have confirmed the existence of such features and are characterized by thedry valley uplands rather than forming surface streams from rainwater (Edmonds, 2008). Thus, this paper aims tostigate the impact of contaminants on groundwater flow chemistry and the quality of groundwater in thePatcham, the study area is situated in the City of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, South East England. Patchamwww.iiste.orgImpact of contaminants on groundwater quality in Patcham,cke10@uni.brighton.ac.ukf contaminants on groundwater flow chemistry and the quality ofEast England. Data, obtained from the Campbell scientific weather stationinstalled in the Patcham catchment and Schlumberger Water Services (SWS), were used to investigate rechargeurated zone. CTD Divers were alsodeployed in three boreholes present within the catchment. Laboratory and analytical techniques such as Ramantrophotometer and YSI Multimeter equipped with Ion selective electrode were used toinvestigate the influence of these contaminates on groundwater flow chemistry and quality from the sevenrom the loggers and samples collected fromthe field to analyse and examine the quality trend observing for major environmental pollutants. Results showedthat all the water parameters analysed were within the WHO guideline values, thus indicating that the water inGroundwater is a great natural resource. It is estimated that universally, over 2 billion people depend mainly onater for their daily need (Chaplin, 2001; Kemper, 2004: Egbuna and Duvbiama, 2013). Majority of theworld’s industries as well as large number of world’s agriculture and irrigation mostly depend on groundwater.season, groundwater is used as a primary source of irrigation in., 2009). This further illustrates the necessity ofet al., 2008: Louis andEgbuna, 2012) although depending on the hydrological condition it may also be of poor condition.The Chalk aquifer is an important source of water in North West Europe, particularly in the United Kingdom,and Germany. In south east of England, the Chalk aquifer provides about 40% of all., 2005; Brouyere, 2006). The Chalk also provides 55%Aldrich (2006) further expressed that about60% of the chalk aquifer recharge are extracted and used as water supply in the UK. However, the sustainabilityof groundwater reduces by the day all over the world, problems of depletion due to use without replacement,salinization and pollution or other human activities affects groundwater. In a study by Lunzhang (1994) in the1987 of the water table, afterfrom 358 observation wells in approximately 2million hectares of irrigated lands.Chalk aquifers are usually karstic in nature, which means that they contain holes otherwise known as swallowhaving contaminants in them. However, recentfactors such as increasing population and development, personal water consumption increase, impacts ofpollution (hydrocarbon) and climate change have put the groundwater from the English chalk aquifer under greatThe chalk has proven to be a good aquifer due its porosity and permeability, but the karstic nature of it makes itquifer. Chalk is a carbonate rock and therefore solublein nature, this solubility makes possible the presence of features in a chalk such as solution pipes, swallow holesor pipe like features thatextend to depths. Studies carried out have confirmed the existence of such features and are characterized by thedry valley uplands rather than forming surface streams from rainwater (Edmonds, 2008). Thus, this paper aims tostigate the impact of contaminants on groundwater flow chemistry and the quality of groundwater in thePatcham, the study area is situated in the City of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, South East England. Patcham
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013is approximately about 4.5km north of the city centre; the A27 road bounds it to the north, with Hollingbury tothe East, Withdean to the south and the Brighton mainline to the West. The A23 road passes through Patcham.Figure 2 is a map of the Patcham catchmewhere samples for this project work where collected.The UK chalk aquifer is cretaceous in age and covers a wide extent of England. Starting from Yorkshire up northmoving down the east coast through Lincolnshire and to East Anglia, turning south westwards, forming theChiltern Hills and moving west to Wiltshire. Dipping in the direction south east, if forms the anticlinal flexurewith a simple rise through north Hampshire and North Downthe anticline. The chalk then continues to the west with a southward dip until Dorset (Edmonds, 2008).2.1 Geology of the AreaA geological map of the study area (Patcham) displayed a complex geology (fol3 shows the geologic map of the Patcham catchment.The geology of South East England is characterized by Chalk forming its aquifer, which has a dual porosity(matrix and fracture). Surface pollutants can easily be transpPatcham, a highway (A23) passes through the boreholepossible for hydrocarbon runoff to the groundwater due to the nature of the aquifer.3. MethodologyRecords of evapotranspiration, conductivity, rainfall fluxes and water table depth all contributed to themonitoring of the influence of these contaminates on groundwater. Data, obtained from a Campbell scientificweather station installed in the studyinvestigate recharge mechanism and potential contaminant flow paths through the Chalk unsaturated zone. CTDDivers were also deployed in three boreholes present within the catchment (i.e. Northand Pyecoomb East).Using laboratory and analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, Hach Spectrophotometer and YSIMultimeter equipped with Ion selective electrode were used to investigate the influence of these contaminatesgroundwater flow chemistry and quality from the seven boreholes sites was studied.3.1 Data Collection and samplingData collection included visits to borehole monitoring sites where samples of water was collected from each ofthe seven sites of monitoring boreholes available within the Patcham catchment area.Pressure transducers are present within all the monitoring boreholes. They were used to monitor changes in thewater table of the boreholes; they were quite sensitive and also show rapid responsethe variation levels in groundwater and the data obtained was stored using data logger for long periods of time.The techniques used in sampling included; using a bladder pump and flow through a cell and a bailer. A bailer ishollow equipment used for collecting water samples from monitoring wells. Water samples were collected in aplastic container, using a marker to give each separate sample its label.These borehole monitoring sites within the Patcham catchment are: Preston PaNorth Heath Barn, Casterbridge farm, Pyecomb old rec, and Pyecombe east. Data were collected on the 92012.In three of the boreholes within Patcham, (North Heath Barn, Preston Park and Pyecoomb East), a CTDdata logger was placed which recorded data for conductivity, temperature and depth over long periods of time.Penman-Monotieth equation and YSI multimeter amongst other methods was used in the process. The multimeteris a hand-held field meter that measu4. RESULTS4.1 Water level and Conductivity of North Heath Barn boreholeChalk of the North Heath Barn borehole is predominantly white in colour. It is a monitoring site with 70mAugust unsaturated zone. The installed diver in the North Heath Barn borehole was used to generate data on theconductivity and water depth (level). This was plotted against date (Figure 4) in order to identify depth ofrecharge and plausible compositional change inIn Figure 4, it can be observed that the water depth gradually rose from midmaximum value of 70.54m bgl. A steep decline is observed between ending December and midvalues as low as 68.51m bgl. Conductivity in the North Heath Barn borehole shows a rather uniform distributionJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)56pproximately about 4.5km north of the city centre; the A27 road bounds it to the north, with Hollingbury tothe East, Withdean to the south and the Brighton mainline to the West. The A23 road passes through Patcham.Figure 2 is a map of the Patcham catchment showing locations of monitoring boreholes available within the areawhere samples for this project work where collected.The UK chalk aquifer is cretaceous in age and covers a wide extent of England. Starting from Yorkshire up northcoast through Lincolnshire and to East Anglia, turning south westwards, forming theChiltern Hills and moving west to Wiltshire. Dipping in the direction south east, if forms the anticlinal flexurewith a simple rise through north Hampshire and North Downs. South Downs is located on the southern limb ofthe anticline. The chalk then continues to the west with a southward dip until Dorset (Edmonds, 2008).A geological map of the study area (Patcham) displayed a complex geology (folds and faults) of the area. Figure3 shows the geologic map of the Patcham catchment.The geology of South East England is characterized by Chalk forming its aquifer, which has a dual porosity(matrix and fracture). Surface pollutants can easily be transported through the fracture to the water at ease. InPatcham, a highway (A23) passes through the borehole-monitoring sites which are available, thus making itpossible for hydrocarbon runoff to the groundwater due to the nature of the aquifer.Records of evapotranspiration, conductivity, rainfall fluxes and water table depth all contributed to themonitoring of the influence of these contaminates on groundwater. Data, obtained from a Campbell scientificweather station installed in the study catchment and Schlumberger Water Services (SWS), were used toinvestigate recharge mechanism and potential contaminant flow paths through the Chalk unsaturated zone. CTDDivers were also deployed in three boreholes present within the catchment (i.e. North Heath Barn, Preston ParkUsing laboratory and analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, Hach Spectrophotometer and YSIMultimeter equipped with Ion selective electrode were used to investigate the influence of these contaminatesgroundwater flow chemistry and quality from the seven boreholes sites was studied.Data collection included visits to borehole monitoring sites where samples of water was collected from each oforing boreholes available within the Patcham catchment area.Pressure transducers are present within all the monitoring boreholes. They were used to monitor changes in thewater table of the boreholes; they were quite sensitive and also show rapid response. They were used to recordthe variation levels in groundwater and the data obtained was stored using data logger for long periods of time.The techniques used in sampling included; using a bladder pump and flow through a cell and a bailer. A bailer isllow equipment used for collecting water samples from monitoring wells. Water samples were collected in aplastic container, using a marker to give each separate sample its label.These borehole monitoring sites within the Patcham catchment are: Preston Park, Lower Standean, North Bottom,North Heath Barn, Casterbridge farm, Pyecomb old rec, and Pyecombe east. Data were collected on the 9In three of the boreholes within Patcham, (North Heath Barn, Preston Park and Pyecoomb East), a CTDdata logger was placed which recorded data for conductivity, temperature and depth over long periods of time.Monotieth equation and YSI multimeter amongst other methods was used in the process. The multimeterheld field meter that measures oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature of the water.4.1 Water level and Conductivity of North Heath Barn boreholeChalk of the North Heath Barn borehole is predominantly white in colour. It is a monitoring site with 70maturated zone. The installed diver in the North Heath Barn borehole was used to generate data on theconductivity and water depth (level). This was plotted against date (Figure 4) in order to identify depth ofrecharge and plausible compositional change in the water entering the Chalk aquifer.In Figure 4, it can be observed that the water depth gradually rose from mid-June to midmaximum value of 70.54m bgl. A steep decline is observed between ending December and midlow as 68.51m bgl. Conductivity in the North Heath Barn borehole shows a rather uniform distributionwww.iiste.orgpproximately about 4.5km north of the city centre; the A27 road bounds it to the north, with Hollingbury tothe East, Withdean to the south and the Brighton mainline to the West. The A23 road passes through Patcham.nt showing locations of monitoring boreholes available within the areaThe UK chalk aquifer is cretaceous in age and covers a wide extent of England. Starting from Yorkshire up northcoast through Lincolnshire and to East Anglia, turning south westwards, forming theChiltern Hills and moving west to Wiltshire. Dipping in the direction south east, if forms the anticlinal flexures. South Downs is located on the southern limb ofthe anticline. The chalk then continues to the west with a southward dip until Dorset (Edmonds, 2008).ds and faults) of the area. FigureThe geology of South East England is characterized by Chalk forming its aquifer, which has a dual porosityorted through the fracture to the water at ease. Inmonitoring sites which are available, thus making itRecords of evapotranspiration, conductivity, rainfall fluxes and water table depth all contributed to themonitoring of the influence of these contaminates on groundwater. Data, obtained from a Campbell scientificcatchment and Schlumberger Water Services (SWS), were used toinvestigate recharge mechanism and potential contaminant flow paths through the Chalk unsaturated zone. CTDHeath Barn, Preston ParkUsing laboratory and analytical techniques such as Raman spectroscopy, Hach Spectrophotometer and YSIMultimeter equipped with Ion selective electrode were used to investigate the influence of these contaminates onData collection included visits to borehole monitoring sites where samples of water was collected from each ofPressure transducers are present within all the monitoring boreholes. They were used to monitor changes in the. They were used to recordthe variation levels in groundwater and the data obtained was stored using data logger for long periods of time.The techniques used in sampling included; using a bladder pump and flow through a cell and a bailer. A bailer isllow equipment used for collecting water samples from monitoring wells. Water samples were collected in ark, Lower Standean, North Bottom,North Heath Barn, Casterbridge farm, Pyecomb old rec, and Pyecombe east. Data were collected on the 9thMarchIn three of the boreholes within Patcham, (North Heath Barn, Preston Park and Pyecoomb East), a CTD- Diverdata logger was placed which recorded data for conductivity, temperature and depth over long periods of time.Monotieth equation and YSI multimeter amongst other methods was used in the process. The multimeterres oxygen, conductivity, salinity and temperature of the water.Chalk of the North Heath Barn borehole is predominantly white in colour. It is a monitoring site with 70maturated zone. The installed diver in the North Heath Barn borehole was used to generate data on theconductivity and water depth (level). This was plotted against date (Figure 4) in order to identify depth ofJune to mid-October reaching amaximum value of 70.54m bgl. A steep decline is observed between ending December and mid-January tolow as 68.51m bgl. Conductivity in the North Heath Barn borehole shows a rather uniform distribution
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013all year round with a few peaks of about 0.398 msie/cm in early August and midobserved that this value declines to a low of 04.2 Water level and Conductivity of Preston Park boreholePreston Park is an urban site, with the aquifer characterised by white chalk. The borehole monitoring site locatedin Preston Park has depth of about 18divers installed in the borehole of the site (Preston Park) was used to generate data on the conductivity and waterdepth (level). This was plotted against date (Figure 5) in order to identify decomposition of the water entering the Chalk aquifer.From figure 5, it can be seen that the water level has been more or less stable almost all through the yearalthough there were some major decline from DecemberResults further showed that conductivity showed abrupt changes, falling rapidly from 0.71msie/cm from endingJune to 0.648msie/cm in the beginning of July. The rise and fall in conductivity continued up until theAugust where it fell to o.648msie/cm and had a uniform distribution till the mid of December, where it raisedagain to 0.7msie/cm.4.3 Water level and Conductivity of Pyecoomb East boreholeThe pyecoomb east is an effluent dispersal site, dominatedsite with 60m August, unsaturated zone.Figure 6 was plot against date in order to identify depth of recharge and possible compositional change in thewater entering the Chalk aquifer, using data collecplotted in the Figure 6 above shows a continuous increase throughout the year from 56.82m bgl in June to about57.1m bgl in March. The conductivity in the borehole shows an irregular distributifrom June at (0.73msie/cm) through to midmid-august (0.73msie/cm) to September (0.78msie/cm), thereafter a uniform distribution is being observedthroughout the rest of the year.4.4 Evapotranspiration and Rainfall influx of the boreholesThe new climatic station installed at the North Heath Barn borehole allowed for accurate calculation of theevapotranspiration, while the rainfall data collected from the borehole athree boreholes as they are within the same area. A plot of evapotranspiration and rainfall influx against date(Figure 7) is important in establishing the rate of contaminant movement from CUZ to CSZ (i.e. groundwatAlso aquifer recharge rate can also be postulated from this plot.From figure 7, it can be observed that the distribution of evapotranspiration is highly inconsistent. Theevapotranspiration initially peaked at about 4.7mm and falls to a minimum valuincreasing to a late peak value of 2.5mm. Unlike evapotranspiration, rainfall influx within the same period asrecorded from the borehole showed a more even distribution characterised with series of sharp peaks. Themaximum-recorded rainfall data over the distribution is 25mm with a record low of 0.5mm. Clearly, it can beobserved that rainfall influx rate is predominantly greater in quantity than evapotranspiration rate in theborehole.4.5 Subsurface Element Concentration dataTo effectively categorise the type and extent of contamination of groundwater within the study areas,concentration of some contaminants measured in the three boreholes are plotted against date. This is necessary inan attempt to determine the trend of contamination in the boreholes as regards to seasonal variation. Firstly, wepresent World Health Organisation (WHO) standard for element concentration in groundwater (Table 1).4.5.1 Contaminants concentration in the North Heath Barn boreholeConcentration of contaminants in the groundwater of the North Heath Barn borehole was plotted against the dateto ascertain whether these limits are within the specified WHO specification presented in table 1.From the graph, it can be observed that ammoniuthe given period. Chlorine concentration in the borehole was first recorded in June and can be seen to be evenlydistributed hereafter. Average Cl concentration is 13 mg/L, this is within the WHO spegroundwater (see Table 1). Nitrate concentration in January of 2011 begins at 3 mg/L. However, a steadyincrease in nitrate concentration is observed as we approach April, until a record high of 23.5 mg/L (figure 8).This projection begins to decline steeply to almost 3 mg/L in early June. Hereafter, nitrate concentrationJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)57all year round with a few peaks of about 0.398 msie/cm in early August and mid-January. However, it can beobserved that this value declines to a low of 0.377msie/cm in February and March.4.2 Water level and Conductivity of Preston Park boreholePreston Park is an urban site, with the aquifer characterised by white chalk. The borehole monitoring site locatedin Preston Park has depth of about 18-20m August unsaturated zone. A plot made from data collected by thedivers installed in the borehole of the site (Preston Park) was used to generate data on the conductivity and waterdepth (level). This was plotted against date (Figure 5) in order to identify depth of recharge and likely change incomposition of the water entering the Chalk aquifer.From figure 5, it can be seen that the water level has been more or less stable almost all through the yearalthough there were some major decline from December- February dropping from 23m to about 18m bgl.Results further showed that conductivity showed abrupt changes, falling rapidly from 0.71msie/cm from endingJune to 0.648msie/cm in the beginning of July. The rise and fall in conductivity continued up until theAugust where it fell to o.648msie/cm and had a uniform distribution till the mid of December, where it raised4.3 Water level and Conductivity of Pyecoomb East boreholeThe pyecoomb east is an effluent dispersal site, dominated by Grey Chalk formation. It is a borehole monitoringsite with 60m August, unsaturated zone.Figure 6 was plot against date in order to identify depth of recharge and possible compositional change in thewater entering the Chalk aquifer, using data collecting from installed divers. The water level in the borehole asplotted in the Figure 6 above shows a continuous increase throughout the year from 56.82m bgl in June to about57.1m bgl in March. The conductivity in the borehole shows an irregular distribution, displaying a drop startingfrom June at (0.73msie/cm) through to mid-August (0.71msie/cm). A steady increase is observed betweenaugust (0.73msie/cm) to September (0.78msie/cm), thereafter a uniform distribution is being observed4.4 Evapotranspiration and Rainfall influx of the boreholesThe new climatic station installed at the North Heath Barn borehole allowed for accurate calculation of theevapotranspiration, while the rainfall data collected from the borehole at North Heath Barn was used for all thethree boreholes as they are within the same area. A plot of evapotranspiration and rainfall influx against date(Figure 7) is important in establishing the rate of contaminant movement from CUZ to CSZ (i.e. groundwatAlso aquifer recharge rate can also be postulated from this plot.From figure 7, it can be observed that the distribution of evapotranspiration is highly inconsistent. Theevapotranspiration initially peaked at about 4.7mm and falls to a minimum value of 0.3mm before graduallyincreasing to a late peak value of 2.5mm. Unlike evapotranspiration, rainfall influx within the same period asrecorded from the borehole showed a more even distribution characterised with series of sharp peaks. Therded rainfall data over the distribution is 25mm with a record low of 0.5mm. Clearly, it can beobserved that rainfall influx rate is predominantly greater in quantity than evapotranspiration rate in the4.5 Subsurface Element Concentration data on the ChalkTo effectively categorise the type and extent of contamination of groundwater within the study areas,concentration of some contaminants measured in the three boreholes are plotted against date. This is necessary ine trend of contamination in the boreholes as regards to seasonal variation. Firstly, wepresent World Health Organisation (WHO) standard for element concentration in groundwater (Table 1).4.5.1 Contaminants concentration in the North Heath Barn boreholeoncentration of contaminants in the groundwater of the North Heath Barn borehole was plotted against the dateto ascertain whether these limits are within the specified WHO specification presented in table 1.From the graph, it can be observed that ammonium concentration was very low and unpronounced throughoutthe given period. Chlorine concentration in the borehole was first recorded in June and can be seen to be evenlydistributed hereafter. Average Cl concentration is 13 mg/L, this is within the WHO spegroundwater (see Table 1). Nitrate concentration in January of 2011 begins at 3 mg/L. However, a steadyincrease in nitrate concentration is observed as we approach April, until a record high of 23.5 mg/L (figure 8).egins to decline steeply to almost 3 mg/L in early June. Hereafter, nitrate concentrationwww.iiste.orgJanuary. However, it can bePreston Park is an urban site, with the aquifer characterised by white chalk. The borehole monitoring site locatedust unsaturated zone. A plot made from data collected by thedivers installed in the borehole of the site (Preston Park) was used to generate data on the conductivity and waterpth of recharge and likely change inFrom figure 5, it can be seen that the water level has been more or less stable almost all through the yearuary dropping from 23m to about 18m bgl.Results further showed that conductivity showed abrupt changes, falling rapidly from 0.71msie/cm from endingJune to 0.648msie/cm in the beginning of July. The rise and fall in conductivity continued up until the mid ofAugust where it fell to o.648msie/cm and had a uniform distribution till the mid of December, where it raisedby Grey Chalk formation. It is a borehole monitoringFigure 6 was plot against date in order to identify depth of recharge and possible compositional change in theting from installed divers. The water level in the borehole asplotted in the Figure 6 above shows a continuous increase throughout the year from 56.82m bgl in June to abouton, displaying a drop startingAugust (0.71msie/cm). A steady increase is observed betweenaugust (0.73msie/cm) to September (0.78msie/cm), thereafter a uniform distribution is being observedThe new climatic station installed at the North Heath Barn borehole allowed for accurate calculation of thet North Heath Barn was used for all thethree boreholes as they are within the same area. A plot of evapotranspiration and rainfall influx against date(Figure 7) is important in establishing the rate of contaminant movement from CUZ to CSZ (i.e. groundwater).From figure 7, it can be observed that the distribution of evapotranspiration is highly inconsistent. Thee of 0.3mm before graduallyincreasing to a late peak value of 2.5mm. Unlike evapotranspiration, rainfall influx within the same period asrecorded from the borehole showed a more even distribution characterised with series of sharp peaks. Therded rainfall data over the distribution is 25mm with a record low of 0.5mm. Clearly, it can beobserved that rainfall influx rate is predominantly greater in quantity than evapotranspiration rate in theTo effectively categorise the type and extent of contamination of groundwater within the study areas,concentration of some contaminants measured in the three boreholes are plotted against date. This is necessary ine trend of contamination in the boreholes as regards to seasonal variation. Firstly, wepresent World Health Organisation (WHO) standard for element concentration in groundwater (Table 1).oncentration of contaminants in the groundwater of the North Heath Barn borehole was plotted against the dateto ascertain whether these limits are within the specified WHO specification presented in table 1.m concentration was very low and unpronounced throughoutthe given period. Chlorine concentration in the borehole was first recorded in June and can be seen to be evenlydistributed hereafter. Average Cl concentration is 13 mg/L, this is within the WHO specified limit of Cl ingroundwater (see Table 1). Nitrate concentration in January of 2011 begins at 3 mg/L. However, a steadyincrease in nitrate concentration is observed as we approach April, until a record high of 23.5 mg/L (figure 8).egins to decline steeply to almost 3 mg/L in early June. Hereafter, nitrate concentration
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013increases again to about 9 mg/L in early October before a gradual decline is seen to occur.Dissolved oxygen concentration can be said to be averagely distributed thrslightly above 10 mg/L. Nitrite concentration begins at 14.5 mg/L (this is it highest value throughout the givenperiod). A sharp decline is seen until a recorded value of 6 mg/L in midfluctuates until a steady concentration of 5 mg/L is reached through September to January before a graduallydeclines to 3 mg/L is finally observed (figure 8). Phosphate, Sulfate and TOC concentrations all occur below 2mg/L, with the TOC showing more of irregular distribution than phosphate and sulphate (which are generallybelow 0.6 mg/L).From the above analysis, it could be seen that all the parameters analysed for were within the WHO guidelinevalues, thus indicating that the water in this area4.5.2 Contaminants concentration in the Preston Park boreholeContaminants concentration in the groundwater within the Preston Park borehole is plotted against date to obtainwhether these limits are within the specified WHO speciFrom figure 9, it could be seen that chlorine concentration was not detected throughout the whole year. It wasdetected starting from May with concentration of about 9 mg/l, with maximum concentrations of Chlorine seenin the month of August and September both at 15 mg/l which falls below the WHO specified limit of Cl ingroundwater. Nitrate concentration displays a low concentration from the beginning with the lowest at 0.2 mg/Lin February, with a sharp rise reaching the hiDissolved oxygen, sulphate, phosphate and TOC all have concentration lower than the WHO specified limit,although TOC shows a sudden rise in January of 2012 to about 16 mg/L.It could also be seen from the above analysis, that all the parameters analysed for were within the WHOguideline values, thus indicating that the water in this area is quite safe for usage.4.5.3 Contaminants concentration in Pyecoomb East BoreholeContaminants concentration in the groundwater within the Pyecoomb East borehole is plotted against date toobtain whether these limits are within the specified WHO specification presented in table 4.1 above. The graph isshown in figure 10.Ammonium shows a steady raise reaching a hiuntil reaching an average point. Nitrate, dissolved oxygen, chlorine, SOdistribution except for PO4 which shows an inconsistency from the beginning and then a steepNovember reaching as high as 9 mg/L before falling to continue at initial level.From the above analysis of water in this site, it could be seen that all the parameters analysed for were within theWHO guideline values, thus indicating tha4.6 Raman Spectroscopy resultsThis graph shows a plot of intensity against Raman shift in the samples. The Raman spectroscopy results showedalmost similar results but at different peaks. The Raman spectrto overlap with plastic container lines, giving similar spectra for all the seven samples (Figure 11).5. DISCUSSIONS5.1 Hydraulic conductivityHydraulic conductivity in the North Heath Barn is relativemonitoring site of about 70m August unsaturated zone. Groundwater depth (level) decreases to a minimumduring winter months of December through to January. Rainfall influx was as well predominantly greater iquantity and showed less inconsistency than evapotranspiration rate in the borehole. Uniformity of the hydraulicconductivity is thought to be due to its thick unsaturated zone. In which case the soil and weathered chalk of thearea damped out of the normal recharge signal, storing water and releasing it gradually to the unweathered chalk.Matric potential increased with depth for unsaturated zone, especially in summer months (PriceBase recharge of the weathered zone is thought to be greatpotential sufficiently high that water was not absorbed straight back into the matrix but reached the water tablewithout being absorbed by the matrix. Hence, explaining the even distribution of conductivity arecharge even in summer periods (of less rainfall influx). Fracture flow may also contribute to groundwaterrecharge but this is rare, since drainage to water table continues year round.Gallagher et al. (2012) reported that the unsaturatedpart of the year. The data from the hydrograph and matric potential showed that the water table responds rapidlyfollowing sudden increases in matric potential above the air entry pressure of fracturare separated by faults, fractures and marls and are close to saturation, even during summer months. TheyJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)58increases again to about 9 mg/L in early October before a gradual decline is seen to occur.Dissolved oxygen concentration can be said to be averagely distributed throughout given period, with limitsslightly above 10 mg/L. Nitrite concentration begins at 14.5 mg/L (this is it highest value throughout the givenperiod). A sharp decline is seen until a recorded value of 6 mg/L in mid-February. Hereafter, nitrite concentfluctuates until a steady concentration of 5 mg/L is reached through September to January before a graduallydeclines to 3 mg/L is finally observed (figure 8). Phosphate, Sulfate and TOC concentrations all occur below 2re of irregular distribution than phosphate and sulphate (which are generallyFrom the above analysis, it could be seen that all the parameters analysed for were within the WHO guidelinevalues, thus indicating that the water in this area is quite safe for usage.4.5.2 Contaminants concentration in the Preston Park boreholeContaminants concentration in the groundwater within the Preston Park borehole is plotted against date to obtainwhether these limits are within the specified WHO specification presented in table 1.From figure 9, it could be seen that chlorine concentration was not detected throughout the whole year. It wasdetected starting from May with concentration of about 9 mg/l, with maximum concentrations of Chlorine seene month of August and September both at 15 mg/l which falls below the WHO specified limit of Cl ingroundwater. Nitrate concentration displays a low concentration from the beginning with the lowest at 0.2 mg/Lin February, with a sharp rise reaching the highest concentrations in 16 mg/L in the month of September.Dissolved oxygen, sulphate, phosphate and TOC all have concentration lower than the WHO specified limit,although TOC shows a sudden rise in January of 2012 to about 16 mg/L.from the above analysis, that all the parameters analysed for were within the WHOguideline values, thus indicating that the water in this area is quite safe for usage.4.5.3 Contaminants concentration in Pyecoomb East Boreholen the groundwater within the Pyecoomb East borehole is plotted against date toobtain whether these limits are within the specified WHO specification presented in table 4.1 above. The graph isAmmonium shows a steady raise reaching a high of 83mg/L with a more or insistent up and down movementuntil reaching an average point. Nitrate, dissolved oxygen, chlorine, SO4, TOC, NOwhich shows an inconsistency from the beginning and then a steepNovember reaching as high as 9 mg/L before falling to continue at initial level.From the above analysis of water in this site, it could be seen that all the parameters analysed for were within theWHO guideline values, thus indicating that the water in this area is quite safe for usage.This graph shows a plot of intensity against Raman shift in the samples. The Raman spectroscopy results showedalmost similar results but at different peaks. The Raman spectroscopy results could not be further interpreted dueto overlap with plastic container lines, giving similar spectra for all the seven samples (Figure 11).Hydraulic conductivity in the North Heath Barn is relatively uniformly distributed all year round. It is amonitoring site of about 70m August unsaturated zone. Groundwater depth (level) decreases to a minimumduring winter months of December through to January. Rainfall influx was as well predominantly greater iquantity and showed less inconsistency than evapotranspiration rate in the borehole. Uniformity of the hydraulicconductivity is thought to be due to its thick unsaturated zone. In which case the soil and weathered chalk of themal recharge signal, storing water and releasing it gradually to the unweathered chalk.Matric potential increased with depth for unsaturated zone, especially in summer months (PriceBase recharge of the weathered zone is thought to be greater than the matric permeability and the matricpotential sufficiently high that water was not absorbed straight back into the matrix but reached the water tablewithout being absorbed by the matrix. Hence, explaining the even distribution of conductivity arecharge even in summer periods (of less rainfall influx). Fracture flow may also contribute to groundwaterrecharge but this is rare, since drainage to water table continues year round.(2012) reported that the unsaturated zone of North Heath Barn was closely saturated for mostpart of the year. The data from the hydrograph and matric potential showed that the water table responds rapidlyfollowing sudden increases in matric potential above the air entry pressure of fractures and that aquifer blocksare separated by faults, fractures and marls and are close to saturation, even during summer months. Theywww.iiste.orgincreases again to about 9 mg/L in early October before a gradual decline is seen to occur.oughout given period, with limitsslightly above 10 mg/L. Nitrite concentration begins at 14.5 mg/L (this is it highest value throughout the givenFebruary. Hereafter, nitrite concentrationfluctuates until a steady concentration of 5 mg/L is reached through September to January before a graduallydeclines to 3 mg/L is finally observed (figure 8). Phosphate, Sulfate and TOC concentrations all occur below 2re of irregular distribution than phosphate and sulphate (which are generallyFrom the above analysis, it could be seen that all the parameters analysed for were within the WHO guidelineContaminants concentration in the groundwater within the Preston Park borehole is plotted against date to obtainFrom figure 9, it could be seen that chlorine concentration was not detected throughout the whole year. It wasdetected starting from May with concentration of about 9 mg/l, with maximum concentrations of Chlorine seene month of August and September both at 15 mg/l which falls below the WHO specified limit of Cl ingroundwater. Nitrate concentration displays a low concentration from the beginning with the lowest at 0.2 mg/Lghest concentrations in 16 mg/L in the month of September.Dissolved oxygen, sulphate, phosphate and TOC all have concentration lower than the WHO specified limit,from the above analysis, that all the parameters analysed for were within the WHOn the groundwater within the Pyecoomb East borehole is plotted against date toobtain whether these limits are within the specified WHO specification presented in table 4.1 above. The graph isgh of 83mg/L with a more or insistent up and down movement2 all display a normalwhich shows an inconsistency from the beginning and then a steep raise from 25thFrom the above analysis of water in this site, it could be seen that all the parameters analysed for were within theThis graph shows a plot of intensity against Raman shift in the samples. The Raman spectroscopy results showedoscopy results could not be further interpreted dueto overlap with plastic container lines, giving similar spectra for all the seven samples (Figure 11).ly uniformly distributed all year round. It is amonitoring site of about 70m August unsaturated zone. Groundwater depth (level) decreases to a minimumduring winter months of December through to January. Rainfall influx was as well predominantly greater inquantity and showed less inconsistency than evapotranspiration rate in the borehole. Uniformity of the hydraulicconductivity is thought to be due to its thick unsaturated zone. In which case the soil and weathered chalk of themal recharge signal, storing water and releasing it gradually to the unweathered chalk.Matric potential increased with depth for unsaturated zone, especially in summer months (Price et al., 1976).er than the matric permeability and the matricpotential sufficiently high that water was not absorbed straight back into the matrix but reached the water tablewithout being absorbed by the matrix. Hence, explaining the even distribution of conductivity and groundwaterrecharge even in summer periods (of less rainfall influx). Fracture flow may also contribute to groundwaterzone of North Heath Barn was closely saturated for mostpart of the year. The data from the hydrograph and matric potential showed that the water table responds rapidlyes and that aquifer blocksare separated by faults, fractures and marls and are close to saturation, even during summer months. They
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013suggested connectivity between the faults, fractures and marl may occur when matric potentials are high andthere is sufficient rainfall input. Hence, water then starts to fill faults and large fractures, allowing rapidmovement of water through the unsaturated zone, maintaining the groundwater recharge year round.In Preston Park, the borehole is characterized by a slim unsathe possibility of water rapidly reaching the water table compared to the other two boreholes with a thickerunsaturated zone. Exertion of pressure from the matric potential is low (as the zone of unsatuhence mobility of surface water in the unsaturation zone to the saturate zone may occur readily. In summermonths when recharge is less, the matric potential increases causing absorbed water on the Chalk matrix topercolate further below the water table, maintaining recharge. Due to the thin unsaturation zone, it was believedthat in period of intense and sustained rainfall, flash flooding may occur as depth to water table may becomealmost at the surface but this was not anticipated to laswithin the aquifer formation may diminish the effect. Zaidmansteeply inclined normal faults approximately every 20 m, including one fault that contairon-stained breccia zone, which indicates the movement of water through it.Pyecoomb East borehole has an unsaturated zone of about 60m. Effluent release and farmland irrigationcontributed to the groundwater recharge, explaining the rThis site had high concentration of nitrate and chlorine when compared to the North Heath Barn. The highconcentration of nitrate and chlorine also further fortify the possibility of groundwater rechargdischarge and farmland washout from irrigation activities.5.2 Chemical VariationSeveral plots were made (Nitrate –Nitrate – TOC, and Nitrate – Sulphate) to study thence infer plausible trend to the source and movement of contaminants. Of the studied boreholes, PyecombeEast had the highest concentration of Nitrate, Phosphate, Chlorine and Sulphate but theTotal Organic Content (TOC). The borehole at Pyecombe East is an effluent dispersal site with 60m of Augustunsaturated zone. Therefore increased mixing of surface effluent recharge with groundwater is thought to beresponsible for the high concentration of these elements in the Chalk aquifer. These concentrations, in most cases,show steady consistent increase pattern likely arising from seasonal variation.Organic content concentration of effluent recharge to the groundwater at Pyecthe low TOC concentration in the areas.The concentration of Nitrate and Chlorine is higher in the Preston park borehole compared to the North HeathBarn. Preston Park borehole is urban recharge with thin August unsaturatmovement of these elements without having to be absorbed on the weathered chalk matrix. The highconcentrations of these elements suggest an artificial recharge to groundwater from surface urban runfarmland irrigation practices.Concentration of Phosphate, Sulphate and TOC is higher in the North Heath Barn borehole compared toobserved Preston park borehole. As already mentioned earlier, North Heath Barn is monitoring site with thethickest August unsaturation zone ofunsaturated zone may dissolve the marl formation causing an increase in the phosphate and sulphateconcentration as groundwater is recharged. Evenly distributed hydraulic conductivigradual release of stored water from unweathered Chalk (to sustain the year round recharge) may carry alongorganic matter from the Chalk formation, hence describing the high TOC concentration in the North Heath Barnborehole compared to other studied borehole locations.Of all the three studied boreholes, Pyecombe East (an effluent dispersal site) show high concentration of allcontaminants except TOC, highest in the North Heath Barn. Artificial recharge in the Preston park boreh(Urban site) may be responsible for the high concentrations of Chlorine and Nitrate.6. ConclusionThis paper investigated the impact of contaminants on groundwater flow chemistry and the quality ofgroundwater in Patcham, South-East England. Groundwamonths of December through to January. Rainfall influx is as well predominantly greater in quantity and showsless inconsistency than evapotranspiration rate in the borehole. The uniformity of the hydrthought to be due to the thickness of the unsaturated zone at North Heath Barn and Pyecoomb East. Except forPreston Park, this has a much thinner unsaturated zone, which may influence the rapid water movement to thewater table.Chemical variation of the boreholes studied showed the borehole at Pyecoomb East to be more of an effluentJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)59suggested connectivity between the faults, fractures and marl may occur when matric potentials are high andient rainfall input. Hence, water then starts to fill faults and large fractures, allowing rapidmovement of water through the unsaturated zone, maintaining the groundwater recharge year round.In Preston Park, the borehole is characterized by a slim unsaturated zone of about 20m thick, which may result inthe possibility of water rapidly reaching the water table compared to the other two boreholes with a thickerunsaturated zone. Exertion of pressure from the matric potential is low (as the zone of unsatuhence mobility of surface water in the unsaturation zone to the saturate zone may occur readily. In summermonths when recharge is less, the matric potential increases causing absorbed water on the Chalk matrix tohe water table, maintaining recharge. Due to the thin unsaturation zone, it was believedthat in period of intense and sustained rainfall, flash flooding may occur as depth to water table may becomealmost at the surface but this was not anticipated to last for a long period, as fracture flow or lateral movementwithin the aquifer formation may diminish the effect. Zaidman et al., (1999) working in Yorkshire, identifiedsteeply inclined normal faults approximately every 20 m, including one fault that contastained breccia zone, which indicates the movement of water through it.Pyecoomb East borehole has an unsaturated zone of about 60m. Effluent release and farmland irrigationcontributed to the groundwater recharge, explaining the recharge occurring even period of low rainfall influx.This site had high concentration of nitrate and chlorine when compared to the North Heath Barn. The highconcentration of nitrate and chlorine also further fortify the possibility of groundwater rechargdischarge and farmland washout from irrigation activities.Phosphate, Nitrate – Chlorine, Sulphate – Phosphate, SulphateSulphate) to study the chemical variation of elements within the catchment area,hence infer plausible trend to the source and movement of contaminants. Of the studied boreholes, PyecombeEast had the highest concentration of Nitrate, Phosphate, Chlorine and Sulphate but theTotal Organic Content (TOC). The borehole at Pyecombe East is an effluent dispersal site with 60m of Augustunsaturated zone. Therefore increased mixing of surface effluent recharge with groundwater is thought to bee high concentration of these elements in the Chalk aquifer. These concentrations, in most cases,show steady consistent increase pattern likely arising from seasonal variation.Organic content concentration of effluent recharge to the groundwater at Pyecombe east was low, thus reflectingthe low TOC concentration in the areas.The concentration of Nitrate and Chlorine is higher in the Preston park borehole compared to the North HeathBarn. Preston Park borehole is urban recharge with thin August unsaturated zone enhancing more rapidmovement of these elements without having to be absorbed on the weathered chalk matrix. The highconcentrations of these elements suggest an artificial recharge to groundwater from surface urban runConcentration of Phosphate, Sulphate and TOC is higher in the North Heath Barn borehole compared toobserved Preston park borehole. As already mentioned earlier, North Heath Barn is monitoring site with thethickest August unsaturation zone of the three borehole sites. Pyrite oxidation as bypass flow within the thickunsaturated zone may dissolve the marl formation causing an increase in the phosphate and sulphateconcentration as groundwater is recharged. Evenly distributed hydraulic conductivity throughout the year andgradual release of stored water from unweathered Chalk (to sustain the year round recharge) may carry alongorganic matter from the Chalk formation, hence describing the high TOC concentration in the North Heath Barnpared to other studied borehole locations.Of all the three studied boreholes, Pyecombe East (an effluent dispersal site) show high concentration of allcontaminants except TOC, highest in the North Heath Barn. Artificial recharge in the Preston park boreh(Urban site) may be responsible for the high concentrations of Chlorine and Nitrate.This paper investigated the impact of contaminants on groundwater flow chemistry and the quality ofEast England. Groundwater depth (level) decreases to a minimum during wintermonths of December through to January. Rainfall influx is as well predominantly greater in quantity and showsless inconsistency than evapotranspiration rate in the borehole. The uniformity of the hydrthought to be due to the thickness of the unsaturated zone at North Heath Barn and Pyecoomb East. Except forPreston Park, this has a much thinner unsaturated zone, which may influence the rapid water movement to theical variation of the boreholes studied showed the borehole at Pyecoomb East to be more of an effluentwww.iiste.orgsuggested connectivity between the faults, fractures and marl may occur when matric potentials are high andient rainfall input. Hence, water then starts to fill faults and large fractures, allowing rapidmovement of water through the unsaturated zone, maintaining the groundwater recharge year round.turated zone of about 20m thick, which may result inthe possibility of water rapidly reaching the water table compared to the other two boreholes with a thickerunsaturated zone. Exertion of pressure from the matric potential is low (as the zone of unsaturation is thin);hence mobility of surface water in the unsaturation zone to the saturate zone may occur readily. In summermonths when recharge is less, the matric potential increases causing absorbed water on the Chalk matrix tohe water table, maintaining recharge. Due to the thin unsaturation zone, it was believedthat in period of intense and sustained rainfall, flash flooding may occur as depth to water table may becomet for a long period, as fracture flow or lateral movement(1999) working in Yorkshire, identifiedsteeply inclined normal faults approximately every 20 m, including one fault that contained a 0.5 m thick,Pyecoomb East borehole has an unsaturated zone of about 60m. Effluent release and farmland irrigationecharge occurring even period of low rainfall influx.This site had high concentration of nitrate and chlorine when compared to the North Heath Barn. The highconcentration of nitrate and chlorine also further fortify the possibility of groundwater recharge from effluentPhosphate, Sulphate – Chlorine,he chemical variation of elements within the catchment area,hence infer plausible trend to the source and movement of contaminants. Of the studied boreholes, PyecombeEast had the highest concentration of Nitrate, Phosphate, Chlorine and Sulphate but the low concentrations ofTotal Organic Content (TOC). The borehole at Pyecombe East is an effluent dispersal site with 60m of Augustunsaturated zone. Therefore increased mixing of surface effluent recharge with groundwater is thought to bee high concentration of these elements in the Chalk aquifer. These concentrations, in most cases,ombe east was low, thus reflectingThe concentration of Nitrate and Chlorine is higher in the Preston park borehole compared to the North Heathed zone enhancing more rapidmovement of these elements without having to be absorbed on the weathered chalk matrix. The highconcentrations of these elements suggest an artificial recharge to groundwater from surface urban run-off andConcentration of Phosphate, Sulphate and TOC is higher in the North Heath Barn borehole compared toobserved Preston park borehole. As already mentioned earlier, North Heath Barn is monitoring site with thethe three borehole sites. Pyrite oxidation as bypass flow within the thickunsaturated zone may dissolve the marl formation causing an increase in the phosphate and sulphatety throughout the year andgradual release of stored water from unweathered Chalk (to sustain the year round recharge) may carry alongorganic matter from the Chalk formation, hence describing the high TOC concentration in the North Heath BarnOf all the three studied boreholes, Pyecombe East (an effluent dispersal site) show high concentration of allcontaminants except TOC, highest in the North Heath Barn. Artificial recharge in the Preston park boreholeThis paper investigated the impact of contaminants on groundwater flow chemistry and the quality ofter depth (level) decreases to a minimum during wintermonths of December through to January. Rainfall influx is as well predominantly greater in quantity and showsless inconsistency than evapotranspiration rate in the borehole. The uniformity of the hydraulic conductivity isthought to be due to the thickness of the unsaturated zone at North Heath Barn and Pyecoomb East. Except forPreston Park, this has a much thinner unsaturated zone, which may influence the rapid water movement to theical variation of the boreholes studied showed the borehole at Pyecoomb East to be more of an effluent
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013dispersal site due to the distribution of nitrate, Sulphate, chloride and Phosphate that has mixed with thegroundwater in the site. Distribution of Phosderived from farming irrigation carried out in the area, which may have reached the water table through bypassflow dissolving the marl formation. Artificial recharge of groundwater in the area maand Chloride concentrations in the Preston Park borehole.Results from analysis using Raman Spectroscopy did not in this case yield any useful results but ratherambiguous. The use of other techniques may yield results of hydrocaReferencesAldrich, J., (2006). The status of groundwater resources and the groundwater needs of the environment. UKgroundwater Forum meeting “Planning for sustainable groundwater resources: something got to give”. NaturHistory Museum, London, 30 March 2006.Brouyere, S., (2006), Modelling the Migration of Contaminant through Variably Saturated DualDual-permeability Chalk, Journal of Contaminant HydrologyChaplin, M.F. (2008). Water: its importCLIMAWAT (2011). Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis. Available onlineAccessed online 22ndApril, 2011.Edmunds, C., 2008. Improved groundwater vulnerability mapping for the Karstic Chalk aquifer of southEngland. Engineering Geology, 99:95Egbuna, C.K. and Duvbiama, O.A. (2013).Southwestern Nigeria. Journal. Civil Eng. Urban. 3(1): 25Gallagher, A. J., Helen K., Rutter, David K. Buckley and Ian Molyneux. (2012). Lithostratigraphic controls onrecharge to the Chalk aquifer of Southern England,Hydrogeology, 45:161-172.Howden, N.J.K., Wheater, H.S., Peach, D.W., and Butler, A.P. (2004). Hydrogeological controls onsurface/groundwater interactions in a lowland permeable Chalk catchment.Century, Volume II. British Hydrological Society.Kemper, K.E. (2004). GroundwaterLouis, I.A. and Egbuna, C.K. (2012). Assessment of GroundEng. Urban, 2(6):214-219.Lunzhang, S. (1994). Management of groundwater resources in China. Rome: FAO.Nola, M., Njine, T., Djunikom, E. and Sikati, V. (2008). Faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci community inthe underground water in an equatorial area in Cameroun (Central Africenvironmental chemical factors. Water researchPinault, J.L., Amraoui, N., and Golaz, C., (2005), Groundwater induced flooding in macroporehydrological system in the context of climate change,Price, M., Bird, M. J., Foster, S.S.D. (1976). Chalk pore80:596–600.Ravi, C., Palakodeti, Eugene, J., LeBoeuf, James, H. and Clarke (2009). Tool for assessment of processimportance at the groundwater/surface water interface.WHO (2011). Guidelines for drinkingedition.Zaidman, M.D., Middleton, R.T., Westthe Chalk in Yorkshire. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology,Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)60dispersal site due to the distribution of nitrate, Sulphate, chloride and Phosphate that has mixed with thegroundwater in the site. Distribution of Phosphate, Sulphate and TOC in the North Heath Barn borehole isderived from farming irrigation carried out in the area, which may have reached the water table through bypassflow dissolving the marl formation. Artificial recharge of groundwater in the area may be the result of Nitrateand Chloride concentrations in the Preston Park borehole.Results from analysis using Raman Spectroscopy did not in this case yield any useful results but ratherambiguous. The use of other techniques may yield results of hydrocarbon traces from highway runoff.Aldrich, J., (2006). The status of groundwater resources and the groundwater needs of the environment. UKndwater Forum meeting “Planning for sustainable groundwater resources: something got to give”. NaturHistory Museum, London, 30 March 2006.Brouyere, S., (2006), Modelling the Migration of Contaminant through Variably Saturated DualJournal of Contaminant Hydrology, 82:195-219.Chaplin, M.F. (2008). Water: its importance to life. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology EducationCLIMAWAT (2011). Water Quality Monitoring and Analysis. Available online http://www.climawat.info/, 2008. Improved groundwater vulnerability mapping for the Karstic Chalk aquifer of south, 99:95-108.Egbuna, C.K. and Duvbiama, O.A. (2013). Physicochemical Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Akure,. Journal. Civil Eng. Urban. 3(1): 25-28. 2013Gallagher, A. J., Helen K., Rutter, David K. Buckley and Ian Molyneux. (2012). Lithostratigraphic controls onrecharge to the Chalk aquifer of Southern England, Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology andHowden, N.J.K., Wheater, H.S., Peach, D.W., and Butler, A.P. (2004). Hydrogeological controls onsurface/groundwater interactions in a lowland permeable Chalk catchment. Science and Practice for the 21stydrological Society.Kemper, K.E. (2004). Groundwater – from development to management. Hydrogeology journalLouis, I.A. and Egbuna, C.K. (2012). Assessment of Ground-Water Quality in the South-East of England.zhang, S. (1994). Management of groundwater resources in China. Rome: FAO.Nola, M., Njine, T., Djunikom, E. and Sikati, V. (2008). Faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci community inthe underground water in an equatorial area in Cameroun (Central Africa): The importance of someWater research, 36: 3289-3297.Pinault, J.L., Amraoui, N., and Golaz, C., (2005), Groundwater induced flooding in macroporehydrological system in the context of climate change, Water Resources Research, 41:16Price, M., Bird, M. J., Foster, S.S.D. (1976). Chalk pore-size measurements and their significance Water Services,Ravi, C., Palakodeti, Eugene, J., LeBoeuf, James, H. and Clarke (2009). Tool for assessment of processportance at the groundwater/surface water interface. Journal of Environmental managementGuidelines for drinking-water quality: Water Sanitation Health. World Health Organization. FourthZaidman, M.D., Middleton, R.T., West, L.J. (1999). Geophysical Investigation of unsaturated zone transport inQuarterly Journal of Engineering Geology, 32: 185-198www.iiste.orgdispersal site due to the distribution of nitrate, Sulphate, chloride and Phosphate that has mixed with thephate, Sulphate and TOC in the North Heath Barn borehole isderived from farming irrigation carried out in the area, which may have reached the water table through bypassy be the result of NitrateResults from analysis using Raman Spectroscopy did not in this case yield any useful results but ratherrbon traces from highway runoff.Aldrich, J., (2006). The status of groundwater resources and the groundwater needs of the environment. UKndwater Forum meeting “Planning for sustainable groundwater resources: something got to give”. NaturalBrouyere, S., (2006), Modelling the Migration of Contaminant through Variably Saturated Dual-porosity,Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 29:54-59.http://www.climawat.info/., 2008. Improved groundwater vulnerability mapping for the Karstic Chalk aquifer of south-eastPhysicochemical Assessment of Groundwater Quality in Akure,Gallagher, A. J., Helen K., Rutter, David K. Buckley and Ian Molyneux. (2012). Lithostratigraphic controls onQuarterly Journal of Engineering Geology andHowden, N.J.K., Wheater, H.S., Peach, D.W., and Butler, A.P. (2004). Hydrogeological controls onScience and Practice for the 21stHydrogeology journal 12:3-5East of England. J. CivilNola, M., Njine, T., Djunikom, E. and Sikati, V. (2008). Faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci community ina): The importance of somePinault, J.L., Amraoui, N., and Golaz, C., (2005), Groundwater induced flooding in macropore -dominatedsize measurements and their significance Water Services,Ravi, C., Palakodeti, Eugene, J., LeBoeuf, James, H. and Clarke (2009). Tool for assessment of processJournal of Environmental management, 90:87-101.water quality: Water Sanitation Health. World Health Organization. FourthGeophysical Investigation of unsaturated zone transport in
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 1: The World Health OrganisationSubstanceChlorideTotal Dissolved SolidsNitrateNitriteSulfateAmmoniumPhosphateFigure 1: Showing outcrop of the UK chalk aquifer (Edmonds, 2008)Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)61World Health Organisation guideline value standard for various elementsWHO guideline values250 mg/LTotal Dissolved Solids 500 mg/L50 mg/L1 mg/L250 mg/LAmmonium 0.1 mg/L0.015 mg/LFigure 1: Showing outcrop of the UK chalk aquifer (Edmonds, 2008)www.iiste.orgstandard for various elements (WHO, 2011)WHO guideline valuesFigure 1: Showing outcrop of the UK chalk aquifer (Edmonds, 2008)
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 2: Map showing monitoring boreholes within Patcham catchment (CLIMAWAT 2011)Figure 3Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)62: Map showing monitoring boreholes within Patcham catchment (CLIMAWAT 2011)Figure 3: Geologic map of Patcham (CLIMAWAT, 2011)www.iiste.org: Map showing monitoring boreholes within Patcham catchment (CLIMAWAT 2011)
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 4: Conductivity –Figure 5: Conductivity6767.56868.56969.57070.571WaterLevel(mbgl)Water Level (m bgl) and Conductivity (msie/cm) plot0510152025WaterLevel(mbgl)Water level (m bgl) and Coductivity (msie/com) against time (days)Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)63– Water depth plot against date in the North Heath Barn borehole.: Conductivity – Water depth plot against date in the Preston Park borehole.0.3650.370.3750.380.3850.390.3950.4Conductivity(msie/cm)DaysWater Level (m bgl) and Conductivity (msie/cm) plot0.60.620.640.660.680.70.72Conductivity(msie/cm)Time (days)Water level (m bgl) and Coductivity (msie/com) against time (days)plotwww.iiste.orgWater depth plot against date in the North Heath Barn borehole.ter depth plot against date in the Preston Park borehole.Water LevelConductivityWater level (m bgl) and Coductivity (msie/com) against time (days)Water LevelConductivity
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 6: ConductivityFigure 7: Evapotranspiration56.6556.756.7556.856.8556.956.955757.0557.157.15WaterLevel(mbgl)Water Level (m bgl) and Conductivity (msie/cm) against Time01234540708.540719407304074140752407634077440785Evapotranspiration(mm)Evapotranspiration (mm) and Rainfall (mm) against date (days)Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)64Figure 6: Conductivity – Water depth plot against date in Pyecoomb East borehole.: Evapotranspiration – Rainfall influx plot against date0.640.660.680.70.720.740.760.780.8Conductivity(msie/cm)Time (days)Water Level (m bgl) and Conductivity (msie/cm) against Time(days) plot4079640807408184082940840408514086240873408844089540906409174092840939409504096140972Date (days)Evapotranspiration (mm) and Rainfall (mm) against date (days)www.iiste.orgWater depth plot against date in Pyecoomb East borehole.Water Level (m bgl) and Conductivity (msie/cm) against TimeWater levelConductivity051015202530354040972409834099441005Rainfall(mm)Evapotranspiration (mm) and Rainfall (mm) against date (days)
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 8: Element concentrationFigure 9: Element concentration051015202520/01/201100:0020/02/201100:0020/03/201100:0020/04/201100:0020/05/201100:0020/06/201100:00Concentration(mg/l)Concentration (mg/l)05101520253035404550Concentration(mg/l)Concentration (mg/l) against Time (days) plotJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)65: Element concentration – date plot of North Heath Barn BoreholeFigure 9: Element concentration – date plot of Preston Park Borehole.02468101214161820/06/201100:0020/07/201100:0020/08/201100:0020/09/201100:0020/10/201100:0020/11/201100:0020/12/201100:0020/01/201200:0020/02/201200:00Concentration(mg/l)Time (days)Concentration (mg/l) - Time (days) plotAmmoniumChlorineNitrateDissolved OxygenNO2PO4SO4TOC024681012141618Concentration(mg/l)Time (days)Concentration (mg/l) against Time (days) plotChlorineNO2SO4TOCAmmoniumNitrateDissolved OxygenPO4www.iiste.orgof North Heath Barn Boreholedate plot of Preston Park Borehole.AmmoniumChlorineNitrateDissolved OxygenNO2PO4SO4TOCChlorineNO2SO4TOCAmmoniumNitrateDissolved OxygenPO4
  • Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 10: Element concentrationFigure 11: Raman spectra for samples from Patcham catchment.02040608010012020/11/2010…21/11/2010…22/11/2010…23/11/2010…24/11/2010…25/11/2010…Concentration(mg/l) Concentration (mg/l) against Time (Days) plotJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)66: Element concentration – date plot of Pyecoomb East BoreholeFigure 11: Raman spectra for samples from Patcham catchment.024681025/11/2010…26/11/2010…27/11/2010…28/11/2010…29/11/2010…30/11/2010…01/12/2010…02/12/2010…03/12/2010…04/12/2010…Concentration(mg/l)Time (days)Concentration (mg/l) against Time (Days) plotwww.iiste.orgdate plot of Pyecoomb East BoreholeAmmoniumNitrateDissolved OxygenChlorinePO4SO4NO2TOC
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