Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Identification and control ...
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 20132. Materials and Methods2.1...
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013The fungi isolated from dis...
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013on Post- Harvest yam (Diosc...
Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Table 1: Percentage Inciden...
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Identification and control of fungi associated with the post harvest rot of solenostemon rotundifolius (poir)j.k. morton in adamawa state of nigeria.

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Identification and control of fungi associated with the post harvest rot of solenostemon rotundifolius (poir)j.k. morton in adamawa state of nigeria.

  1. 1. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Identification and control of Fungi associated with the postrot of Solenostemon rotundifoliusAisha Mohammed1.Department of Biological Sciences, Federal College of Educ2.Department of Plant Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State;AbstractInvestigation into the fungi associated withHausa Potato was carried out in the teaching and research laboratory of the Department of Biological sciences of theUniversity. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used and the dataof Variance (ANOVA) and the means that were significant were separated using the Least Significant Difference(LSD). Four fungi Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillum expansumconsistently isolated identified in pure cultures from the diseased tubers collected from the two markets in Yola.Mean percentage incidence showed that16.47%, R. stolonifer 14.38% and P.control material against fungal rot development was used. The three plant materials reduced the rot caused by thethree organisms.Key words: Solenostemon rotundifolius, AspergiRhizopus stolonifer.1. IntroductionHausa potato [Solenostemon rotundifoliusdicotyledonous annual herb belonging to the family Labiaceae(Tindall, 1983). It is currently cultivated in many African countries (Ghana and Nigeria) as a supplement in familymenus (Jada et al., 2007). The plant grows on well drained loamy or sandy loam soil andproducing tubers (Blench, 1997) that contain 75% water, 1.4% protein, 0.5% fat, 21% carbohydrate, 0.1% fibre, 1%ash, 17mg calcium, 6 mg iron, 0.05 mg thiamine, 0.02 mg riboflavin, 1 mg niacin, 1 mg ascorbic acid (Grubben andDenton, 2004). They are boiled, baked, fried or roasted and eaten as snack or cooked with spices in variouscombinations with other foods such as beans and cook vegetables (Grubben and Denton, 2004). The most seriouscauses of post-harvest loss in tropicaharvesting and post - harvest handling techniques ( Mustapha and Yahya, 2006) with resultant 10tuber quality (Muktar and Abdullahi, 2004, Kehinde and Kadiri 20present economic loss associated with discoloration on the crops, change in flavour, thereby giving off unpleasantodour (Cockerell et al. 1971) and production mycotoxins harmful to human and livestock (2010). Although the use of synthetic fungicides have been proved effective in controlling some phytopathogens,chemical control leads to environmental hazards associated with high cost and inaccessibility to indigenous farmers(Ebele, 2011). Ijato (2011) reported that plant parts, powders of plant parts, ash, aqueous extracts which areenvironmentally non-hazardous, locally available and can be cheaply maintained are suitable alternatives to theexpensive synthetic fungicides. Mannand Terminalia avicenniodes. This paper is aimed at identification and control of the fungi associated with thepost-harvest rot of Solenostemon rotundifolius.Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)136control of Fungi associated with the postSolenostemon rotundifolius (Poir)J.K. Morton in AdamawaState of Nigeria.Aisha Mohammed1Ishaku Bajon Chimbekujwo2*and Basiri BristoneDepartment of Biological Sciences, Federal College of Education, Adamawa State.Department of Plant Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State;Nigeria.*Chimbe2007@yahoo.comInvestigation into the fungi associated with the post-harvest rot of Solenostemon rotundifoliusHausa Potato was carried out in the teaching and research laboratory of the Department of Biological sciences of theUniversity. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used and the data obtained were analyzed using Analysisof Variance (ANOVA) and the means that were significant were separated using the Least Significant DifferenceAspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillum expansum andonsistently isolated identified in pure cultures from the diseased tubers collected from the two markets in Yola.Mean percentage incidence showed that A. niger was the most prevalent with 19.69% followed byP. expansum 12.81%. The efficacy of Wood ash, saw dust and guinea corn chaff ascontrol material against fungal rot development was used. The three plant materials reduced the rot caused by theSolenostemon rotundifolius, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium expansum andSolenostemon rotundifolius (Poir.)] J. K. Morton, (Hausa name-Tumukudicotyledonous annual herb belonging to the family Labiaceae (Schippers, 2002), originated from tropical Africa(Tindall, 1983). It is currently cultivated in many African countries (Ghana and Nigeria) as a supplement in family, 2007). The plant grows on well drained loamy or sandy loam soil andproducing tubers (Blench, 1997) that contain 75% water, 1.4% protein, 0.5% fat, 21% carbohydrate, 0.1% fibre, 1%ash, 17mg calcium, 6 mg iron, 0.05 mg thiamine, 0.02 mg riboflavin, 1 mg niacin, 1 mg ascorbic acid (Grubben andenton, 2004). They are boiled, baked, fried or roasted and eaten as snack or cooked with spices in variouscombinations with other foods such as beans and cook vegetables (Grubben and Denton, 2004). The most seriousharvest loss in tropical root crops are pests and diseases due to fungi (FAO,1990) and as a result ofharvest handling techniques ( Mustapha and Yahya, 2006) with resultant 10tuber quality (Muktar and Abdullahi, 2004, Kehinde and Kadiri 2006 and Basiri et al., 2011). Infection of the tuberspresent economic loss associated with discoloration on the crops, change in flavour, thereby giving off unpleasant. 1971) and production mycotoxins harmful to human and livestock (2010). Although the use of synthetic fungicides have been proved effective in controlling some phytopathogens,chemical control leads to environmental hazards associated with high cost and inaccessibility to indigenous farmersle, 2011). Ijato (2011) reported that plant parts, powders of plant parts, ash, aqueous extracts which arehazardous, locally available and can be cheaply maintained are suitable alternatives to theexpensive synthetic fungicides. Mann (2012) reported the control of infectious diseases usingavicenniodes. This paper is aimed at identification and control of the fungi associated with theSolenostemon rotundifolius.www.iiste.orgcontrol of Fungi associated with the post-harvest(Poir)J.K. Morton in Adamawa*and Basiri Bristone2ation, Adamawa State.Department of Plant Sciences, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State;Solenostemon rotundifolius (Poir).J.K.Morton,Hausa Potato was carried out in the teaching and research laboratory of the Department of Biological sciences of theobtained were analyzed using Analysisof Variance (ANOVA) and the means that were significant were separated using the Least Significant Differenceand Rhizopus stolonifer wereonsistently isolated identified in pure cultures from the diseased tubers collected from the two markets in Yola.was the most prevalent with 19.69% followed by F. oxysporum12.81%. The efficacy of Wood ash, saw dust and guinea corn chaff ascontrol material against fungal rot development was used. The three plant materials reduced the rot caused by thellus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium expansum andTumuku), a root tuber and a(Schippers, 2002), originated from tropical Africa(Tindall, 1983). It is currently cultivated in many African countries (Ghana and Nigeria) as a supplement in family, 2007). The plant grows on well drained loamy or sandy loam soil and on ridges (Schippers, 2002),producing tubers (Blench, 1997) that contain 75% water, 1.4% protein, 0.5% fat, 21% carbohydrate, 0.1% fibre, 1%ash, 17mg calcium, 6 mg iron, 0.05 mg thiamine, 0.02 mg riboflavin, 1 mg niacin, 1 mg ascorbic acid (Grubben andenton, 2004). They are boiled, baked, fried or roasted and eaten as snack or cooked with spices in variouscombinations with other foods such as beans and cook vegetables (Grubben and Denton, 2004). The most seriousl root crops are pests and diseases due to fungi (FAO,1990) and as a result ofharvest handling techniques ( Mustapha and Yahya, 2006) with resultant 10-30% reduction in2011). Infection of the tuberspresent economic loss associated with discoloration on the crops, change in flavour, thereby giving off unpleasant. 1971) and production mycotoxins harmful to human and livestock (Oguntade and Adekunle,2010). Although the use of synthetic fungicides have been proved effective in controlling some phytopathogens,chemical control leads to environmental hazards associated with high cost and inaccessibility to indigenous farmersle, 2011). Ijato (2011) reported that plant parts, powders of plant parts, ash, aqueous extracts which arehazardous, locally available and can be cheaply maintained are suitable alternatives to the(2012) reported the control of infectious diseases using Anogeissus leiocarpusavicenniodes. This paper is aimed at identification and control of the fungi associated with the
  2. 2. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 20132. Materials and Methods2.1 Collection of SamplesA total of three thousand and two hundred (1200) samples ofwere collected from Yola town and Jimeta markets of Adamawa state. Located between latitude 9longitude 12º20′ to 12º30′E. Samples ofpoints randomly in the markets. Both wounded and nondiseased tubers were incubated in sterilized desiccators for the development of rot. Sixteen medium(25x20x19cm) were purchased from Yola market for the storage of the tubers.2.2 Collection and Preparation of plant materialsGuinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) chaff was purchased from Yola market, sawdust was obtained free from a carpenterat Jimeta and wood ash was obtained from domestic burnt wood ofof each of the plant materials in four replicates were placed in2.3 Isolation and Identification of FungiPortion of the diseased tubers of Solenostemon rotundifoliussterile scissors which was flamed oversurface sterilized with 0.01% mercuric chloride for 30 seconds and rinsed in five changes of sterile distilled waterand blotted dry with sterile Whatman No. 1 filter papers. Cut pieccontaining solidified potato dextrose agar (PDA). Solidified plates were incubated at room temperature (28for 4 days. Fungal colonies that grew from the incubated plates were similarly suband incubated at 28–30oC for 4 days until pure cultures were obtained.2.4 Identification of Isolated FungiMicroscopic examination was carried out after examining the colony characteristics (Frazier, 1978), while themorphological and cultural characteristics were observed under the microscope and compared with the structures inAlexopoulus and Mius (1986) and Snowdon (1990).2.5 Pathogenicity TestsHealthy Solenostemon rotundifoliussterilized with 0.01% HgCl2 for one minute and washed in five changes of sterile distilled water. A 2mm diametercork borer was driven to a depth of about 2mm into the healthy tubers and the bored tissue removed. Then 2mmdiameter disc of the culture was cut and placed in the hole and the removed tissue was put back in place. The woundwas sealed with sterile vesper prepared from wax and Vaseline. The control was set up in the same manner exceptthat sterile agar was used instead of the isolate. For each isolate four tubers ofinoculated and four controls were set up. The inoculated tubers were placed in desiccators and incubated at 30under aseptic conditions as adopted by Chimbekujwo (1994) and Bmade and isolation of any pathogenic organism was done for comparison with the original isolates. All experimentswere conducted in the laboratory using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) as described by Gome(1984). All the experiments were replicated four times. Data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance(ANOVA), while the means that were significant were separated by least significant difference (LSD) at 1%probability level (P<0.01).2.6 Assessing the efficacy of guinea corn chaff, saw dust, and wood ash in the control ofrotundifolius tuber rot.Eighty healthy hausa potato tubers were placed in 25 cm diameter clay pots , labeled as A,B,C and D after beingsurface sterilized with 0.01% HgCl2Tubers in A were covered with guinea corn chaff, B with saw dust, C with wood ash and D served as control(untreated). Five hundred grammes of each ocompletely randomized design with four replications at room temperature. One tuber from each of the experimentalpots was randomly selected and inoculated with one of the fungal isolaterotundifolius was determined after four months of storage at room temperature using the formula as described byTarr (1981).Disease incidence =total number of samples examined x103. ResultsJournal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)137A total of three thousand and two hundred (1200) samples of Solenostemon rotundifoliuswere collected from Yola town and Jimeta markets of Adamawa state. Located between latitude 930′E. Samples of Solenostemon rotundifolius tubers were collected from different sellingpoints randomly in the markets. Both wounded and non-wounded ones were taken to the laboratory for studies. Thes were incubated in sterilized desiccators for the development of rot. Sixteen medium(25x20x19cm) were purchased from Yola market for the storage of the tubers.Collection and Preparation of plant materials) chaff was purchased from Yola market, sawdust was obtained free from a carpenterat Jimeta and wood ash was obtained from domestic burnt wood of Anogeissus leiocarpusof each of the plant materials in four replicates were placed into sterile polythene bags and taken to the laboratory.Isolation and Identification of FungiSolenostemon rotundifolius was cut into small pieces into sterile Petri dishes with asterile scissors which was flamed over and dipped inside methylated spirit (Thomas, 1979). The cut pieces weresurface sterilized with 0.01% mercuric chloride for 30 seconds and rinsed in five changes of sterile distilled waterand blotted dry with sterile Whatman No. 1 filter papers. Cut pieces were plated aseptically in 9 cmcontaining solidified potato dextrose agar (PDA). Solidified plates were incubated at room temperature (28for 4 days. Fungal colonies that grew from the incubated plates were similarly sub-culturedC for 4 days until pure cultures were obtained.Identification of Isolated FungiMicroscopic examination was carried out after examining the colony characteristics (Frazier, 1978), while thecultural characteristics were observed under the microscope and compared with the structures inAlexopoulus and Mius (1986) and Snowdon (1990).Solenostemon rotundifolius tubers were inoculated with pure cultures of the isofor one minute and washed in five changes of sterile distilled water. A 2mm diametercork borer was driven to a depth of about 2mm into the healthy tubers and the bored tissue removed. Then 2mmdisc of the culture was cut and placed in the hole and the removed tissue was put back in place. The woundwas sealed with sterile vesper prepared from wax and Vaseline. The control was set up in the same manner exceptof the isolate. For each isolate four tubers of Solenostemon rotundifoliusinoculated and four controls were set up. The inoculated tubers were placed in desiccators and incubated at 30under aseptic conditions as adopted by Chimbekujwo (1994) and Basiri et al. (2011). Regular observations weremade and isolation of any pathogenic organism was done for comparison with the original isolates. All experimentswere conducted in the laboratory using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) as described by Gome(1984). All the experiments were replicated four times. Data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance(ANOVA), while the means that were significant were separated by least significant difference (LSD) at 1%Assessing the efficacy of guinea corn chaff, saw dust, and wood ash in the control ofEighty healthy hausa potato tubers were placed in 25 cm diameter clay pots , labeled as A,B,C and D after being2 for one minute, washed in five changes of sterile distilled water and left to dry.were covered with guinea corn chaff, B with saw dust, C with wood ash and D served as control(untreated). Five hundred grammes of each of the treatment material were used and all the pots were arranged in acompletely randomized design with four replications at room temperature. One tuber from each of the experimentalpots was randomly selected and inoculated with one of the fungal isolates. Disease incidence (%) ofwas determined after four months of storage at room temperature using the formula as described bynumber of diseased samplestotal number of samples examined x100www.iiste.orgSolenostemon rotundifolius (both healthy and diseased)were collected from Yola town and Jimeta markets of Adamawa state. Located between latitude 9º11′ to 9º19′N andtubers were collected from different sellingwounded ones were taken to the laboratory for studies. Thes were incubated in sterilized desiccators for the development of rot. Sixteen medium-sized clay pots) chaff was purchased from Yola market, sawdust was obtained free from a carpenterAnogeissus leiocarpus. Five hundred grammesto sterile polythene bags and taken to the laboratory.was cut into small pieces into sterile Petri dishes with aand dipped inside methylated spirit (Thomas, 1979). The cut pieces weresurface sterilized with 0.01% mercuric chloride for 30 seconds and rinsed in five changes of sterile distilled wateres were plated aseptically in 9 cm2Petri dishescontaining solidified potato dextrose agar (PDA). Solidified plates were incubated at room temperature (28–30oC)cultured on fresh PDA platesMicroscopic examination was carried out after examining the colony characteristics (Frazier, 1978), while thecultural characteristics were observed under the microscope and compared with the structures intubers were inoculated with pure cultures of the isolates after being surfacefor one minute and washed in five changes of sterile distilled water. A 2mm diametercork borer was driven to a depth of about 2mm into the healthy tubers and the bored tissue removed. Then 2mmdisc of the culture was cut and placed in the hole and the removed tissue was put back in place. The woundwas sealed with sterile vesper prepared from wax and Vaseline. The control was set up in the same manner exceptSolenostemon rotundifolius wereinoculated and four controls were set up. The inoculated tubers were placed in desiccators and incubated at 30oC(2011). Regular observations weremade and isolation of any pathogenic organism was done for comparison with the original isolates. All experimentswere conducted in the laboratory using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) as described by Gomez and Gomez(1984). All the experiments were replicated four times. Data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance(ANOVA), while the means that were significant were separated by least significant difference (LSD) at 1%Assessing the efficacy of guinea corn chaff, saw dust, and wood ash in the control of SolenostemonEighty healthy hausa potato tubers were placed in 25 cm diameter clay pots , labeled as A,B,C and D after beingfor one minute, washed in five changes of sterile distilled water and left to dry.were covered with guinea corn chaff, B with saw dust, C with wood ash and D served as controlf the treatment material were used and all the pots were arranged in acompletely randomized design with four replications at room temperature. One tuber from each of the experimentals. Disease incidence (%) of Solenostemonwas determined after four months of storage at room temperature using the formula as described by
  3. 3. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013The fungi isolated from diseased tubers ofoxysporum, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer.19.69% of rots observed, followed byexpansum 12.81% (Table 1). Pathogenicity tests of the isolates revealed thatand R. stolonifer caused rot as inoculated haustubers. A. niger had the highest mean rot diameter of 22.35mm while2). The preservatives (guinea corn chaff, saw dust, and wood ash) significantinoculated Solenostemon rotundifolius7.81% was recorded in the control, while the lowest incidence of 1.56% was recorded in tubers treated with woash, which also has remarkable reduced effects of the incidence ofHowever, Aspergillus niger appeared to be less sensitive to the preservatives compared to the other fungal pathogens.4. DiscussionThe results of the study showed that four fungi viz;and Rhizopus stolonifer, were isolated from infectedA. niger was responsible for about 19.69% of rots observed, the least wasAbdullahi (2004) and Umar et al. (2010) who studied the prevalence ofrespectively reported the same result. The identified isolates ha(Mustapha and Yahya, 2006, Naureenmany root and tuber crops in Nigeria (Odurothe tubers inoculated with the fungal isolates and treated with the different preservatives may be due to inhibitoryeffects on the fungi which might have caused reduction in the mycelial growth of the isolates.5. ConclusionThe findings of this study have shown thatRhizopus stolonifer were responsible for the rot ofwhich have fungicidal properties are good mediualternative methods of reducing human exposure to toxins produced by pathogens such as mycotoxins, aflatoxinsthus minimizing post-harvest losses.6. ReferencesAlexopoulus, C.I. and Mius C.W. (1986Sans, Pp204-340.Basiri, B., Chimbekujwo, I. B. and Pukuma, M. S. (2011). Control of Post Harvest Fungal Rot of[Ipomoea batatas (Linn.) Lam.] In Yola, Adamawa StateJournal for the Tropics. 8 (1): 129-132.Blench, R.M. (1997). A Neglected Species, Livelihoods and BiodiversitySector Respond. National Resources Bricking PaperChimbekujwo, I. B. (1994). Two Post Harvest Fungal Infections ofof Technology and Development 4:21Cockerell, I.B., Francis, B. and Haliday, D. (1971). Chanduring Storage. Proc. Centre Govt. Dev. Feed ResourcesEbele, M.L. (2011). Evaluation of Some Aqueous Plant Extracts Used in the Control of Pawpawpapaya L.) Rot Fungi. Journal of Applied BiosciencesFood and Agricultural Organisation (1990).Frazier, W. C. (1978). Food Microbiology,Frazier, W. C. (1978). Food MicrobiologyGomez, K. A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984).and Sons. Pp 680.Grubben, G. J. H. and Denton, O. A. (2004).Wageningen, Netherlands Back Huys. Publishers, leiden,Ijato, J.Y. (2011). Inhibitory Effects of Indigenous Plant Extracts (Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)138The fungi isolated from diseased tubers of Solenostemon rotundifolius were identified as Aspergillus niger, Fusariumoxysporum, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Aspergillus niger was found to be responsible for abouts observed, followed by Fusarium oxysporum, 16.47%, Rhizopus stolonifer12.81% (Table 1). Pathogenicity tests of the isolates revealed that A. niger, F. oxysporum, P. expansumcaused rot as inoculated hausa potato tubers developed rot symptoms similar to natural diseasedhad the highest mean rot diameter of 22.35mm while P. expansum had the lowest 15.25mm (Table2). The preservatives (guinea corn chaff, saw dust, and wood ash) significantly (P<0.01) controlled rot of theSolenostemon rotundifolius tubers compared to the control (Table 3). The highest disease incidence of7.81% was recorded in the control, while the lowest incidence of 1.56% was recorded in tubers treated with woash, which also has remarkable reduced effects of the incidence of Penicillium expansum,appeared to be less sensitive to the preservatives compared to the other fungal pathogens.sults of the study showed that four fungi viz; Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium expansumwere isolated from infected Solenostemon rotundifolius tubers in the study area. Out of these,about 19.69% of rots observed, the least was P. expansum. (2010) who studied the prevalence of A. niger from Irish potatoes and maize seedsrespectively reported the same result. The identified isolates have been found as common post(Mustapha and Yahya, 2006, Naureen et al., 2009 and Ebele, 2011) and earlier reported to be responsible for rot ofmany root and tuber crops in Nigeria (Oduro et al., 1990). The significant reduction in disease inthe tubers inoculated with the fungal isolates and treated with the different preservatives may be due to inhibitoryeffects on the fungi which might have caused reduction in the mycelial growth of the isolates.ings of this study have shown that Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium expansumwere responsible for the rot of Solenostemon rotundifolius tubers. Saw dust and wood ashwhich have fungicidal properties are good mediums for storing Solenostemon rotundifoliusalternative methods of reducing human exposure to toxins produced by pathogens such as mycotoxins, aflatoxinsharvest losses.(1986). An Introductory Mycology (Revised edition) NewBasiri, B., Chimbekujwo, I. B. and Pukuma, M. S. (2011). Control of Post Harvest Fungal Rot ofIn Yola, Adamawa State of Nigeria. Biological and Environmental Sciences132.Blench, R.M. (1997). A Neglected Species, Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Difficult Areas:National Resources Bricking Paper 25. London Over Seas Development Institute. Pp2.Chimbekujwo, I. B. (1994). Two Post Harvest Fungal Infections of Carica papaya L. Fruits in4:21-29.Cockerell, I.B., Francis, B. and Haliday, D. (1971). Change in Nutritive value of concentratedProc. Centre Govt. Dev. Feed Resources pp181 – 192.Ebele, M.L. (2011). Evaluation of Some Aqueous Plant Extracts Used in the Control of Pawpawal of Applied Biosciences. 37:2419-2424.Food and Agricultural Organisation (1990). Storage and Processing of Roots and Tubers in theFood Microbiology, USA, Tata Mcgraw Hill Co. Inc. pp.20-40.Food Microbiology, USA, Tata Mcgraw Hill Co. inc. pp.20-40Gomez, K. A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984). Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research 2Grubben, G. J. H. and Denton, O. A. (2004). Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2, Vegetables,Wageningen, Netherlands Back Huys. Publishers, leiden, Netherlands/CTA. Wageningen Netherlands. Pp.668.Ijato, J.Y. (2011). Inhibitory Effects of Indigenous Plant Extracts (Zingiber officinale andwww.iiste.orgAspergillus niger, Fusariumwas found to be responsible for aboutRhizopus stolonifer 14.38% and PenicilliumA. niger, F. oxysporum, P. expansuma potato tubers developed rot symptoms similar to natural diseasedhad the lowest 15.25mm (Tablely (P<0.01) controlled rot of thetubers compared to the control (Table 3). The highest disease incidence of7.81% was recorded in the control, while the lowest incidence of 1.56% was recorded in tubers treated with woodPenicillium expansum, and Rhizopus stolonifer.appeared to be less sensitive to the preservatives compared to the other fungal pathogens.Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium expansumtubers in the study area. Out of these,P. expansum 12.81%. Muktar andfrom Irish potatoes and maize seedsve been found as common post-harvest fungi, 2009 and Ebele, 2011) and earlier reported to be responsible for rot of., 1990). The significant reduction in disease incidence observed inthe tubers inoculated with the fungal isolates and treated with the different preservatives may be due to inhibitoryeffects on the fungi which might have caused reduction in the mycelial growth of the isolates.Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium expansum andtubers. Saw dust and wood ashSolenostemon rotundifolius tubers and serve asalternative methods of reducing human exposure to toxins produced by pathogens such as mycotoxins, aflatoxins(Revised edition) New York, John Wiley andBasiri, B., Chimbekujwo, I. B. and Pukuma, M. S. (2011). Control of Post Harvest Fungal Rot of Sweet PotatoBiological and Environmental Sciencesin Difficult Areas: How should the PublicOver Seas Development Institute. Pp2.L. Fruits in Ibadan. Journalge in Nutritive value of concentrated Feeding stuffEbele, M.L. (2011). Evaluation of Some Aqueous Plant Extracts Used in the Control of Pawpaw Fruit (CaricaStorage and Processing of Roots and Tubers in the Tropics. Francais2ndEdition John WileyVegetables, Prota Foundation,Netherlands/CTA. Wageningen Netherlands. Pp.668.Zingiber officinale and Ocimum gratissimum)
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  5. 5. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Table 1: Percentage Incidence of Solenostemon rotundifoliusOrganisms isolated Percentage Incidence of IsolationYola Town MarketAspergillus nigerFusarium oxysporumPenicillium expansumRhizopus stoloniferNon- infected350 (10.94%)275 (8.59%)210 (6.56%)240 (7.50%)573(17.91%)Totals 1648 (51.50 %) 1552 (48.51 %) 100.00%Table: 2 Pathogenicity Test Showing rot Development ofIsolated fungiAspergillus nigerFusarium oxysporumPenicillium expansumRhizopus stoloniferControlTable 3: Mean rot percentage on InoculatedTreatment AspergillusnigerSaw dust 4.14Guinea corn chaff 5.62Wood ash 3.17Control 7.81Mean 5.18Pro. F 0.01SE 1.53LSD 0.87Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)140Solenostemon rotundifolius Tuber Rot from two Markets in YolaPercentage Incidence of IsolationYola Town Market Jimeta Market350 (10.94%) 280 (8.75%) 19.69%275 (8.59%) 252 (7.88%) 16.47%210 (6.56%) 200 (6.25%) 12.81%240 (7.50%) 220 (6.88%)573(17.91%) 600 (18.75%) 36.66 %1648 (51.50 %) 1552 (48.51 %) 100.00%Pathogenicity Test Showing rot Development of Solenostemon rotundifolius Tubers IncubaMean diameter of rot (mm)22.3521.5015.2518.020.00Mean rot percentage on Inoculated Solenostemon rotundifolius tubers for four months storage period.Aspergillus FusariumoxysporumPenicilliumexpansumRhizopusstolonifer3.43 2.19 3.514.76 3.43 4.062.26 1.56 1.875.93 4.06 5.934.10 2.81 3.840.01 0.01 0.011.28 0.80 1.260.80 0.63 0.79www.iiste.orgm two Markets in YolaTotal Isolation8.75%) 19.69%252 (7.88%) 16.47%200 (6.25%) 12.81%220 (6.88%) 14.38%600 (18.75%) 36.66 %1648 (51.50 %) 1552 (48.51 %) 100.00%Tubers Incubated at 300Cfour months storage period.Rhizopusstolonifer3.514.061.875.933.840.011.260.79
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