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Fixed point and common fixed point theorems in complete metric spaces

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  • 1. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications193Fixed Point and Common Fixed Point Theorems in CompleteMetric SpacesPushpraj Singh Choudhary*, Renu Praveen Pathak** and M.K. Sahu***,Ramakant Bhardwaj*****Dept. of Mathematics & Computer Science Govt. Model Science College (Auto.) Jabalpur.**Department of Mathematics, Late G.N. Sapkal College of Engineering,Anjaneri Hills, Nasik (M.H.), India***Department of Mathematics,Govt PG College Gadarwara.****Truba Institute of Engineering and Information Technology,Bhopal.pr_singh_choudhary@yahoo.co.in, pathak_renu@yahoo.co.inAbstractIn this paper we established a fixed point and a unique common fixed point theorems in four pair of weaklycompatible self-mappings in complete metric spaces satisfy weakly compatibility of contractive modulus.Keywords : Fixed point, Common Fixed point, Complete metric space, Contractive modulus, Weaklycompatible maps.Mathematical Subject Classification : 2000 MSC No. 47H10, 54H25IntroductionThe concept of the commutativity has generalised in several ways .In 1998, Jungck Rhoades [3] introduced thenotion of weakly compatible and showed that compatible maps are weakly compatible but conversely. BrianFisher [1] proved an important common fixed point theorem. Seesa S [9] has introduced the concept of weaklycommuting and Gerald Jungck [2] initiated the concept of compatibility. It can be easily verified that when thetwo mappings are commuting then they are compatible but not conversely. Thus the study of common fixedpoint of mappings satisfying contractive type condition have been a very active field of research activity duringthe last three decades.In 1922 the polished mathematician, Banach, proved a theorem ensures, under appropriate conditions, theexistence and uniqueness of a fixed point. His result is called Banach fixed point theorem or the Banachcontraction principle. This theorem provides a technique for solving a variety of a applied problems in amathematical science and engineering. Many authors have extended, generalized and improved Banach fixedpoint theorem in a different ways. Jungck [2] introduced more generalised commuting mappings, calledcompatible mappings, which are more general than commuting and weakly commuting mappings.The main purpose of this paper is to present fixed point results for two pair of four self maps satisfying a newcontractive modulus condition by using the concept of weakly compatible maps in complete metric spaces.PreliminariesThe definition of complete metric spaces and other results that will be needed are:Definition 1: Let f and g two self-maps on a set X. Maps f and g are said to be commuting if= .Definition 2: Let f and g two self-maps on a set X. If = , ℎ called coincidencepoint of f and g.Definition 3: Let f and g two self-maps defined on a set X, then f and g are said to be compatible if theycommute at coincidence points. That is, if = , ℎ = .Definition 4: Let f and g be two weakly compatible self-maps defined on a set X, If f and g have a unique pointof coincidence, that is, = = , ℎ .Definition 5: A sequence in a metric space , ! ,denoted by lim →& = , lim →& , = 0.Definition 6: A sequence in a metric space , ( ℎ)lim*→&, + = 0 , > .Definition 7: A metric space , ( every Cauchy sequence in X is convergent.Definition 8: A function -: /0, ∞ → /0, ∞ !-: /0, ∞ → /0, ∞ - < > 0 .Definition 9: A real valued function φ defined on RX ⊆ is said to be upper semi continuouslim→&- ≤ - , ! ) ℎ → → ∞ .Hence it is clear that every continuous function is upper semi continuous but converse may not true.
  • 2. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications194MAIN RESULTIn this section we established a common fixed point theorem for two pairs of weakly compatible mappings incomplete metric spaces using a contractive modulus.Theorem 1: Let (X,d) be a complete metric space. Suppose that the mapping E, F, G and H are four self mapsof X satisfying the following condition:(i) 3 ⊆ 5 6 ⊆ 7(ii) 869, 3:; ≤ - < , )Where - is a upper semi continuous, contractive modulous and< , ) = max?@A@B 859, 7:;, 59, 69 , 87:, 3:;,CDE 859, 3:; + 87:, 69;G ,CHIJ8KL,MN;OJ KL,PL OJ8MN,PL;COJ8KL,MN;J KL,PL J8MN,PL;Q ,RDIJ8MN,SN;OJ8MN,PL;OJ8MN,KL;COJ8MN,SN;J8MN,PL;J8MN,KL;QT@U@V(iii) The pair (G, E) and (H, F) are weakly compatible then E, F, G& H have a unique common fixed point.Proof : Suppose ( ) ℎ ) ℎ ℎ) = 6 = 7 OC) OC = 3 OC = 5 ODBy (ii) we have) , ) OC = 6 , 3 OC( )( )1,n nx x +≤ φ λWhere < , OC =?@A@B5 , 7 OC , 5 , 6 , 7 OC, 3 OC ,CD/ 5 , 3 OC + 7 OC, 6 W ,CHXJ K9Y,M9YZ[ OJ K9Y,P9Y OJ M9YZ[,P9YCOJ K9Y,M9YZ[ J K9Y,P9Y J M9YZ[,P9Y ,RDXJ M9YZ[,S9YZ[ OJ M9YZ[,P9Y OJ M9YZ[,K9YCOJ M9YZ[,S9YZ[ J M9YZ[,P9Y J M9YZ[,K9Y T@U@V=?@@A@@B3 ]C, 6 , 3 ]C, 6 , 6 , 3 OC ,12/ 3 ]C, 3 OC + 6 , 6 W ,14a3 ]C, 6 + 3 ]C, 6 + 6 , 61 + 3 ]C, 6 3 ]C, 6 6 , 6b ,32a6 , 3 OC + 6 , 6 + 6 , 3 ]C1 + 6 , 3 OC 6 , 6 6 , 3 ]CbT@@U@@V≤ max d 3 ]C, 6 , 6 , 3 OC ,12/ 3 ]C, 3 OC W14e3 ]C, 61f32e3 ]C, 3 OC1fg≤ max I ) ]C, ) , ) , ) OC ,12/ ) ]C, ) OC W,14) ]C, ) ,32/ ) ]C, ) OC WQ≤ max ) ]C, ) , ) , ) OCSince - is a contractive modulus; < , OC = ) , ) OC , hℎ) , ) OC ≤ - ) ]C, ) 1Since - is an upper semi continuous contractive modulus, Equation (1) implies that the sequence ) , ) OCis monotonic decreasing and continuous.Hence there exists a real number, say ≥ 0 ℎ ℎ lim →& ) , ) OC =∴ → ∞ , 5 1 ℎ≤ -Which is possible only If r = 0 because - is a contractive modulus, Thuslim→&) , ) OC = 0Now we show that ) is a Cauchy sequence.Let If possible we assume that ) is not a cauchy sequence , Then there exist an ∈ > 0 and subsequencel l ℎ ℎ l < l < lOC
  • 3. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications195( ) ( )1, and , im n m nd y y d y y −≥ ∈ <∈ (2)So that ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )1 1 1, , , ,i i i i i i im n m n n n n nd y y d y y d y y d y y− − −∈≤ ≤ + <∈ +Therefore ( ) ( ) ( )( )lim , , ,i i i i i im n m n m nnd y y d Gx Hx x x→∞= ≤ φ λi.e. ( )( ),i im nx x∈≤ φ λ (3)Where,( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ), , , , , ,1, ,2, , ,1, max4 1 , , ,, , ,32 1 , ,i i i i i ii i i ii i i i i ii ii i i i i ii i i i i ii i im n m m n nm n n mm n m m n mm nm n m m n mn n n m n mn n nd Ex Fx d Ex Gx d Fx Hxd Ex Hx d Fx Gxd Ex Fx d Ex Gx d Fx Gxx xd Ex Fx d Ex Gx d Fx Gxd Fx Hx d Fx Gx d Fx Exd Fx Hx d Fx G +  + +λ =  + +  + ++ ( ) ( ),i i im n mx d Fx Ex                   ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )1 1 1 11 11 1 1 11 1 1 11 1, , , , , ,1, , ,2, , ,1max4 1 , , ,, ,32i i i i i ii i i ii i i i i ii i i i i ii i i i im n m m n nm n n mm n m m n mm n m m n mn n n m nd Hx Gx d Hx Gx d Gx Hxd Hx Hx d Gx Gxd Hx Gx d Hx Gx d Gx Gxd Hx Gx d Hx Gx d Gx Gxd Gx Hx d Gx Gx d Gx− − − −− −− − − −− − − −− − +  + +=  +  + + ( )( ) ( ) ( )1 11 1 1 1,1 , , ,ii i i i i imn n n m n mHxd Gx Hx d Gx Gx d Gx Hx− −− − − −               +    ( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( )1 1 1 11 11 1 1 11 1 1 11 1 1 11 1, , , , , ,1, , ,2, , ,1max4 1 , , ,, , ,32 1 , ,i i i i i ii i i ii i i i i ii i i i i ii i i i i ii i im n m m n nm n n mm n m m n mm n m m n mn n n m n mn n nd y y d y y d y yd y y d y yd y y d y y d G yd y y d y y d y yd y y d y y d y yd y y d y− − − −− −− − − −− − − −− − − −− − +  + +=  +  + ++ ( ) ( )1 1,i i im n my d y y− −                   By taking limit as → ∞ ,liml→&< +l, l = I∈ ,0,0,12∈ +∈ ,14m∈ +0 + 01 + 0n ,32m0 + 0+∈1 + 0nQ( ) ( )1, and , im n m nd y y d y y −≥ ∈ <∈
  • 4. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications196Thus we have ,lim*→& < +, =∈Therefore from (3) ∈ ≤ - 5This is a contraction because 0 <∈ - ! .Thus ) ℎ) ,, ℎ o ℎ ℎ lim →& ) = o.Thus lim→&6 = lim→&7 OC = o lim→&3 OC = lim→&5 OD = oi. e. lim→&6 = lim→&7 OC = lim→&3 OC = lim→&5 OD = osince 6 ⊆ 7 , ℎ ∈ ℎ ℎ o = 5Then by (ii), we have6 , o ≤ 6 , 3 OC + 3 OC, o≤ -8< , OC ; + 3 OC, oWhere, < , OC =?@A@B5 , 7 OC , 5 , 6 , 7 OC, 3 OC ,CD/ 5 , 3 OC + 7 OC, 6 W,CHXJ Kp,M9YZ[ OJ Kp,Pp OJ M9YZ[,PpCOJ Kp,M9YZ[ J Kp,Pp J M9YZ[,Pp ,RDXJ M9YZ[,S9YZ[ OJ M9YZ[,Pp OJ M9YZ[,KpCOJ M9YZ[,S9YZ[ J M9YZ[,Pp J M9YZ[,Kp T@U@V=?@@A@@Bo, 6 , o, 6 , 6 , 3 OC ,12/ o, 3 OC + 6 , 6 W,14ao, 6 + o, 6 + 6 , 61 + o, 6 o, 6 6 , 6b ,32a6 , 3 OC + 6 , 6 + 6 , o1 + 6 , 3 OC 6 , 6 6 , obT@@U@@VTaking the limit as → ∞ )< , OC =?@@A@@B o, o , o, 6 , o, o ,12/ o, o + o, 6 W,,14ao, o + o, 6 + o, 61 + o, o o, 6 o, 6b ,32ao, o + o, 6 + o, o1 + o, o o, 6 o, obT@@U@@V= 6 , oThus as → ∞, 6 , o ≤ -8 6 , o ; + o, o = -8 6 , o ;q 6 ≠ o ℎ 6 , o > 0 ℎ - ! -8 6 , o ; < 6 , o .hℎ 6 , o < 6 , o ℎ ℎ .hℎ 6 = o , 5 = 6 = o.s 5 6 .s ℎ 6 5 t ) ,65 = 56 , . 6o = 5o .u 6 ⊆ 7 , ℎ ! ∈ ℎ ℎ o = 7!.hℎ ) , ℎ !o, 3! = 6!, 3!≤ - 8< , ! ;ℎ , < , ! =?@@A@@B 5 , 7! , 5 , 6 , 7!, 3! ,12/ 5 , 3! + 7!, 6 W,14a5 , 7! + 5 , 6 + 7!, 61 + 5 , 7! 5 , 6 7!, 6b ,32a7!, 3! + 7!, 6 + 7!, 51 + 7!, 3! 7!, 6 7!, 5bT@@U@@V
  • 5. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications197=?@A@B o, o , o, o , o, 3! ,CD/ o, 3! + o, o W,CHXJ v,v OJ v,v OJ v,vCOJ v,v J v,v J v,v ,RDXJ v,Sw OJ v,v OJ v,vCOJ v,Sw J v,v J v,v T@U@V= o, 3!hℎ o, 3! ≤ - o, 3!q 3! ≠ o ℎ o, 3! > 0 ℎ - ! ,- o, 3! < o, 3! , ℎ ℎ .Therefore 3! = 7! = o.So ! 7 3.Since the pair of maps F and H are weakly compatible,73! = 37! , . 7o = 3o.Now we show that z is a fixed point of G.hℎ ) , ℎ ! 6o, o = 6o, 3!≤ - 8< o, ! ;Where,< o, ! =?@@A@@B 5o, 7! , 5o, 6o , 7!, 3! ,12/ 5o, 3! + 7!, 6o W,14a5o, 7! + 5o, 6o + 7!, 6o1 + 5o, 7! 5o, 6o 7!, 6ob ,32a7!, 3! + 7!, 6o + 7!, 5o1 + 7!, 3! 7!, 6o 7!, 5obT@@U@@V=?@A@B 6o, o , 6o, 6o , o, o ,CD/ 6o, o + o, 6o W,CHXJ Pv,v OJ Pv,Pv OJ v,PvCOJ Pv,v J Pv,Pv J v,Pv ,RDXJ v,v OJ v,Pv OJ v,PvCOJ v,v J v,Pv J v,Pv T@U@V= 6o, ohℎ 6o, o ≤ - 8 6o, o ;q 6o ≠ o ℎ 6o, o > 0 ℎ - !- 8 6o, o ; < 6o, o .Therefore 6o = oHence 6o = 5o = oBy (ii), we have,o, 3o = 5o, 3o( )( ),z z≤ φ λWhere,< o, o =?@@A@@B 5o, 7o , 5o, 6o , 7o, 3o ,12/ 5o, 3o + 7o, 6o W,14a5o, 7o + 5o, 6o + 7o, 6o1 + 5o, 7o 5o, 6o 7o, 6ob ,32a7o, 3o + 7o, 6o + 7o, 5o1 + 7o, 3o 7o, 6o 7o, 5obT@@U@@V=?@A@B o, 3o , o, o , 3o, 3o ,CD/ o, 3o + 3o, o W,CHXJ v,Sv OJ v,v OJ Sv,vCOJ v,Sv J v,v J Sv,v ,RDXJ Sv,Sv OJ Sv,v OJ Sv,vCOJ Sv,Sv J Sv,v J Sv,v T@U@V= o, 3ohℎ o, 3o ≤ - 8 o, 3o ;If o ≠ 3o ℎ o, 3o > 0 ℎ - ! ,- 8 o, 3o ; < o, 3oTherefore o, 3o < o, 3o , ℎ ℎ .Henceo = 3o
  • 6. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications198Therefore 3o = 7o = o.Therefore 6o = 5o = 3o = 7o = o , . o 5, 7, 6 3.Uniqueness : For uniqueness, Let we assume that o , o ≠5, 7, 6 3.By (ii), we have,o, = 6o, 3( )( ),z w≤ φ λWhere,o, =?@A@B 5o, 7 , 5o, 6o , 7 , 3 ,CD/ 5o, 3 + 7 , 6o W,CHXJ Kv,Mx OJ Kv,Pv OJ Mx,PvCOJ Kv,Mx J Kv,Pv J Mx,Pv ,RDXJ Mx,Sx OJ Mx,Pv OJ Mx,KvCOJ Mx,Sx J Mx,Pv J Mx,Kv T@U@V=?@A@B o, , o, o , , ,CD/ o, + , o W,CHXJ v,x OJ v,v OJ x,vCOJ v,x J v,v J x,v ,RDXJ x,x OJ x,v OJ x,vCOJ x,x J x,v J x,v T@U@V= o,Thus o, ≤ - 8 o, ;Since o ≠ ℎ o, > 0 ℎ - ! ,- 8 o, ; < o,o, < o, ℎ ℎ .Therefore o =Thus z is the unique common fixed point of E, F, G & H .Hence the theorem.Corollary 1 : Let , ℎ ℎ 5, 6 3, s ) ℎ3 ⊆ 5 6 ⊆ 56 , 3) ≤ -8< , ) ;Where - , !< , ) =?@A@B 859, 5:;, 59, 69 , 85:, 3:;,CDE 859, 3:; + 85:, 69;G ,CHIJ8KL,KN;OJ KL,PL OJ8KN,PL;COJ8KL,KN;J KL,PL J8KN,PL;Q ,RDIJ8KN,SN;OJ8KN,PL;OJ8KN,KL;COJ8KN,SN;J8KN,PL;J8KN,KL;QT@U@Vhℎ 6, 5 3, 5 t )Then E, G and H have a unique common fixed point.Proof : By taking E = F in main theorem we get the proof.Corollary 2 : Let (X,d) be a complete metric space, suppose that the mappings E and G are self maps of X,satisfying the following conditions :6 ⊆ 56 , 6) ≤ -8< , ) ;Where - , !< , ) =?@@A@@B 859, 5:;, 59, 69 , 85:, 6:;,12E 859, 6:; + 85:, 69;G ,14e859, 5:; + 59, 69 + 85:, 69;1 + 859, 5:; 59, 69 85:, 69;f ,32e85:, 6:; + 85:, 69; + 85:, 59;1 + 85:, 6:; 85:, 69; 85:, 59;fT@@U@@Vhℎ 6, 5 t )Then E and G have a unique common fixed point.Proof : By taking E = F and G = H in theorem 3.1 we get the proof.
  • 7. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications199References[1] B.Fisher, common fixed point of four mappings. Bull. Inst. of Math. Academia. Sinicia, 11 (1983),103-113.[2] G. Jungck, Compatible mappings and common fixed points, Internet, I. Math. and Math. Sci., 9 (1986),771-779.[3] G.Jungck, and B.E. Rhoades, Fixed point for set valued functions without continuity, Indian J. PureAppl. Math, 29(3) (1998), 227-238.[4] J.Matkowski, Fixed point theorems for mappings with a contractive iterates at appoint, Proc. Amer.Math. Soc., 62(2) (1977), 344-348.[5] Jay G. Mehta and M.L. Joshi, On common fixed point theorems in complete metric space Gen. Math.Vol.2, No.1, (2011), pp.55-63 ISSN 2219-7184.[6] M. Aamri and D. EiMoutawakil, Some new common fixed point theorems under strict contractiveconditions, J. Math. Anal. Appl., 270 (2002), 181-188.[7] M. Imdad, Santosh Kumar and M. S. Khan, Remarks on fixed point theorems satisfying Implicitrelations, Radovi Math., 11 (2002), 135-143.[8] S. Rezapour and R. Hamlbarani, Some notes on the paper : Cone Metric spaces and Fixed pointtheorems of contractive mappings, Journals of Mathematical Analysis and Applications, 345(2) (2008),719-724.[9] S. Sessa, On a weak Commutativity condition of mappings in a fixed point considerations, Publ. Inst.Math. Appl., Debre. 32 (1982), 149-153.
  • 8. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgCALL FOR PAPERSThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline forsubmission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submissioninstruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar

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