Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Exploring Social Studies Teache...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Social Studies should be taught...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Mohammed (1994) emphatically re...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013The sample size was one hundred...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Table 2 Sample of respondents s...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013When this question was asked-So...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Table 4 Chi-square test of Soci...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013even approaches to teaching the...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013with a multidisciplinary approa...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Chandler, D. (2005). Selectivit...
Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013University of Education. (2009)...
This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE...
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Exploring social studies teachers’ conceptions on nature and content of social studies in senior high schools

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Exploring social studies teachers’ conceptions on nature and content of social studies in senior high schools

  1. 1. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Exploring Social Studies Teachers’ Conceptions on Nature andContent of Social Studies in Senior High Schools (SHS) in(HOD) Social Studies Department, University of EducationE-mail: Sam_Oforibek@yahoo.com. Tel: +233 246 958 774Environmental/Social Studies Tutor, Enchi College of EducationE-mail: isaac_eshun@ymail.com Tel: +233 266 634 610AbstractSocial Studies, as a subject in the SHS curricula in Ghana, is taught mostly by graduate teachers from the country’stwo teacher preparation universitiesUEW) and graduates from other universities. Analysis of their programmes reveals differences in how the subject isstructured to prepare teachers to teach it at the SHS level.A sequential mixed method design wasSquare was used in finding significant differences. Thecritical alpha value of .05 was adopted.The study revealed that most UCC graduates conceptualize the subject as amalgamation, whilst most UEW graduatesconceptualize it as problem solving. It was recommended that since curriculum dictates what is taught in schools, thetwo universities should build a common knowledge baoriented, skill development and problemKey-words: Social Studies teachers’ conception. Nature and content of Social Studies.1. IntroductionAccording to Jarolimek (1967), the introduction of Social Studies, as one of the curricula in American schools, was aresponse to certain social pressures, mounting at the time, on the need to inculcate certain values and sense ofnationalism into the youth of America.In much of Africa, the introduction of Social Studies as part of the school’s curriculum according to Kissock (1981)was preceded by the formation of the African Social Studies Programme (ASSP). The introduction of Social Studiesin Ghana thereafter was preceded by a follow1969 during which it was adopted as part of the school curriculum.Social Studies is a discipline/course of study at the two teacher preparation universities in Ghana. These are theUniversity of Cape Coast (UCC), which was the first to introduce it as a programme of study, and the University ofEducation, Winneba (UEW), which followed later (Bekoe, 2006).Social Studies as a subject has been conceptualized differently by its practitioners sinceducation, however, the goals of Social Studies have been characterized by Martorella (1985) as: (1) transmission ofthe cultural heritage; (2) methods of inquiry; (3) reflective inquiry; (4) informed social criticism; anddevelopment. Personal development has traditionally received the greatest emphasis at the elementary level; at thehigh school level, methods of inquiry have received more emphasis. As phrased in the curriculum guidelines releasedby the NCSS (1979:262), “the basic goal of Social Studies education is to prepare young people to be humane,rational, participating citizens in a world that is becoming increasingly interdependent”. The objectives which arespelt in the definition of a discipline fodefining a subject may sway away and turn the various components of a discipline.In Ghana, according to the teaching syllabus for Social Studies (CRDD, 2010: ii), the subject preparesby equipping him or her with knowledge about the culture and ways of life of their society, its problems, its valuesand its hopes for the future. These clearly show that it is accepted that the ultimate aim of Social Studies is seen asCitizenship Education. Eshun and Mensah (2013:183) assert that:Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)85Exploring Social Studies Teachers’ Conceptions on Nature andContent of Social Studies in Senior High Schools (SHS) inCentral Region of GhanaSamuel Ofori Bekoe, (Ph.D)(HOD) Social Studies Department, University of Education-Winneba, Ghanamail: Sam_Oforibek@yahoo.com. Tel: +233 246 958 774Isaac EshunEnvironmental/Social Studies Tutor, Enchi College of Education, Ghanamail: isaac_eshun@ymail.com Tel: +233 266 634 610Social Studies, as a subject in the SHS curricula in Ghana, is taught mostly by graduate teachers from the country’stwo teacher preparation universities-University of Cape Coast and University of Education, Winneba (i.e. UCC andUEW) and graduates from other universities. Analysis of their programmes reveals differences in how the subject isstructured to prepare teachers to teach it at the SHS level.A sequential mixed method design was used. Data from questionnaire was triangulated with interviews. Pearson ChiSquare was used in finding significant differences. The p-value is the probability for showing differences and a.05 was adopted.ost UCC graduates conceptualize the subject as amalgamation, whilst most UEW graduatesconceptualize it as problem solving. It was recommended that since curriculum dictates what is taught in schools, thetwo universities should build a common knowledge base by infusing their Social Studies curricula with more valueoriented, skill development and problem-solving content.Social Studies teachers’ conception. Nature and content of Social Studies.e introduction of Social Studies, as one of the curricula in American schools, was aresponse to certain social pressures, mounting at the time, on the need to inculcate certain values and sense ofnationalism into the youth of America.the introduction of Social Studies as part of the school’s curriculum according to Kissock (1981)was preceded by the formation of the African Social Studies Programme (ASSP). The introduction of Social Studiesin Ghana thereafter was preceded by a follow up of Educational Conference of Mombasa in Winneba, Ghana, in1969 during which it was adopted as part of the school curriculum.Social Studies is a discipline/course of study at the two teacher preparation universities in Ghana. These are theof Cape Coast (UCC), which was the first to introduce it as a programme of study, and the University ofEducation, Winneba (UEW), which followed later (Bekoe, 2006).Social Studies as a subject has been conceptualized differently by its practitioners since its inception. At all levels ofeducation, however, the goals of Social Studies have been characterized by Martorella (1985) as: (1) transmission ofthe cultural heritage; (2) methods of inquiry; (3) reflective inquiry; (4) informed social criticism; anddevelopment. Personal development has traditionally received the greatest emphasis at the elementary level; at thehigh school level, methods of inquiry have received more emphasis. As phrased in the curriculum guidelines released(1979:262), “the basic goal of Social Studies education is to prepare young people to be humane,rational, participating citizens in a world that is becoming increasingly interdependent”. The objectives which arespelt in the definition of a discipline form the bases for developing a curriculum. However lack of consensus indefining a subject may sway away and turn the various components of a discipline.In Ghana, according to the teaching syllabus for Social Studies (CRDD, 2010: ii), the subject preparesby equipping him or her with knowledge about the culture and ways of life of their society, its problems, its valuesand its hopes for the future. These clearly show that it is accepted that the ultimate aim of Social Studies is seen asEshun and Mensah (2013:183) assert that:www.iiste.orgExploring Social Studies Teachers’ Conceptions on Nature andContent of Social Studies in Senior High Schools (SHS) in theWinneba, Ghana, GhanaSocial Studies, as a subject in the SHS curricula in Ghana, is taught mostly by graduate teachers from the country’sersity of Education, Winneba (i.e. UCC andUEW) and graduates from other universities. Analysis of their programmes reveals differences in how the subject isused. Data from questionnaire was triangulated with interviews. Pearson Chi-is the probability for showing differences and aost UCC graduates conceptualize the subject as amalgamation, whilst most UEW graduatesconceptualize it as problem solving. It was recommended that since curriculum dictates what is taught in schools, these by infusing their Social Studies curricula with more valuee introduction of Social Studies, as one of the curricula in American schools, was aresponse to certain social pressures, mounting at the time, on the need to inculcate certain values and sense ofthe introduction of Social Studies as part of the school’s curriculum according to Kissock (1981)was preceded by the formation of the African Social Studies Programme (ASSP). The introduction of Social Studiesup of Educational Conference of Mombasa in Winneba, Ghana, inSocial Studies is a discipline/course of study at the two teacher preparation universities in Ghana. These are theof Cape Coast (UCC), which was the first to introduce it as a programme of study, and the University ofe its inception. At all levels ofeducation, however, the goals of Social Studies have been characterized by Martorella (1985) as: (1) transmission ofthe cultural heritage; (2) methods of inquiry; (3) reflective inquiry; (4) informed social criticism; and (5) personaldevelopment. Personal development has traditionally received the greatest emphasis at the elementary level; at thehigh school level, methods of inquiry have received more emphasis. As phrased in the curriculum guidelines released(1979:262), “the basic goal of Social Studies education is to prepare young people to be humane,rational, participating citizens in a world that is becoming increasingly interdependent”. The objectives which arerm the bases for developing a curriculum. However lack of consensus inIn Ghana, according to the teaching syllabus for Social Studies (CRDD, 2010: ii), the subject prepares the individualby equipping him or her with knowledge about the culture and ways of life of their society, its problems, its valuesand its hopes for the future. These clearly show that it is accepted that the ultimate aim of Social Studies is seen as
  2. 2. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Social Studies should be taught as a holistic subject, which should reflect behavioural change instudents and not facts from other social sciences. Social Studies teachers should stress on teachiof skills more than the factual content. The main role of the Social Studies teacher is to emphasizethe development of relevant knowledge, positive attitudes, value and problem solving skills ofstudents.This, notwithstanding, a research conducted byand implementation challenges in Ghana, revealed that “Teacher Training Institutions subscribe and use a particularconception of Social Studies curriculum for the production of Social Studieshere is that teachers may come to conceptualize the subject differently. Bekoe and Eshun (2013:44) recommendedthat “if importance is attached to Social Studies then resources already invested in its implementation inbe followed by programme review and remedial measures taken early, so as to make it more effective and viable”.However, documentary evidence on the Social Studies curricula of the two universities, University of Cape Coast(UCC) and University of Education, Winneba (UEW), shows clear conceptual differences in what the subject is.results of the possible curricula differences, teachers from the two educational institutions may conceptualize thesubject differently of which this may influenceconduct a study to determine whether the structure of their programmes influence the conception of their graduatesabout the nature and content of the subject.The study therefore sought to answer these questions (1) Are there significant differences in how Social Studiesgraduate teachers from University of Cape Coast and University of Education, Winneba, understand the subject?;and (2) Are there significant differences in how UCC and UEWand content of the subject?2. Literature on Teachers’ Conception of Subject on their Classroom ActivitiesThe nature and function of Social Studies in education cannot be precisely determined by strictlyThe nature and scope of Social Studies and the purposes for which they are taught in schools are matters of definitionand judgement reflecting adherence to a set of values and existence of a philosophy of life and education (Hockett,1941). This implies that conceptions of the nature of Social Studies, similar to scientific knowledge, are tentative anddynamic with the aim of meeting the challenges of a given society. Assertion like this has necessitated the waysSocial Studies education communities defined the phrase “nature and content of social studies”. The varyingconceptions about Social Studies have resultant implications in classroom activities.Studies on conception about teaching and learning in other fields of study like theindicate that conception has much influence on teaching and learning. It is claimed that teachers ability to effectivelyteach (self-efficacy) and in students’ abilities to learn (outcome expectancy) have been correlated tpractice (Bandura, 1986; TschannenIndeed studies in the past decades have illustrated that teachers’ various beliefs and conceptions about teaching andlearning have influence on their classroom practice (Bryan & AtwLederman, 1995; Kagan, 1992; Kang & Wallace, 2005; Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak, 1998; Nespor, 1987; Pajares,1992). Some recent studies on the relationship between teachers’ understanding and their classroom pracalso reported the impact of teachers’ beliefs and conceptions about teaching; their role as teacher and studentlearning on their instruction (Tobin & McRobbie, 1997; WatersHodson (1999:3) stated that “when teachers are presented wdistinctive educational context, a unique learning context is created”. This explains the teachers’ distinctive personalframework of understanding. These confirm what Shiundu and Mohammed (1994) descriunique traditions of the institutions that train the teachers on the framework of their conception about whateversubject they learn during their initial training.The scientific context in which this is placed is what Chandler (2005constancy, a crucial factor that according to him shapes the teachers’ perception towards the teaching of their subjectof specialization. According to Chandler (2005) factors that influence teachers’ acceptance orinclude perception of relevance and self interest. Hodson (1993) and Kyle (1999) stress a similar view by saying thatin many institutions, impressions are reinforced by a heavy reliance on didactic teaching styles in which teachersspend considerable time on “cook book exercises” designed to teach a particular pre(2004) adds that pedagogues generally teach the way they were taught. Phillips (2005) suggested that in the absenceof formal teaching qualifications, many pedagogues teach in the didactic way that they were taught.Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)86Social Studies should be taught as a holistic subject, which should reflect behavioural change instudents and not facts from other social sciences. Social Studies teachers should stress on teachiof skills more than the factual content. The main role of the Social Studies teacher is to emphasizethe development of relevant knowledge, positive attitudes, value and problem solving skills ofThis, notwithstanding, a research conducted by Bekoe and Eshun (2013:44) on Social Studies curriculum feudingand implementation challenges in Ghana, revealed that “Teacher Training Institutions subscribe and use a particularconception of Social Studies curriculum for the production of Social Studies education graduates”. The implicationhere is that teachers may come to conceptualize the subject differently. Bekoe and Eshun (2013:44) recommendedthat “if importance is attached to Social Studies then resources already invested in its implementation inbe followed by programme review and remedial measures taken early, so as to make it more effective and viable”.However, documentary evidence on the Social Studies curricula of the two universities, University of Cape Coastof Education, Winneba (UEW), shows clear conceptual differences in what the subject is.results of the possible curricula differences, teachers from the two educational institutions may conceptualize thesubject differently of which this may influence the way they will teach the subject. There is therefore the need toconduct a study to determine whether the structure of their programmes influence the conception of their graduatesabout the nature and content of the subject.o answer these questions (1) Are there significant differences in how Social Studiesgraduate teachers from University of Cape Coast and University of Education, Winneba, understand the subject?;and (2) Are there significant differences in how UCC and UEW Social Studies graduate teachers’ view the nature2. Literature on Teachers’ Conception of Subject on their Classroom ActivitiesThe nature and function of Social Studies in education cannot be precisely determined by strictlyThe nature and scope of Social Studies and the purposes for which they are taught in schools are matters of definitionand judgement reflecting adherence to a set of values and existence of a philosophy of life and education (Hockett,1941). This implies that conceptions of the nature of Social Studies, similar to scientific knowledge, are tentative anddynamic with the aim of meeting the challenges of a given society. Assertion like this has necessitated the waysion communities defined the phrase “nature and content of social studies”. The varyingconceptions about Social Studies have resultant implications in classroom activities.Studies on conception about teaching and learning in other fields of study like the Sciences and the Social Sciencesindicate that conception has much influence on teaching and learning. It is claimed that teachers ability to effectivelyefficacy) and in students’ abilities to learn (outcome expectancy) have been correlated tpractice (Bandura, 1986; Tschannen-Moran, Hoy, & Hoy, 1998).Indeed studies in the past decades have illustrated that teachers’ various beliefs and conceptions about teaching andlearning have influence on their classroom practice (Bryan & Atwater, 2002; Cronin-Jones, 1991; GessLederman, 1995; Kagan, 1992; Kang & Wallace, 2005; Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak, 1998; Nespor, 1987; Pajares,1992). Some recent studies on the relationship between teachers’ understanding and their classroom pracalso reported the impact of teachers’ beliefs and conceptions about teaching; their role as teacher and studentlearning on their instruction (Tobin & McRobbie, 1997; Waters-Adams, 2006).Hodson (1999:3) stated that “when teachers are presented with a particular teaching/learning task, set within adistinctive educational context, a unique learning context is created”. This explains the teachers’ distinctive personalframework of understanding. These confirm what Shiundu and Mohammed (1994) descriunique traditions of the institutions that train the teachers on the framework of their conception about whateversubject they learn during their initial training.The scientific context in which this is placed is what Chandler (2005) describes as selectivity and perceptualconstancy, a crucial factor that according to him shapes the teachers’ perception towards the teaching of their subjectof specialization. According to Chandler (2005) factors that influence teachers’ acceptance orinclude perception of relevance and self interest. Hodson (1993) and Kyle (1999) stress a similar view by saying thatin many institutions, impressions are reinforced by a heavy reliance on didactic teaching styles in which teacherspend considerable time on “cook book exercises” designed to teach a particular pre-determined outcome.pedagogues generally teach the way they were taught. Phillips (2005) suggested that in the absenceons, many pedagogues teach in the didactic way that they were taught.www.iiste.orgSocial Studies should be taught as a holistic subject, which should reflect behavioural change instudents and not facts from other social sciences. Social Studies teachers should stress on teachingof skills more than the factual content. The main role of the Social Studies teacher is to emphasizethe development of relevant knowledge, positive attitudes, value and problem solving skills ofBekoe and Eshun (2013:44) on Social Studies curriculum feudingand implementation challenges in Ghana, revealed that “Teacher Training Institutions subscribe and use a particulareducation graduates”. The implicationhere is that teachers may come to conceptualize the subject differently. Bekoe and Eshun (2013:44) recommendedthat “if importance is attached to Social Studies then resources already invested in its implementation in Ghana, mustbe followed by programme review and remedial measures taken early, so as to make it more effective and viable”.However, documentary evidence on the Social Studies curricula of the two universities, University of Cape Coastof Education, Winneba (UEW), shows clear conceptual differences in what the subject is. Asresults of the possible curricula differences, teachers from the two educational institutions may conceptualize thethe way they will teach the subject. There is therefore the need toconduct a study to determine whether the structure of their programmes influence the conception of their graduateso answer these questions (1) Are there significant differences in how Social Studiesgraduate teachers from University of Cape Coast and University of Education, Winneba, understand the subject?;Social Studies graduate teachers’ view the natureThe nature and function of Social Studies in education cannot be precisely determined by strictly research procedures.The nature and scope of Social Studies and the purposes for which they are taught in schools are matters of definitionand judgement reflecting adherence to a set of values and existence of a philosophy of life and education (Hockett,1941). This implies that conceptions of the nature of Social Studies, similar to scientific knowledge, are tentative anddynamic with the aim of meeting the challenges of a given society. Assertion like this has necessitated the waysion communities defined the phrase “nature and content of social studies”. The varyingSciences and the Social Sciencesindicate that conception has much influence on teaching and learning. It is claimed that teachers ability to effectivelyefficacy) and in students’ abilities to learn (outcome expectancy) have been correlated to classroomIndeed studies in the past decades have illustrated that teachers’ various beliefs and conceptions about teaching andJones, 1991; Gess-Newsome &Lederman, 1995; Kagan, 1992; Kang & Wallace, 2005; Lumpe, Haney, & Czerniak, 1998; Nespor, 1987; Pajares,1992). Some recent studies on the relationship between teachers’ understanding and their classroom practice havealso reported the impact of teachers’ beliefs and conceptions about teaching; their role as teacher and studentith a particular teaching/learning task, set within adistinctive educational context, a unique learning context is created”. This explains the teachers’ distinctive personalframework of understanding. These confirm what Shiundu and Mohammed (1994) describe as the influence ofunique traditions of the institutions that train the teachers on the framework of their conception about whatever) describes as selectivity and perceptualconstancy, a crucial factor that according to him shapes the teachers’ perception towards the teaching of their subjectof specialization. According to Chandler (2005) factors that influence teachers’ acceptance or rejection of an ideainclude perception of relevance and self interest. Hodson (1993) and Kyle (1999) stress a similar view by saying thatin many institutions, impressions are reinforced by a heavy reliance on didactic teaching styles in which teachersdetermined outcome. Duttonpedagogues generally teach the way they were taught. Phillips (2005) suggested that in the absenceons, many pedagogues teach in the didactic way that they were taught. Shiundu and
  3. 3. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Mohammed (1994) emphatically remark that it is all too often unfortunate but true that teachers teach the way theyare taught. According to Shiundu and Mohammed (1994:6), “OnSocial Studies teacher training programmes in many countries is that they have very little or no demonstrablerelevance for the functions and responsibilities which teachers are expected to perform”. Thiseither in the makeup of the curriculum or in its deliberations. Akinlaye (2003:15) therefore clearly stated, “It isethically and professionally appropriate that teachers must understand what ‘teaching and learning’ process of SocialStudies is all about”. Brown (1992:3) asserts that, teachers’ perception about their subject greatly influence theirteaching and does so negatively”. Sharing the same view, Akinlaye (2002:4) asserts that “what teachers’ believe tobe good instructional content to teach and appropriate methods to use in the classroom are greatly influenced byteachers’ perception of the subject”. This implies that teachers who are indoctrinated with a given concept will bedifficult to be de-indoctrinated and this will influStudies conducted by Almarza (2001), and Chiodo and Byford (2004) also reveal that, it is the teacher who is the keyto what Social Studies means to students, because teachers’ belief of the subject Social Studies, in turn affect the wthey teach and transmit knowledge to students. The finding from the studies of Evans (2004) and Todd (2005)similarly indicate that the decisions of what to teach our children under Social Studies education often shift and aredependent on the influence of the perception of the teacher about the subject.Shavelson & Stern (1981) and Tillema (2000) believe that teachers’ conception greatly impact on their instructionaldecisions in the classroom. With this, Borg (2003:81) suggests, “teachers are active,make instructional choices by drawing on complex practicallyof knowledge, thoughts, and beliefs”. Furthermore, and as noted by Shavelson and Stern (1981), what teachers dothe classroom is said to be governed by what they believe and these conception often serve to act as a filter throughwhich instructional judgments and decisions are made.While most studies investigated the influence beliefs and intentions have on clsuggested that the relationship between beliefs and classroom practice is not unidirectional, but biLumpe, Czerniak, & Egan, 2002; Tobin & LaMaster, 1995). Haneyactions, which in turn, lead to the creation of new, reconstructed, or reaffirmed beliefs”. Haneyproclaimed that “identifying, discussing, and reflecting upon the belief actioncomponent of every teacher professional development experience”. Other researchers have also suggested aninteractive relationship among teachers’ intentions, beliefs and classroom practice (Clark & Peterson, 1986;Verjovsky & Waldegg, 2005).As a result of the above discussion, Gudmundsdottir & Shulman (1987) advocated for the study of PedagogicalContent Knowledge (PCK) as a distinct type of teacher knowledge in the teaching of Social Studies. By gaining newinsights into what they were doing and how, teachers were able to fattention to the integration of knowledge bases of PCK will help assess whether Social Studies is living to its billingof inculcation of positive attitudes in students. This will help teachers to focus and reflregarding the goals of instruction, the effectiveness of practice and the rationale for their professional judgment.The review shows that teachers hold the key to sound educational system of any nation and that the educationstandard of teachers, their quality, and competency and above all the conception they form about a subject need to betaken into prominence. This implies thateducational package is delivered to students with the aim of fulfilling individual and societal goals.3. MethodologyA sequential mixed method design was used to explore Social Studies teachers’ views on nature and content of socialstudies at the Senior High School (SHS) level inconsistency of findings obtained through different instruments used, whilst complementarityresults from one method with the use of another method.The population for this study included all trained Social Studies teachers in SHS in Central Region of Ghana. Thetarget population was the Social Studies graduates from UCC and UEW teaching the subject at Senior High Schoolsat Abura/Asebu/Kwamankese District, Gomoa West DisMunicipal, Awutu-Senya District, Cape Coast Metropolitan, Effutu Municipal, Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/AbiremMunicipal, and the Mfantsiman Municipal, all in the Central Region of the Republic of Ghana.Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)87Mohammed (1994) emphatically remark that it is all too often unfortunate but true that teachers teach the way theyare taught. According to Shiundu and Mohammed (1994:6), “One fundamental problem of the existing preserves ofSocial Studies teacher training programmes in many countries is that they have very little or no demonstrablerelevance for the functions and responsibilities which teachers are expected to perform”. Thiseither in the makeup of the curriculum or in its deliberations. Akinlaye (2003:15) therefore clearly stated, “It isethically and professionally appropriate that teachers must understand what ‘teaching and learning’ process of Socialtudies is all about”. Brown (1992:3) asserts that, teachers’ perception about their subject greatly influence theirteaching and does so negatively”. Sharing the same view, Akinlaye (2002:4) asserts that “what teachers’ believe totent to teach and appropriate methods to use in the classroom are greatly influenced byteachers’ perception of the subject”. This implies that teachers who are indoctrinated with a given concept will beindoctrinated and this will influence their teaching.Studies conducted by Almarza (2001), and Chiodo and Byford (2004) also reveal that, it is the teacher who is the keyto what Social Studies means to students, because teachers’ belief of the subject Social Studies, in turn affect the wthey teach and transmit knowledge to students. The finding from the studies of Evans (2004) and Todd (2005)similarly indicate that the decisions of what to teach our children under Social Studies education often shift and areof the perception of the teacher about the subject.Shavelson & Stern (1981) and Tillema (2000) believe that teachers’ conception greatly impact on their instructionaldecisions in the classroom. With this, Borg (2003:81) suggests, “teachers are active, thinking decisionmake instructional choices by drawing on complex practically-oriented, personalized, and contextof knowledge, thoughts, and beliefs”. Furthermore, and as noted by Shavelson and Stern (1981), what teachers dothe classroom is said to be governed by what they believe and these conception often serve to act as a filter throughwhich instructional judgments and decisions are made.While most studies investigated the influence beliefs and intentions have on classroom practice, some studiessuggested that the relationship between beliefs and classroom practice is not unidirectional, but biLumpe, Czerniak, & Egan, 2002; Tobin & LaMaster, 1995). Haney et al. (2002:181) claimed that “beliefs leactions, which in turn, lead to the creation of new, reconstructed, or reaffirmed beliefs”. Haneyproclaimed that “identifying, discussing, and reflecting upon the belief action - belief relationship should be aeacher professional development experience”. Other researchers have also suggested aninteractive relationship among teachers’ intentions, beliefs and classroom practice (Clark & Peterson, 1986;on, Gudmundsdottir & Shulman (1987) advocated for the study of PedagogicalContent Knowledge (PCK) as a distinct type of teacher knowledge in the teaching of Social Studies. By gaining newinsights into what they were doing and how, teachers were able to frame and reframe their practice and pay moreattention to the integration of knowledge bases of PCK will help assess whether Social Studies is living to its billingof inculcation of positive attitudes in students. This will help teachers to focus and reflect on their teaching practiceregarding the goals of instruction, the effectiveness of practice and the rationale for their professional judgment.The review shows that teachers hold the key to sound educational system of any nation and that the educationstandard of teachers, their quality, and competency and above all the conception they form about a subject need to beThis implies that teachers’ curriculum conceptions will probably influence the way anivered to students with the aim of fulfilling individual and societal goals.A sequential mixed method design was used to explore Social Studies teachers’ views on nature and content of socialstudies at the Senior High School (SHS) level in Central Region of Ghana. Triangulation was used toconsistency of findings obtained through different instruments used, whilst complementarityresults from one method with the use of another method.his study included all trained Social Studies teachers in SHS in Central Region of Ghana. Thetarget population was the Social Studies graduates from UCC and UEW teaching the subject at Senior High Schoolsat Abura/Asebu/Kwamankese District, Gomoa West District, Gomoa East District, Agona East District, Agona WestSenya District, Cape Coast Metropolitan, Effutu Municipal, Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/AbiremMunicipal, and the Mfantsiman Municipal, all in the Central Region of the Republic of Ghana.www.iiste.orgMohammed (1994) emphatically remark that it is all too often unfortunate but true that teachers teach the way theye fundamental problem of the existing preserves ofSocial Studies teacher training programmes in many countries is that they have very little or no demonstrablerelevance for the functions and responsibilities which teachers are expected to perform”. This problem is reflectedeither in the makeup of the curriculum or in its deliberations. Akinlaye (2003:15) therefore clearly stated, “It isethically and professionally appropriate that teachers must understand what ‘teaching and learning’ process of Socialtudies is all about”. Brown (1992:3) asserts that, teachers’ perception about their subject greatly influence theirteaching and does so negatively”. Sharing the same view, Akinlaye (2002:4) asserts that “what teachers’ believe totent to teach and appropriate methods to use in the classroom are greatly influenced byteachers’ perception of the subject”. This implies that teachers who are indoctrinated with a given concept will beStudies conducted by Almarza (2001), and Chiodo and Byford (2004) also reveal that, it is the teacher who is the keyto what Social Studies means to students, because teachers’ belief of the subject Social Studies, in turn affect the waythey teach and transmit knowledge to students. The finding from the studies of Evans (2004) and Todd (2005)similarly indicate that the decisions of what to teach our children under Social Studies education often shift and areShavelson & Stern (1981) and Tillema (2000) believe that teachers’ conception greatly impact on their instructionalthinking decision-makers whooriented, personalized, and context-sensitive networksof knowledge, thoughts, and beliefs”. Furthermore, and as noted by Shavelson and Stern (1981), what teachers do inthe classroom is said to be governed by what they believe and these conception often serve to act as a filter throughassroom practice, some studiessuggested that the relationship between beliefs and classroom practice is not unidirectional, but bi-directional (Haney,. (2002:181) claimed that “beliefs lead toactions, which in turn, lead to the creation of new, reconstructed, or reaffirmed beliefs”. Haney et al. (2002:184)belief relationship should be aeacher professional development experience”. Other researchers have also suggested aninteractive relationship among teachers’ intentions, beliefs and classroom practice (Clark & Peterson, 1986;on, Gudmundsdottir & Shulman (1987) advocated for the study of PedagogicalContent Knowledge (PCK) as a distinct type of teacher knowledge in the teaching of Social Studies. By gaining newrame and reframe their practice and pay moreattention to the integration of knowledge bases of PCK will help assess whether Social Studies is living to its billingect on their teaching practiceregarding the goals of instruction, the effectiveness of practice and the rationale for their professional judgment.The review shows that teachers hold the key to sound educational system of any nation and that the educationalstandard of teachers, their quality, and competency and above all the conception they form about a subject need to beteachers’ curriculum conceptions will probably influence the way anivered to students with the aim of fulfilling individual and societal goals.A sequential mixed method design was used to explore Social Studies teachers’ views on nature and content of socialTriangulation was used to test theconsistency of findings obtained through different instruments used, whilst complementarity clarifies and illustrateshis study included all trained Social Studies teachers in SHS in Central Region of Ghana. Thetarget population was the Social Studies graduates from UCC and UEW teaching the subject at Senior High Schoolstrict, Gomoa East District, Agona East District, Agona WestSenya District, Cape Coast Metropolitan, Effutu Municipal, Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/AbiremMunicipal, and the Mfantsiman Municipal, all in the Central Region of the Republic of Ghana.
  4. 4. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013The sample size was one hundred and fifty (seventyteaching the subject. Non-probability sampling method (convenience and purposive techniques) was used to selectthe sample of districts, schools and rConvenience sampling technique was used to sample the ten districts out of the seventeenth (17) districts in theregion at the time of conducting the research. In all there were seventymade up of fifty-one (51) Government assisted and twentysampled districts in the Central Region at the time of conducting the research (Ghana Education Service (GES):Central Region Office). Purposive sampling techniquetrained teachers from UCC and UEW teaching the subject for the study from the ten districts selected out of theseventeen. Out of the one hundred and fifty teachers, purposive sampling technique wasteachers: ten products from each university (UCC & UEW) were interviewed. The table 1 below and 2 show thenumber of districts, schools and respondents selected for the study.Table 1 Number of Districts and Senior High Schools selecMetropolitan/Municipal/DistrictAbura/Asebu/Kwamankese DistrictAgona East DistrictAgona West MunicipalityAwutu-Senya DistrictCape Coast MetropolisEffutu MunicipalityGomoa East DistrictGomoa West DistrictKEEA MunicipalityMfantsiman MunicipalityTOTALNote: KEEA-Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem Municipal.Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)88The sample size was one hundred and fifty (seventy-five apiece) Social Studies graduates of UCC and UEWprobability sampling method (convenience and purposive techniques) was used to selectthe sample of districts, schools and respondents.Convenience sampling technique was used to sample the ten districts out of the seventeenth (17) districts in theregion at the time of conducting the research. In all there were seventy-four (74) Senior High Schools which wereone (51) Government assisted and twenty-three (23) private registered ones in the seventeensampled districts in the Central Region at the time of conducting the research (Ghana Education Service (GES):Central Region Office). Purposive sampling technique was used to sample the 42 schools and its Social Studiestrained teachers from UCC and UEW teaching the subject for the study from the ten districts selected out of theseventeen. Out of the one hundred and fifty teachers, purposive sampling technique wasteachers: ten products from each university (UCC & UEW) were interviewed. The table 1 below and 2 show thenumber of districts, schools and respondents selected for the study.Table 1 Number of Districts and Senior High Schools selected for the studyNo of Public SHS No of Private SHS3 12 13 -2 19 31 22 12 -3 15 -32 10Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem Municipal.www.iiste.orgfive apiece) Social Studies graduates of UCC and UEWprobability sampling method (convenience and purposive techniques) was used to selectConvenience sampling technique was used to sample the ten districts out of the seventeenth (17) districts in thefour (74) Senior High Schools which werethree (23) private registered ones in the seventeensampled districts in the Central Region at the time of conducting the research (Ghana Education Service (GES):was used to sample the 42 schools and its Social Studiestrained teachers from UCC and UEW teaching the subject for the study from the ten districts selected out of theseventeen. Out of the one hundred and fifty teachers, purposive sampling technique was used to select twentyteachers: ten products from each university (UCC & UEW) were interviewed. The table 1 below and 2 show theNo of Private SHS Total4333123324542
  5. 5. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Table 2 Sample of respondents selected forMetropolitan/Municipal/ DistrictAbura/Asebu/KwamankeseAgona East DistrictAgona West MunicipalityAwutu-Senya DistrictCape Coast MetropolisEffutu MunicipalityGomoa East DistrictGomoa West DistrictKEEA MunicipalityMfantsiman MunicipalityTOTALNote: KEEA-Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem MunicipalThe following instruments were used in gathering the data: a questionnaire made up of seventeen (17) close endedfive-point Likert scale structured items was administered to one hundred and fifty (150) trained Social Studiesteachers in the SHS; and interview guide made up of fifteeStudies teachers at SHS level.The Pearson Chi-Square was used to determine whether significant difference exists in graduate teachers’ conceptionof Social Studies from UEW and UCC in the selectivalue (probability) for finding significant differences. A criticalthe statistical analysis. The qualitative datathemes arrived at in the interview data collection.4. FINDINGS AND DISCUSION4.1 Differences in Conception of Social StudiesThe understanding of teachers’ of the term ‘Social Studies’ is presented in table 3 bTable 3 Chi-Square test of UCC & UEW Social Studies graduates’ conception of Social StudiesITEMS1. Social Studies is amalgamation of the social sciences2. Social Studies a method of teaching3. Social Studies is Citizenship Education4. Social Studies is Global Citizenship EducationResearch on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)89Table 2 Sample of respondents selected for the study by DistrictsMetropolitan/Municipal/ District No of Teachersfrom UCCNo of Teachersfrom UEWAbura/Asebu/Kwamankese 9 72 5Agona West Municipality 4 33 633 243 63 42 75 4Mfantsiman Municipality 11 975 75Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem Municipalere used in gathering the data: a questionnaire made up of seventeen (17) close endedpoint Likert scale structured items was administered to one hundred and fifty (150) trained Social Studiesteachers in the SHS; and interview guide made up of fifteen (15) semi-structured items for twenty (20) trained SocialSquare was used to determine whether significant difference exists in graduate teachers’ conceptionof Social Studies from UEW and UCC in the selection of the subject content in SHS. Thevalue (probability) for finding significant differences. A critical value of alpha= 0.05 was adopted for significance inThe qualitative data entry was done by the use of the interpretative method based on thethemes arrived at in the interview data collection.4.1 Differences in Conception of Social StudiesThe understanding of teachers’ of the term ‘Social Studies’ is presented in table 3 below:of UCC & UEW Social Studies graduates’ conception of Social StudiesChi-Square Test: UCC vs. UEWValue Df asym. sig.(2-sided)1. Social Studies is amalgamation of the social sciences 1.140E2a4 .0002. Social Studies a method of teaching 6.607a4 .1583. Social Studies is Citizenship Education 6.938a4 .1394. Social Studies is Global Citizenship Education 10.820a4 .029www.iiste.orgNo of Teachersfrom UEWTotal1677957979920150ere used in gathering the data: a questionnaire made up of seventeen (17) close endedpoint Likert scale structured items was administered to one hundred and fifty (150) trained Social Studiesstructured items for twenty (20) trained SocialSquare was used to determine whether significant difference exists in graduate teachers’ conceptionon of the subject content in SHS. The p-value is the smallest= 0.05 was adopted for significance inof the interpretative method based on theof UCC & UEW Social Studies graduates’ conception of Social Studies: UCC vs. UEWasym. sig.sided)N of validcases00 150.158 150.139 150.029 150
  6. 6. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013When this question was asked-Social Studies is an Amalgam114 with p-value equals to 0.000. This shows that significant differences exist in the responses. Most respondentswho were UCC products agreed, whilst most respondents who were UEW products disagreclarification this interview question was askedcontent, and scope?, Kwame, (not the real name) one of the respondents who has been teaching the subject for thepast four years and a product of UCC had this to say, “Social Studies is the amalgamation of the social sciences andits scope and content is taken from the social sciences such as geography, economics, history, sociology...” This goesto confirm that Social Studies at UCC is conceptualize as the amalgamation of the social sciences. This explainswhat Shiundu and Mohammed (1994) describe as the influence of unique traditions of the institutions that train theteachers on the framework of their conception about whatever simplies that when teachers are indoctrinated it will be with them, and it will be very difficult to be deThis is because, students can be proud of where they were trained and the idealsWhen this question was posed-Social Studies is Global Citizenshipof 0.029. This shows that significant differences exist in the responses from UCC and UEW respondents. Theshows that whilst most UCC products agree, most UEW products were confused as to what global citizenshipeducation is. There is the need for global citizenship, simply because we now live in a shrinking world. To us, it isthe logical development of ideal citizenship and learning about how to inculcate into students becoming decisionmakers and problem solvers that transcend national borders.4.2 Teachers’ Conception of the nature and content of Social StudiesViews of trained Social Studies teachersResearch on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)90Social Studies is an Amalgamation of the Social Science, and it shows a Chivalue equals to 0.000. This shows that significant differences exist in the responses. Most respondentswho were UCC products agreed, whilst most respondents who were UEW products disagreclarification this interview question was asked-How do you conceptualize Social Studies in terms of its meaning,, Kwame, (not the real name) one of the respondents who has been teaching the subject for thes and a product of UCC had this to say, “Social Studies is the amalgamation of the social sciences andits scope and content is taken from the social sciences such as geography, economics, history, sociology...” This goesUCC is conceptualize as the amalgamation of the social sciences. This explainswhat Shiundu and Mohammed (1994) describe as the influence of unique traditions of the institutions that train theteachers on the framework of their conception about whatever subject they learn during their initial training.en teachers are indoctrinated it will be with them, and it will be very difficult to be deThis is because, students can be proud of where they were trained and the ideals given them by their alma mater.Social Studies is Global Citizenship, and it shows a Chi-square of 10.820 withof 0.029. This shows that significant differences exist in the responses from UCC and UEW respondents. Theshows that whilst most UCC products agree, most UEW products were confused as to what global citizenshipeducation is. There is the need for global citizenship, simply because we now live in a shrinking world. To us, it isideal citizenship and learning about how to inculcate into students becoming decisionmakers and problem solvers that transcend national borders.4.2 Teachers’ Conception of the nature and content of Social StudiesViews of trained Social Studies teachers’ on the nature and content of Social Studies is presented in table 4 below:www.iiste.organd it shows a Chi-square ofvalue equals to 0.000. This shows that significant differences exist in the responses. Most respondentswho were UCC products agreed, whilst most respondents who were UEW products disagreed to that. ForHow do you conceptualize Social Studies in terms of its meaning,, Kwame, (not the real name) one of the respondents who has been teaching the subject for thes and a product of UCC had this to say, “Social Studies is the amalgamation of the social sciences andits scope and content is taken from the social sciences such as geography, economics, history, sociology...” This goesUCC is conceptualize as the amalgamation of the social sciences. This explainswhat Shiundu and Mohammed (1994) describe as the influence of unique traditions of the institutions that train theubject they learn during their initial training. Thisen teachers are indoctrinated it will be with them, and it will be very difficult to be de-indoctrinated.given them by their alma mater.square of 10.820 with p-valueof 0.029. This shows that significant differences exist in the responses from UCC and UEW respondents. The aboveshows that whilst most UCC products agree, most UEW products were confused as to what global citizenshipeducation is. There is the need for global citizenship, simply because we now live in a shrinking world. To us, it isideal citizenship and learning about how to inculcate into students becoming decision-’ on the nature and content of Social Studies is presented in table 4 below:
  7. 7. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Table 4 Chi-square test of Social Studies teachers’ conception of the nature and content of Social StudiesITEMS1. Social Studies curriculum of schools should be subject2. Social Studies curriculum should focus on problemskills3. Scope of Social Studies educationSociety4. The scope of Social Studies education is based on solvingissues that threatens human survival5. There is significant difference between the content of SocialStudies and social sciences6. There is significant difference in the method of teachingSocial Studies and social sciences7. There is significant difference between Citizenship Educationand education for citizenry8. Social Studies curriculum should be separated into individualsubject areas rather than organized as integrated discipline9. Social Studies curriculum should be determined by contentthat is essential for the development of positive attitudes ostudents10. Social Studies curriculum of schools should focus on thecritical thinkers and problem solvers of the past11. Social Studies curriculum needs to focus on the criticalexamination of controversial issues12. Social Studies curriculum needs to focus on the criticalthinking about important social and political issues13. Social Studies curriculum planners should consider key socialand cultural situation in the community in their Social StudiesprogrammeWhen this question was asked-Social Studies Curriculum of Schools should be SubjectHistory, Economics, Sociology, etc.),there is significant difference in the responses from UCC and UEW. The itemfrom each university, 46 (61.4%) respondents who strongly agreed were UCC products, whilst 4 (5.3%) werespondents from UEW. Respondents who agreed were 19 (25.3%) UCC products, whilst 5 (6.7%) were respondentsfrom UEW. Respondents who were not certain were 3 (4.0%) UCC products, whilst no UEW product responded tothis. Respondents who disagreed were 4Respondents who strongly disagreed were 3 (4.0%) UCC products, whilst 37 (49.3%) were products of UEW. Theabove shows that most of the UCC graduates agreed, whilst most of the UEW graduates disproducts of the two universities are likely to adopt teaching approaches that are consistent with their conceptions.This means that efforts to improve teaching in social studies will often fail if the complexity of teaching it isunderestimated.When this question was asked-The Scope of Social Studies Education is based on solving Issues that threatensHuman Survival shows a Chi-square value of 37.625 withexist in the responses from UCC and UEW. With this, whilst most UCC products disagree, most UEW productsagree. The institutional conceptions of social studies teaching will influence how its nature and content is viewed andResearch on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)91of Social Studies teachers’ conception of the nature and content of Social StudiesITEMSChi-square testValue df asym. sig.(21. Social Studies curriculum of schools should be subject-centred 96.946a42. Social Studies curriculum should focus on problem-solving 5.601a4Social Studies education is based on Current Issues in 31.619a44. The scope of Social Studies education is based on solvingissues that threatens human survival43.582a45. There is significant difference between the content of Social 31.619a46. There is significant difference in the method of teaching 5.098a47. There is significant difference between Citizenship Education 4.116a4ies curriculum should be separated into individualsubject areas rather than organized as integrated discipline1.097E2a49. Social Studies curriculum should be determined by contentthat is essential for the development of positive attitudes of 35.272a410. Social Studies curriculum of schools should focus on thecritical thinkers and problem solvers of the past33.411a411. Social Studies curriculum needs to focus on the critical 4.230a412. Social Studies curriculum needs to focus on the criticalthinking about important social and political issues 5.914a313. Social Studies curriculum planners should consider key socialin the community in their Social Studies 14.772a4Social Studies Curriculum of Schools should be SubjectHistory, Economics, Sociology, etc.), shows a Chi-square of 96.946 with p-value equals to 0.000. This shows thatthere is significant difference in the responses from UCC and UEW. The item shows that out of the 75 graduatesfrom each university, 46 (61.4%) respondents who strongly agreed were UCC products, whilst 4 (5.3%) werespondents from UEW. Respondents who agreed were 19 (25.3%) UCC products, whilst 5 (6.7%) were respondentsfrom UEW. Respondents who were not certain were 3 (4.0%) UCC products, whilst no UEW product responded tothis. Respondents who disagreed were 4 (5.3%) UCC graduates, whilst 29 (38.7%) were products of UEW.Respondents who strongly disagreed were 3 (4.0%) UCC products, whilst 37 (49.3%) were products of UEW. Theabove shows that most of the UCC graduates agreed, whilst most of the UEW graduates disproducts of the two universities are likely to adopt teaching approaches that are consistent with their conceptions.This means that efforts to improve teaching in social studies will often fail if the complexity of teaching it isThe Scope of Social Studies Education is based on solving Issues that threatenssquare value of 37.625 with p-value of 0.000. This shows that significant differencefrom UCC and UEW. With this, whilst most UCC products disagree, most UEW productsagree. The institutional conceptions of social studies teaching will influence how its nature and content is viewed andwww.iiste.orgof Social Studies teachers’ conception of the nature and content of Social Studiessquare test: UCC vs. UEWasym. sig.(2-sided)N of validcases.000 150.231 150.000 150.000 150.000 150.277 150.390 150.000 150.000 150.000 150.376 150.116 150.005 150Social Studies Curriculum of Schools should be Subject-Centred (i.e. Geography,value equals to 0.000. This shows thatshows that out of the 75 graduatesfrom each university, 46 (61.4%) respondents who strongly agreed were UCC products, whilst 4 (5.3%) wererespondents from UEW. Respondents who agreed were 19 (25.3%) UCC products, whilst 5 (6.7%) were respondentsfrom UEW. Respondents who were not certain were 3 (4.0%) UCC products, whilst no UEW product responded to(5.3%) UCC graduates, whilst 29 (38.7%) were products of UEW.Respondents who strongly disagreed were 3 (4.0%) UCC products, whilst 37 (49.3%) were products of UEW. Theabove shows that most of the UCC graduates agreed, whilst most of the UEW graduates disagreed. This meansproducts of the two universities are likely to adopt teaching approaches that are consistent with their conceptions.This means that efforts to improve teaching in social studies will often fail if the complexity of teaching it isThe Scope of Social Studies Education is based on solving Issues that threatensvalue of 0.000. This shows that significant differencefrom UCC and UEW. With this, whilst most UCC products disagree, most UEW productsagree. The institutional conceptions of social studies teaching will influence how its nature and content is viewed and
  8. 8. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013even approaches to teaching the subject. This means tetraining may adopt different approaches to teaching.When this question was asked-Social Studies Curriculum should be separated into Individual Subject areas ratherthan organized as Integrated Disciplineexist significant difference in the responses from UCC and UEW. It shows that out of the 75 graduates from eachuniversity, 41 (54.7%) respondents who strongly agreed were UCCUEW. Respondents who agreed were 31 (41.3%) UCC products whilst 6 (8.0%) were graduates from UEW. NoUCC product was certain, whilst 2 (2.7%) were UEW products. Respondents who disagreed was 1 (1.3%) UCCgraduate, whilst 27 (36.0%) were products of UEW. Respondents who strongly disagreed were 2 (2.7%) UCCproducts, whilst 37 (49.3%) were products of UEW. The above shows that respondents who are UCC productsagreed that social studies curriculum should be separaintegrated discipline, whilst respondents who are UEW products disagreed to that. This clear conceptual differencewill go a long way to influence products from UCC and UEW in perceiving the subjecit will be taught and even the assessment procedure to be used.aims and functions of schooling is very imperative and not to be under emphasized.taken to distinguish between education and schoolingeducation.When this question was asked-Social Studies Curriculum should be determined by Content that is Essential for theDevelopment of Positive Attitudes of Studentsthat there exist significant differences in the responses from UCC and UEW. Teaching and learning about how toinculcate into students how to become compmaking must be taken very seriously in social studies curricula of institutions as curriculum dictates what is taught inschools. This can be done best when content is packed in attitudThis really shows that there is the need for harmonizing the curriculum of both universities since the ultimate goal ofSocial Studies is citizenship education.When this question was asked-Social Studies CurrProblem Solvers of the past, shows Chidifferences exist in the responses from UCC and UEW. The above shows that most respondentsgraduates agreed that Social Studies curriculum of schools should focus on the great thinkers and problem solvers ofthe past, whilst most respondents who are UEW graduates disagreed to that. UCC products agreed to that assertion inthe sense that they are made to take compulsory courses in history that deals with great thinkers and problem solversof the past as depicted in their social studies course structure, whilst in UEW students were taught in a single subjectin a problem oriented manner, theme based and transWhen this question was asked-Social Studies Curriculum Planners should consider key Social and Cultural Situationin the Community in their Social Studies Programmeshows that significant differences exist in the responses from UCC and UEW. The above shows that most of theproducts of UCC disagreed, whilst most of the respondents who are UEW products agreed to that. Most of theproducts of UCC were confused as to why the ideal culture need to be preserved and those objectionable ones like‘Trokosi’ (custom whereby virgin girls are made to serve at shrines to atone for the sins committed by a familymember) and widowhood rites abolished or refined. A citimisunderstand his or her immediate environment and the world. Rich tradition can be an anchor of stability and ashield to guard one from irresponsibility and hasty decision.5. ConclusionsThere are significant differences in UEW and UCC Social Studies graduate teachers’ conception of Social Studies.The background knowledge of Social Studies teachers is built from their training institutions. Knowledge based onthe documentation of the Social Studithe subject.Teachers have varied conceptions about Social Studies as an amalgamation of the social sciences, citizenshipeducation, reflective inquiry or problem solving. MostResearch on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)92even approaches to teaching the subject. This means teachers who experience different contexts in their initialtraining may adopt different approaches to teaching.Social Studies Curriculum should be separated into Individual Subject areas rathercipline shows a Chi-square of 109.7 with p-value of 0.000. This shows that thereexist significant difference in the responses from UCC and UEW. It shows that out of the 75 graduates from eachuniversity, 41 (54.7%) respondents who strongly agreed were UCC products, whilst 3 (4.0%) were graduates fromUEW. Respondents who agreed were 31 (41.3%) UCC products whilst 6 (8.0%) were graduates from UEW. NoUCC product was certain, whilst 2 (2.7%) were UEW products. Respondents who disagreed was 1 (1.3%) UCCate, whilst 27 (36.0%) were products of UEW. Respondents who strongly disagreed were 2 (2.7%) UCCproducts, whilst 37 (49.3%) were products of UEW. The above shows that respondents who are UCC productsagreed that social studies curriculum should be separated into individual subject areas rather than organized asintegrated discipline, whilst respondents who are UEW products disagreed to that. This clear conceptual differencewill go a long way to influence products from UCC and UEW in perceiving the subject, selection of its content, howit will be taught and even the assessment procedure to be used. That is why the content of the curriculum, and theaims and functions of schooling is very imperative and not to be under emphasized. In tackling it, care needtaken to distinguish between education and schooling - for although education can occur in schools, so can missSocial Studies Curriculum should be determined by Content that is Essential for theof Positive Attitudes of Students shows a Chi-square value of 35.272 with p-that there exist significant differences in the responses from UCC and UEW. Teaching and learning about how toinculcate into students how to become competent, reflective and responsible citizens and about critical decisionmaking must be taken very seriously in social studies curricula of institutions as curriculum dictates what is taught inschools. This can be done best when content is packed in attitudes building themes (Simonson & Maushak 2001).This really shows that there is the need for harmonizing the curriculum of both universities since the ultimate goal ofSocial Studies is citizenship education.Social Studies Curriculum of Schools should focus on the Great Thinkers andshows Chi-square of 33.411 and a p-value of 0.000. This shows that significantdifferences exist in the responses from UCC and UEW. The above shows that most respondentsgraduates agreed that Social Studies curriculum of schools should focus on the great thinkers and problem solvers ofthe past, whilst most respondents who are UEW graduates disagreed to that. UCC products agreed to that assertion inhat they are made to take compulsory courses in history that deals with great thinkers and problem solversof the past as depicted in their social studies course structure, whilst in UEW students were taught in a single subject, theme based and trans-disciplinary approach.Social Studies Curriculum Planners should consider key Social and Cultural Situationin the Community in their Social Studies Programme shows a Chi-square of 14.772 with ashows that significant differences exist in the responses from UCC and UEW. The above shows that most of theproducts of UCC disagreed, whilst most of the respondents who are UEW products agreed to that. Most of theused as to why the ideal culture need to be preserved and those objectionable ones like‘Trokosi’ (custom whereby virgin girls are made to serve at shrines to atone for the sins committed by a familymember) and widowhood rites abolished or refined. A citizen cannot be called educated if he or she is trained tomisunderstand his or her immediate environment and the world. Rich tradition can be an anchor of stability and ashield to guard one from irresponsibility and hasty decision.e significant differences in UEW and UCC Social Studies graduate teachers’ conception of Social Studies.The background knowledge of Social Studies teachers is built from their training institutions. Knowledge based onthe documentation of the Social Studies curricula of both universities influence how trained teachers conceptualizeTeachers have varied conceptions about Social Studies as an amalgamation of the social sciences, citizenshipeducation, reflective inquiry or problem solving. Most UCC graduates conceptualize the subject as amalgamationwww.iiste.orgachers who experience different contexts in their initialSocial Studies Curriculum should be separated into Individual Subject areas rathervalue of 0.000. This shows that thereexist significant difference in the responses from UCC and UEW. It shows that out of the 75 graduates from eachproducts, whilst 3 (4.0%) were graduates fromUEW. Respondents who agreed were 31 (41.3%) UCC products whilst 6 (8.0%) were graduates from UEW. NoUCC product was certain, whilst 2 (2.7%) were UEW products. Respondents who disagreed was 1 (1.3%) UCCate, whilst 27 (36.0%) were products of UEW. Respondents who strongly disagreed were 2 (2.7%) UCCproducts, whilst 37 (49.3%) were products of UEW. The above shows that respondents who are UCC productsted into individual subject areas rather than organized asintegrated discipline, whilst respondents who are UEW products disagreed to that. This clear conceptual differencet, selection of its content, howThat is why the content of the curriculum, and theIn tackling it, care needs to befor although education can occur in schools, so can miss-Social Studies Curriculum should be determined by Content that is Essential for the-value of 0.000. This showsthat there exist significant differences in the responses from UCC and UEW. Teaching and learning about how toetent, reflective and responsible citizens and about critical decision-making must be taken very seriously in social studies curricula of institutions as curriculum dictates what is taught ines building themes (Simonson & Maushak 2001).This really shows that there is the need for harmonizing the curriculum of both universities since the ultimate goal oficulum of Schools should focus on the Great Thinkers andvalue of 0.000. This shows that significantdifferences exist in the responses from UCC and UEW. The above shows that most respondents who are UCCgraduates agreed that Social Studies curriculum of schools should focus on the great thinkers and problem solvers ofthe past, whilst most respondents who are UEW graduates disagreed to that. UCC products agreed to that assertion inhat they are made to take compulsory courses in history that deals with great thinkers and problem solversof the past as depicted in their social studies course structure, whilst in UEW students were taught in a single subjectSocial Studies Curriculum Planners should consider key Social and Cultural Situationsquare of 14.772 with a p-value of 0.005. Thisshows that significant differences exist in the responses from UCC and UEW. The above shows that most of theproducts of UCC disagreed, whilst most of the respondents who are UEW products agreed to that. Most of theused as to why the ideal culture need to be preserved and those objectionable ones like‘Trokosi’ (custom whereby virgin girls are made to serve at shrines to atone for the sins committed by a familyzen cannot be called educated if he or she is trained tomisunderstand his or her immediate environment and the world. Rich tradition can be an anchor of stability and ae significant differences in UEW and UCC Social Studies graduate teachers’ conception of Social Studies.The background knowledge of Social Studies teachers is built from their training institutions. Knowledge based ones curricula of both universities influence how trained teachers conceptualizeTeachers have varied conceptions about Social Studies as an amalgamation of the social sciences, citizenshipUCC graduates conceptualize the subject as amalgamation
  9. 9. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013with a multidisciplinary approach, whilst most UEW graduates conceptualize it as problemtrans-disciplinary in nature. Whilst graduates of UCC agreed that Social Studies currsubject-centred (i.e. geography, economics, etc), UEW products disagreed with that assertion.Most UCC graduates conceptualizing the subject as amalgamation, view the content to be presentation andmemorization of facts bootlegged from the social sciences, whilst most UEW graduates conceptualizing it asproblem solving subject, view the nature and content to cover areas that need to help students cultivate problemsolving skills. Although some teachers conceptualize Social Studiinterpreted it as education for the citizenry instead of imbuing in students values, attitudes and skills. There is clearindication that the present Social Studies programme in Ghana is not adequately acespecially with reference to positive attitude cultivation and life skill development for effective citizenship.6. RecommendationsIt shows clearly that there are confusing arrays of conceptual perspectives concerning the aims,Social Studies and that cultivation of a clearer conception of the subject in Ghana has become very necessary. Sincecurriculum dictates what is to be taught in an educational system, there should be a national curriculum policy onsocial studies in Ghana. This will guide various universities to build a common knowledge base for teachers of thesubject by infusing into their Social Studies curricula with more value oriented, skill development and problemsolving content. This will equip student teachers comprehensively, in emphasizing the cognitive, affective andpsychomotor components of Social Studies objectives in classroom situations.Furthermore, the Social Studies curricula of both University of Cape Coast (UCC) and the UniversitWinneba (UEW) should be infused with patriotic and globalized education, political and economic education,because students’ identification with their own nation and culture might not be formed by only the local civiceducation, as their knowledge base on global citizenship education and the essence of inclusion in the schoolcurriculum was found wanting.The two universities, UCC and UEW, should work out a common inEducation Service (GES) to draw up regular inguide them to re-evaluate and upgrade their knowledge base and conceptions about the subject and prepare them toface the challenges engulfing the teaching of the subject.innovative techniques for the effective teaching of the subject.ReferencesAkinlaye, F. A. (2002). Social Studies methods for teachersAkinlaye, F. A. (2003). Fundamentals of Social Studies curriculum planning and institutionEducational Publishers.Almarza, D. J. (2001). Context shaping: Minority language students’ perception of American history.Social Studies Retrieved January 30, 2012, from http://www.social studies/almarza/showPdfBandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and actions: A social cognitive theoryPrentice-Hall.Bekoe, S. O., & Eshun, I. (2013). Curriculum feuding and implemeSchool (SHS) Social Studies in Ghana.Bekoe, S. O. O. (2006). Assessment and curriculum goals and objectives: Evaluation of the systemic impact of theSSSCE on the senior secondary school social studies curriculum in Ghana. Unpublished PhD Thesis submitted atUniversity of Strathclyde, Scotland, UK.Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think,know, believe, and do. Language TeachingBrown, D. F. (1992). Altering curriculum through statePaper presented at the annual meeting of the American research association at San Francisco anBryan, L. A., & Atwater, M. M. (2002). Teacher beliefs and cultural models: A challenge for science teacherpreparation programs. Science Education,Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)93with a multidisciplinary approach, whilst most UEW graduates conceptualize it as problemdisciplinary in nature. Whilst graduates of UCC agreed that Social Studies curriculum of schools should becentred (i.e. geography, economics, etc), UEW products disagreed with that assertion.Most UCC graduates conceptualizing the subject as amalgamation, view the content to be presentation andged from the social sciences, whilst most UEW graduates conceptualizing it asproblem solving subject, view the nature and content to cover areas that need to help students cultivate problemsolving skills. Although some teachers conceptualize Social Studies as citizenship education, they were confused andinterpreted it as education for the citizenry instead of imbuing in students values, attitudes and skills. There is clearindication that the present Social Studies programme in Ghana is not adequately acespecially with reference to positive attitude cultivation and life skill development for effective citizenship.It shows clearly that there are confusing arrays of conceptual perspectives concerning the aims,Social Studies and that cultivation of a clearer conception of the subject in Ghana has become very necessary. Sincecurriculum dictates what is to be taught in an educational system, there should be a national curriculum policy oncial studies in Ghana. This will guide various universities to build a common knowledge base for teachers of thesubject by infusing into their Social Studies curricula with more value oriented, skill development and problemp student teachers comprehensively, in emphasizing the cognitive, affective andpsychomotor components of Social Studies objectives in classroom situations.Furthermore, the Social Studies curricula of both University of Cape Coast (UCC) and the UniversitWinneba (UEW) should be infused with patriotic and globalized education, political and economic education,because students’ identification with their own nation and culture might not be formed by only the local civicowledge base on global citizenship education and the essence of inclusion in the schoolThe two universities, UCC and UEW, should work out a common in-service programme in concert with the Ghanaup regular in-service training for serving teachers already in the field. This willevaluate and upgrade their knowledge base and conceptions about the subject and prepare them toface the challenges engulfing the teaching of the subject. It will also help teachers to be abreast with the new andinnovative techniques for the effective teaching of the subject.Social Studies methods for teachers (2ndEd), Agege: Pumark Educational Publishers.Fundamentals of Social Studies curriculum planning and institutionAlmarza, D. J. (2001). Context shaping: Minority language students’ perception of American history.January 30, 2012, from http://www.social studies/almarza/showPdfSocial foundations of thought and actions: A social cognitive theoryBekoe, S. O., & Eshun, I. (2013). Curriculum feuding and implementation challenges: The case of Senior HighSchool (SHS) Social Studies in Ghana. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(5), 39-45.Bekoe, S. O. O. (2006). Assessment and curriculum goals and objectives: Evaluation of the systemic impact of thesenior secondary school social studies curriculum in Ghana. Unpublished PhD Thesis submitted atUniversity of Strathclyde, Scotland, UK.Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think,Language Teaching 36(2), 81- 109.Altering curriculum through state-mandated testing: perceptions of teachers and principalsPaper presented at the annual meeting of the American research association at San Francisco anBryan, L. A., & Atwater, M. M. (2002). Teacher beliefs and cultural models: A challenge for science teacherScience Education, 86, 821 -839.www.iiste.orgwith a multidisciplinary approach, whilst most UEW graduates conceptualize it as problem-oriented subject which isiculum of schools should becentred (i.e. geography, economics, etc), UEW products disagreed with that assertion.Most UCC graduates conceptualizing the subject as amalgamation, view the content to be presentation andged from the social sciences, whilst most UEW graduates conceptualizing it asproblem solving subject, view the nature and content to cover areas that need to help students cultivate problemes as citizenship education, they were confused andinterpreted it as education for the citizenry instead of imbuing in students values, attitudes and skills. There is clearindication that the present Social Studies programme in Ghana is not adequately achieving the desired goalsespecially with reference to positive attitude cultivation and life skill development for effective citizenship.It shows clearly that there are confusing arrays of conceptual perspectives concerning the aims, nature and content ofSocial Studies and that cultivation of a clearer conception of the subject in Ghana has become very necessary. Sincecurriculum dictates what is to be taught in an educational system, there should be a national curriculum policy oncial studies in Ghana. This will guide various universities to build a common knowledge base for teachers of thesubject by infusing into their Social Studies curricula with more value oriented, skill development and problem-p student teachers comprehensively, in emphasizing the cognitive, affective andFurthermore, the Social Studies curricula of both University of Cape Coast (UCC) and the University of Education,Winneba (UEW) should be infused with patriotic and globalized education, political and economic education,because students’ identification with their own nation and culture might not be formed by only the local civicowledge base on global citizenship education and the essence of inclusion in the schoolservice programme in concert with the Ghanaservice training for serving teachers already in the field. This willevaluate and upgrade their knowledge base and conceptions about the subject and prepare them toIt will also help teachers to be abreast with the new andEd), Agege: Pumark Educational Publishers.Fundamentals of Social Studies curriculum planning and institution. Agege: PumarkAlmarza, D. J. (2001). Context shaping: Minority language students’ perception of American history. Journal ofJanuary 30, 2012, from http://www.social studies/almarza/showPdfSocial foundations of thought and actions: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:ntation challenges: The case of Senior HighBekoe, S. O. O. (2006). Assessment and curriculum goals and objectives: Evaluation of the systemic impact of thesenior secondary school social studies curriculum in Ghana. Unpublished PhD Thesis submitted atBorg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think,mandated testing: perceptions of teachers and principals.Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American research association at San Francisco and California.Bryan, L. A., & Atwater, M. M. (2002). Teacher beliefs and cultural models: A challenge for science teacher
  10. 10. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013Chandler, D. (2005). Selectivity and perceptual constancyhttp://www.wikipedia.org/wki/perceptionChiodo, J. J., & Byford, J. (2004). Do they really dislike social studies? A study of middle school and high schoolstudents. Retrieved January 27, 2012, from http://www.social studies/org/abtClark, C. M., & Peterson, P. L. (1986). Teachers’ thought processes. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.),on Teaching (pp. 255-296). New York: MacMillan.CRDD (1987). Social Studies teaching syllabus for Junior Secondary Schools.CRDD (2007). Social Studies teaching syllabus for Senior Secondary Schools.CRDD. (2010). Social Studies teaching syllabus for Senior High Schools.Cronin-Jones, L. L. (1991). Science teacher bstudies. Journal of Research in Science Teaching,Eshun, I., & Mensah, M. F. (2013). Investigation of pedagogical content knowledge of graduate Social Studiesteachers in Senior High Schools in the Western Region of Ghana.Gess-Newsome, J., & Lederman, N. G. (1995). Biology teachers’ perceptions of subject matter structure and itsrelationship to classroom practice. Journal of ResGudmundsdottir, S., & Shulman, L. S. (1987). Pedagogical content knowledge in social studies.Journal of Educational Research, 31Haney, J. J., Lumpe, A. T., Czerniak, C. M., & Egan, V. (2002)teachers implementing change. Journal of Science Teacher EducationHocket, J. A. (1941). The social studies.Jarolimek, J. (1967). Guidelines for elementary Social StudiesCurriculum Development.Kagan, D. M. (1992). Implications of research on teacher belief.Kang, N-H., & Wallace, C. S. (2005). Secondaryepistemological beliefs, goals, and practices.Kissock, C. (1981). Curriculum planning for Social Studies teachingKyle, W. C. (1999). Science education in developing countries: Challenging first world hegemony in a globalcontext. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, (36),Lumpe, A. T., Haney, J. J., & Czerniak, C. M. (1998). Science teacher beliefs and intentions regarding tcooperative learning. School Science and Mathematics,Nespor, J. (1987). The role of beliefs in the practice of teaching.Martorella, P. H. (1994). Social Studies for elementary schoolPajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct.Educational Research, 62, 307-332.Shavelson, R. J., & Stern, P. (1981). Research on teachers’ pedagogicabehaviour. Review of Educational Research, 51Simonson, M., & Maushak, N. (2001). Instructional technology and attitude change. In D. Jonassen (Ed.),of Research for Educational Communications and TErlbaum Associates.Shiundu, J. O., & Mohammed, A. (1994). Issues in Social Studies teacher education in Africa.Forum, 2(2), Nairobi: ASSP.Tobin, K., & LaMaster, S. U. (1995).curriculum change. Journal of Research in Science TeachingTobin, K., & McRobbie, C. J. (1997). Beliefs about the nature of science and the enacted science cur& Education, 6, 355-371.Todd, R. H. (2005). Social Studies wars: What should we teach the children?Tschannen-Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure.Educational Research, 68(2), 202-248.University of Cape Coast. (2008). Social Studies programme structureResearch on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)94Selectivity and perceptual constancy. Retrieved January 22http://www.wikipedia.org/wki/perception. Do they really dislike social studies? A study of middle school and high schoolRetrieved January 27, 2012, from http://www.social studies/org/abtM., & Peterson, P. L. (1986). Teachers’ thought processes. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.),296). New York: MacMillan.Social Studies teaching syllabus for Junior Secondary Schools. Accra: Ministry of EducatioSocial Studies teaching syllabus for Senior Secondary Schools. Accra: Ministry of Education.Social Studies teaching syllabus for Senior High Schools. Accra: Ministry of Education.Jones, L. L. (1991). Science teacher beliefs and their influence on curriculum implementation: Two caseJournal of Research in Science Teaching, 28, 235-250.Eshun, I., & Mensah, M. F. (2013). Investigation of pedagogical content knowledge of graduate Social StudiesHigh Schools in the Western Region of Ghana. Journal of Education and PracticeNewsome, J., & Lederman, N. G. (1995). Biology teachers’ perceptions of subject matter structure and itsJournal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(3), 301-325.Gudmundsdottir, S., & Shulman, L. S. (1987). Pedagogical content knowledge in social studies.31, 59-70.Haney, J. J., Lumpe, A. T., Czerniak, C. M., & Egan, V. (2002). From beliefs to actions: The beliefs and actions ofJournal of Science Teacher Education, 13(3), 171-187.Hocket, J. A. (1941). The social studies. Review of Educational Research, 11(4), 421-428.ines for elementary Social Studies. Washington: Association for Supervision andKagan, D. M. (1992). Implications of research on teacher belief. Educational Psychologist,H., & Wallace, C. S. (2005). Secondary science teachers’ use of laboratory activities: Linkingepistemological beliefs, goals, and practices. Science Education, 89, 140 – 165.Curriculum planning for Social Studies teaching. New York: John Wiley & Sons.cience education in developing countries: Challenging first world hegemony in a globalJournal of Research in Science Teaching, (36), 255-260.Lumpe, A. T., Haney, J. J., & Czerniak, C. M. (1998). Science teacher beliefs and intentions regarding tSchool Science and Mathematics, 98(3), 123 – 132.Nespor, J. (1987). The role of beliefs in the practice of teaching. Journal of Curriculum Studies,Social Studies for elementary school children. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct.332.Shavelson, R. J., & Stern, P. (1981). Research on teachers’ pedagogical thoughts, judgementsReview of Educational Research, 51, 455-498.Simonson, M., & Maushak, N. (2001). Instructional technology and attitude change. In D. Jonassen (Ed.),of Research for Educational Communications and Technology (pp. 984-1016). Mahway, New Jersey: LawrenceShiundu, J. O., & Mohammed, A. (1994). Issues in Social Studies teacher education in Africa.Tobin, K., & LaMaster, S. U. (1995). Relationships between metaphors, beliefs, and actions in a context of scienceJournal of Research in Science Teaching, 32 (3), 225-242.Tobin, K., & McRobbie, C. J. (1997). Beliefs about the nature of science and the enacted science curSocial Studies wars: What should we teach the children? New York: Teachers College Press.Moran, M., Hoy, A. W., & Hoy, W. K. (1998). Teacher efficacy: Its meaning and measure.248.Social Studies programme structure. 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  11. 11. Research on Humanities and Social SciencesISSN 2222-1719 (Paper) ISSN 2222Vol.3, No.5, 2013University of Education. (2009). Social Studies programme structureVerjovsky, J., & Waldegg, G. (2005). AnJournal of Research in Science Teaching,Waters-Adams, S. (2006). The relationship between understanding of the nature of science and practice: Theinfluence of teachers’ beliefs about education, teaching and learning.(8), 919-944.Research on Humanities and Social Sciences9 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2863 (Online)95Social Studies programme structure. Winneba: Author.Verjovsky, J., & Waldegg, G. (2005). Analyzing beliefs and practices of a Mexican high school biology teacher.Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(4), 465-491.Adams, S. (2006). The relationship between understanding of the nature of science and practice: Thes’ beliefs about education, teaching and learning. International Journal of Science Educationwww.iiste.orgalyzing beliefs and practices of a Mexican high school biology teacher.Adams, S. (2006). The relationship between understanding of the nature of science and practice: TheInternational Journal of Science Education, 28
  12. 12. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgCALL FOR PAPERSThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline forsubmission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submissioninstruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar

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