Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Evaluation of the Environmental ...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013treatment selected depends on se...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 20132.3 Analysis Of Soil SamplesThe ...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Agricultural soil as 0.03 – 0.5 ...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013illustrated in Figure 12 has max...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Akande, J. M. and Awojobi, D. A....
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 1: Mean Value and Signific...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 3: Mean Value and Signific...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 1:Figure 2: Analysis of O...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 5:Figure 6:Figure 7:Figur...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 9: Analysis of Electrical...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 14:Figure 15:Figure 16:Fi...
Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 18:Figure 19:0246810Potas...
This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE...
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Evaluation of the environmental effects of the abandoned quarries strabag quarry at ibadan, nigeria and rcc quarry at wasinmi, ikire, nigeria

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Evaluation of the environmental effects of the abandoned quarries strabag quarry at ibadan, nigeria and rcc quarry at wasinmi, ikire, nigeria

  1. 1. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Evaluation of the Environmental Effects of the AbandonedQuarries Strabag Quarry at Ibadan, Nigeria and RCC Quarry atJ. M. Akande1,2Department of Mining Engineering, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.3Federal Ministry of Mines and Steel Development, Ibadan, NigeriaAbstractThe research work evaluates the environmental effects of the abandoned quarries Strabag and RCC quarries. Soilsamples were collected at different locations in and around the study areas and water samples were also colfor the laboratory analysis. Soil samples were analysed for the determination of macronutrients andmicronutrients while water samples were analysed for determination of chemical parameters such as pH, Fe, Cr,Si, K+, Na+, Ca++, Mg++, CC-, SO4, NOcollected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Turkey’s test was used to verify thesignificant differences among treatment means at the 5% probability level. Linearanalysis between soil and water parameters (Y) and the distance from quarry (X) was performed using MicrosoftExcel. The results obtained revealed that most of the deficiencies observed in chemical analysis of soil andwater samples from the studied areas have no direct link with previous mining operation in the areas. It was alsorevealed from the findings that abandoned quarries (granite) have more of physical constraints than the chemicalconstraints.Keywords: Environmental effects, abandoned quarries, macronutrients, micronutrients, physical constraints,chemical constraints.1. IntroductionMinerals exploitation has an essential role in global development, by raising and maintaining living standards(Laurence, 2001). Also, extracting minerals is one of the oldest and most important human endeavours becauseit provides the raw ingredients for most of the world and, like agriculture, is the lifeblood of civilization (Eagles,1984). In addition, mining affects our standarditems that are used in homes, offices, transportation, communication, and national defence all require mineralsuse (Bureau of Mines, 2002).Indigenous and organized mining operations have been othe 1stWorld War (Ajakpo, 1986). However, the interest in the exploitation of these resources is on increaseand have the widespread and increasing numbers of abundant mines of minerals (Limestone,Gemstones etc) leaving behind vast bare and degraded land, (>10 hectares per mine) at close of miningoperations (FME, 1999).The cumulative effect of these pockets of mining activities, as they gained prominence, has been abandonment othe mine sites, which occur as a result of many factors. These include; total exploitation of minerals in a site;poor and rudimentary mining equipment; inadequate skills; weak regulatory institutions of the sectors in the past;inadequate financial investment; absence of developed market and the post 20of illegal mining (Ashawa, 2007). Mines abandonment has led to serious negative environment and ecologicalimpacts. The resultant effect of the abandoned mines and quarragricultural land, distortion of the natural environment, accidental deaths, pollution due to dumping at the sites,breeding of disease vectors, creation of habitats for reptiles and other dangerous animals and so1985 and 1986). Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability,disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem that is physical system or living organisms.environmental pollution in developing nations most especially from manufacturing companies or industries is atan alarming rate. Many of the industries release solid particles, water droplets and gases in to the atmosphere,while some release their wastes on land or in to water benvironment (Akande et al., 2013).There are many physical, chemical and biological technologies for treating mined out area, however theJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)129Evaluation of the Environmental Effects of the AbandonedQuarries Strabag Quarry at Ibadan, Nigeria and RCC Quarry atWasinmi, Ikire, NigeriaJ. M. Akande1*, A. I. Lawal2and 3W. A. AdeboyeDepartment of Mining Engineering, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.Federal Ministry of Mines and Steel Development, Ibadan, NigeriaEmail: akandejn@yahoo.comThe research work evaluates the environmental effects of the abandoned quarries Strabag and RCC quarries. Soilsamples were collected at different locations in and around the study areas and water samples were also colfor the laboratory analysis. Soil samples were analysed for the determination of macronutrients andmicronutrients while water samples were analysed for determination of chemical parameters such as pH, Fe, Cr,, NO3-and water hardness in triplicate. The laboratory test results and datacollected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Turkey’s test was used to verify thesignificant differences among treatment means at the 5% probability level. Linear correlation and regressionanalysis between soil and water parameters (Y) and the distance from quarry (X) was performed using Microsoft. The results obtained revealed that most of the deficiencies observed in chemical analysis of soil andples from the studied areas have no direct link with previous mining operation in the areas. It was alsorevealed from the findings that abandoned quarries (granite) have more of physical constraints than the chemicalffects, abandoned quarries, macronutrients, micronutrients, physical constraints,Minerals exploitation has an essential role in global development, by raising and maintaining living standardso, extracting minerals is one of the oldest and most important human endeavours becauseit provides the raw ingredients for most of the world and, like agriculture, is the lifeblood of civilization (Eagles,1984). In addition, mining affects our standard of living and impacts almost everything we do. A variety ofitems that are used in homes, offices, transportation, communication, and national defence all require mineralsIndigenous and organized mining operations have been ongoing in Nigeria since the 20th century, shortly beforeWorld War (Ajakpo, 1986). However, the interest in the exploitation of these resources is on increaseand have the widespread and increasing numbers of abundant mines of minerals (Limestone,Gemstones etc) leaving behind vast bare and degraded land, (>10 hectares per mine) at close of miningThe cumulative effect of these pockets of mining activities, as they gained prominence, has been abandonment othe mine sites, which occur as a result of many factors. These include; total exploitation of minerals in a site;poor and rudimentary mining equipment; inadequate skills; weak regulatory institutions of the sectors in the past;estment; absence of developed market and the post 20thcentury government prohibitionof illegal mining (Ashawa, 2007). Mines abandonment has led to serious negative environment and ecologicalimpacts. The resultant effect of the abandoned mines and quarries in Nigeria ranges from devastation ofagricultural land, distortion of the natural environment, accidental deaths, pollution due to dumping at the sites,breeding of disease vectors, creation of habitats for reptiles and other dangerous animals and soPollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability,disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem that is physical system or living organisms.in developing nations most especially from manufacturing companies or industries is atan alarming rate. Many of the industries release solid particles, water droplets and gases in to the atmosphere,while some release their wastes on land or in to water bodies. Majority of these are not friendly with theThere are many physical, chemical and biological technologies for treating mined out area, however thewww.iiste.orgEvaluation of the Environmental Effects of the AbandonedQuarries Strabag Quarry at Ibadan, Nigeria and RCC Quarry atDepartment of Mining Engineering, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.The research work evaluates the environmental effects of the abandoned quarries Strabag and RCC quarries. Soilsamples were collected at different locations in and around the study areas and water samples were also collectedfor the laboratory analysis. Soil samples were analysed for the determination of macronutrients andmicronutrients while water samples were analysed for determination of chemical parameters such as pH, Fe, Cr,and water hardness in triplicate. The laboratory test results and datacollected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Turkey’s test was used to verify thecorrelation and regressionanalysis between soil and water parameters (Y) and the distance from quarry (X) was performed using Microsoft. The results obtained revealed that most of the deficiencies observed in chemical analysis of soil andples from the studied areas have no direct link with previous mining operation in the areas. It was alsorevealed from the findings that abandoned quarries (granite) have more of physical constraints than the chemicalffects, abandoned quarries, macronutrients, micronutrients, physical constraints,Minerals exploitation has an essential role in global development, by raising and maintaining living standardso, extracting minerals is one of the oldest and most important human endeavours becauseit provides the raw ingredients for most of the world and, like agriculture, is the lifeblood of civilization (Eagles,of living and impacts almost everything we do. A variety ofitems that are used in homes, offices, transportation, communication, and national defence all require mineralsngoing in Nigeria since the 20th century, shortly beforeWorld War (Ajakpo, 1986). However, the interest in the exploitation of these resources is on increaseand have the widespread and increasing numbers of abundant mines of minerals (Limestone, Granite, Iron Ore,Gemstones etc) leaving behind vast bare and degraded land, (>10 hectares per mine) at close of miningThe cumulative effect of these pockets of mining activities, as they gained prominence, has been abandonment ofthe mine sites, which occur as a result of many factors. These include; total exploitation of minerals in a site;poor and rudimentary mining equipment; inadequate skills; weak regulatory institutions of the sectors in the past;century government prohibitionof illegal mining (Ashawa, 2007). Mines abandonment has led to serious negative environment and ecologicalies in Nigeria ranges from devastation ofagricultural land, distortion of the natural environment, accidental deaths, pollution due to dumping at the sites,breeding of disease vectors, creation of habitats for reptiles and other dangerous animals and so on (Alexander,Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability,disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem that is physical system or living organisms. The rate ofin developing nations most especially from manufacturing companies or industries is atan alarming rate. Many of the industries release solid particles, water droplets and gases in to the atmosphere,odies. Majority of these are not friendly with theThere are many physical, chemical and biological technologies for treating mined out area, however the
  2. 2. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013treatment selected depends on severity of degradation, the site chatime constraints (Steffen et al., 2004). More so, the technical approaches taken to reclamation are as varied as theminerals in question and their methods of extraction. For instance, the sand and gravel opeaddress the issue of post mining land use due to the proximity of most operations to urban areas. This segmentof industry is recognized for its pioneering work in applying siteoperations.The focus of the research for this research is to carry out detailed analyses on abandoned granite quarries usingStrabag quarry at Adebayi area, Ibadan, Oyo State and RCC quarry at Wasinmi, Ikire, Osun State as case studiesto determine the environmental effects and necessary technical solutions of the abandoned quarries.1.1 Location And Accessibility Of The Study AreasStrabag abandoned (Granite) quarry is located at Adegbayi area of Egbeda Local Government in the accent cityof Ibadan, Oyo state. The site is on latitude 07through many routes, among them are: Strabag bustabout 400m distance and river OsunWithin the basement complex of Oyo state, the abandoned Strabag quarry is chosen as a case study. The quarryis over 30 years abandoned and is now within the hearth of the city. The granite deposite in this quarry ismassive with parts of it covered withThe deposite is geometrically doom-water (suspected to have its main source from underground water)RCC abandoned (Granite) quarry is located at Wasinmi, Irewole Local Government Area, Osun state. The siteis located on Latitude 07o25′ 28′′Ibadan-Ife expressway.2. COLLECTION OF SAMPLESSampling of soil and water of both sites were conducted by two men (author and field assistance. Implementssuch as cutlass, spade, digger, waterMeter-rule and a weight measuring scale were used for measurement.2.1 Soil SamplingSoil samples were collected at different locations in and around the study areas. The sampling was done withinzero radius of the quarries to measure the degree of contamination and pollution resultingactivities after long abandonment. The sampling continued with 50meter increase in mine radius to study thebehavioral pattern of pollution with distance from the abandoned quarry area.Soil samples labeled SS1, SS2, SS3 … SSSR1, SR2, SR3 … SR13. Samples SSwhere there is no influence of mining operation, to serve as control points.As suggested by Ibitoye, (1994), that a good representative soil sample should be taken at a depth of at least10cm. The soil samples were collected with a spade at an approximated depth of 15cm to eliminate the effectsof exposure at the surface (Bache and Mac, 1984). Tsieved through a 2mm sieve. Thereafter, a further 24 hours drying was conducted.2.2 Water SamplingWater samples were collected at 13 different locations within and around each of the study areas. Thwas done within zero radiuses of the quarries to measure the degree of contamination and pollution resultingfrom quarrying activities after long abandonment. The sampling continued with 50meter increase in mineradius to study the behavioral pattern of pollution with distance from the abandoned quarry areas.The water samples labeled WS1, WSlabeled WR1, WR2, WR3,….,WR13. The choice of sample locations were based on availabilitalso some the location distances were on approximations. Samples WS4km away from each of the quarries sites to serve as control points. The water samples were collected at a depthof 30cm bellow the water surface where water mixes very well (FAO, 1995). 1.5 litres of each sample wastaken to the laboratory immediately in a covered plastic container to avoid contamination and any possiblechemical changes (Stiefel and Bush, 1983).Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)130treatment selected depends on severity of degradation, the site characteristics, regulatory requirement, cost and2004). More so, the technical approaches taken to reclamation are as varied as theminerals in question and their methods of extraction. For instance, the sand and gravel opeaddress the issue of post mining land use due to the proximity of most operations to urban areas. This segmentof industry is recognized for its pioneering work in applying site-planning principles to mining and reclamationfocus of the research for this research is to carry out detailed analyses on abandoned granite quarries usingStrabag quarry at Adebayi area, Ibadan, Oyo State and RCC quarry at Wasinmi, Ikire, Osun State as case studiescts and necessary technical solutions of the abandoned quarries.Location And Accessibility Of The Study AreasStrabag abandoned (Granite) quarry is located at Adegbayi area of Egbeda Local Government in the accent cityis on latitude 07o22′ 49′′ N and Longitude 003o58′ 57through many routes, among them are: Strabag bust-stop, at Adegbayi, along Ibadan-Ife expressway of Ibadan ofabout 400m distance and river Osun-Seni of about 300m distances.ithin the basement complex of Oyo state, the abandoned Strabag quarry is chosen as a case study. The quarryis over 30 years abandoned and is now within the hearth of the city. The granite deposite in this quarry ismassive with parts of it covered with laterite overburden and some other parts covered with trees or stumps.-shaped outcrop in which joints and cracks present. The quarry pit is full ofwater (suspected to have its main source from underground water)abandoned (Granite) quarry is located at Wasinmi, Irewole Local Government Area, Osun state. The site′ N and Longitude 004o16′ 20′′E. It is only accessible through KM 45,COLLECTION OF SAMPLESSampling of soil and water of both sites were conducted by two men (author and field assistance. Implementssuch as cutlass, spade, digger, water-fetcher, sampling bag, plastic bottles were used for sample collection.scale were used for measurement.Soil samples were collected at different locations in and around the study areas. The sampling was done withinzero radius of the quarries to measure the degree of contamination and pollution resultingactivities after long abandonment. The sampling continued with 50meter increase in mine radius to study thebehavioral pattern of pollution with distance from the abandoned quarry area.… SS13 were collected at Strabag while soil sample from RCC were labeled. Samples SS13 and SR13 were taken at location of 4km away from the quarries sites,where there is no influence of mining operation, to serve as control points.bitoye, (1994), that a good representative soil sample should be taken at a depth of at least10cm. The soil samples were collected with a spade at an approximated depth of 15cm to eliminate the effectsof exposure at the surface (Bache and Mac, 1984). The soil samples were later air-dried for 72 hours andsieved through a 2mm sieve. Thereafter, a further 24 hours drying was conducted.Water samples were collected at 13 different locations within and around each of the study areas. Thwas done within zero radiuses of the quarries to measure the degree of contamination and pollution resultingfrom quarrying activities after long abandonment. The sampling continued with 50meter increase in mineattern of pollution with distance from the abandoned quarry areas., WS2, WS3,.…,WS13 were collected at Strabag while samples from RCC were. The choice of sample locations were based on availabilitalso some the location distances were on approximations. Samples WS13 and WR13 were taken at location of4km away from each of the quarries sites to serve as control points. The water samples were collected at a depthwater surface where water mixes very well (FAO, 1995). 1.5 litres of each sample wastaken to the laboratory immediately in a covered plastic container to avoid contamination and any possiblechemical changes (Stiefel and Bush, 1983).www.iiste.orgracteristics, regulatory requirement, cost and2004). More so, the technical approaches taken to reclamation are as varied as theminerals in question and their methods of extraction. For instance, the sand and gravel operators have toaddress the issue of post mining land use due to the proximity of most operations to urban areas. This segmentplanning principles to mining and reclamationfocus of the research for this research is to carry out detailed analyses on abandoned granite quarries usingStrabag quarry at Adebayi area, Ibadan, Oyo State and RCC quarry at Wasinmi, Ikire, Osun State as case studiescts and necessary technical solutions of the abandoned quarries.Strabag abandoned (Granite) quarry is located at Adegbayi area of Egbeda Local Government in the accent city57′′E. It is accessibleIfe expressway of Ibadan ofithin the basement complex of Oyo state, the abandoned Strabag quarry is chosen as a case study. The quarryis over 30 years abandoned and is now within the hearth of the city. The granite deposite in this quarry islaterite overburden and some other parts covered with trees or stumps.shaped outcrop in which joints and cracks present. The quarry pit is full ofabandoned (Granite) quarry is located at Wasinmi, Irewole Local Government Area, Osun state. The siteE. It is only accessible through KM 45,Sampling of soil and water of both sites were conducted by two men (author and field assistance. Implementsfetcher, sampling bag, plastic bottles were used for sample collection.Soil samples were collected at different locations in and around the study areas. The sampling was done withinzero radius of the quarries to measure the degree of contamination and pollution resulting from quarryingactivities after long abandonment. The sampling continued with 50meter increase in mine radius to study theected at Strabag while soil sample from RCC were labeledwere taken at location of 4km away from the quarries sites,bitoye, (1994), that a good representative soil sample should be taken at a depth of at least10cm. The soil samples were collected with a spade at an approximated depth of 15cm to eliminate the effectsdried for 72 hours andWater samples were collected at 13 different locations within and around each of the study areas. The samplingwas done within zero radiuses of the quarries to measure the degree of contamination and pollution resultingfrom quarrying activities after long abandonment. The sampling continued with 50meter increase in mineattern of pollution with distance from the abandoned quarry areas.were collected at Strabag while samples from RCC were. The choice of sample locations were based on availability and accessibilitywere taken at location of4km away from each of the quarries sites to serve as control points. The water samples were collected at a depthwater surface where water mixes very well (FAO, 1995). 1.5 litres of each sample wastaken to the laboratory immediately in a covered plastic container to avoid contamination and any possible
  3. 3. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 20132.3 Analysis Of Soil SamplesThe soil samples were analysed at Crop and Soil Science (CSS) Laboratory of the Federal University ofTechnology, Akure. All readings were taken at room temperature. Two principal contents looked for weremacronutrients and micronutrients. Theproportionately large qualities for plant growth and development while micronutrients are those essentialnutrients required for some purpose but in minute quantities. The following nutrients codetermined: total Organic Matter by using ASTMD 2974extracted using ammonium acetate (Jackson, 1962), K and Na were determined on a flame photometer whileCa2+and Mg2+were determined by Ewas determined using the spectrophotometer. The nitrogen in the soil was determined using Macromethod. Macro-Kjeldahl’s method was employed in the determination of total orelectronic glass-electrode pH meter Jenway model.3015 and soil particle size were also determined using sieveanalysis.2.4 Laboratory Analysis Of Water SampleThe water samples were analysed at Soil Science Laboratory of ObafOsun state. All readings were taken at room temperature. The anlaysis was carried out to determine somechemical parameters such as pH, Fe, Cr, Si, Ksubjected to hardness test.The pH of water samples was determined using Electronic pH meter. Titrameter method was used in thedetermination of total hardness of water. The chloride and sulphate in water were determined using Molartitration method. Fe, Zn and Mn in water were determined using atomic Absorption mode and Na, K, Ca and Mgin water were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer model Buck Scientific 200.Each of the tests was given 3 trials (1subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Turkey’s test was used to verify the significant differencesamong treatment means at the 5% probability level. Linear correlation and regression analysis between soil andwater parameters (Y) and the distance from quarry (X) was performed using Microsoft Excel3. RESULTSTable 1 and 2 show mean value and significant difference at 0.05 level of chemical analysis of various soilsample parameters with corresponding dmean value and significant difference at 0.05 level of chemical analysis of various water sample parameters withcorresponding distances from Strabag and RCC respectively.4. DISCUSSION4.1 SOIL QUALITY OF THE STUDY AREASThe pH value ranges for plant growth is between 5.5 and 7.5 for each crop, the pH of soil as maintained at asuitable level by application to liming material, (Fitzareas show the soil samples to be moderately basic to almost neutral. All the samples, including control, couldbe seen within the allowable -limits for optimum plant growth. Figure 1 shows the pH value of the soil samplesfrom both Strabag quarry and RCC quarry.Generally, the mined out soil have very low organic matter contents as shown in Figure 2. The values oforganic matter in SS are a little moderate except those that are very close to the quarry pit. May be, it was due toits long time abandonment. None of the values in SR is up to sufficient range of 1.5do with the effect of mining activities in the area, since control, SRmonocropping method farming used inanalysed mean values are very low.Organic Carbon content of the sample in the two quarries is generally low according to Tekaliqu (1991)guideline. It is very low even with the controlorganic carbon has nothing to do with the abandoned quarry operation in the study areas.Sodium in soil is present in small quantity and restricted to acid and semi acid regions. It is one of tloosely held of metallic ions and readily lost during leaching. Sodium is beneficial to plants because it canreplace a portion of the potassium requirements.Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)131The soil samples were analysed at Crop and Soil Science (CSS) Laboratory of the Federal University ofTechnology, Akure. All readings were taken at room temperature. Two principal contents looked for weremacronutrients and micronutrients. The macronutrients are the major essential nutrients required inproportionately large qualities for plant growth and development while micronutrients are those essentialnutrients required for some purpose but in minute quantities. The following nutrients codetermined: total Organic Matter by using ASTMD 2974-87 procedures, Exchangeable K, Na, Ca and Mg wereextracted using ammonium acetate (Jackson, 1962), K and Na were determined on a flame photometer whilewere determined by Ethylene De-amine Tetra Acetic (EDTA) titration method. Soil phosphorouswas determined using the spectrophotometer. The nitrogen in the soil was determined using MacroKjeldahl’s method was employed in the determination of total organic carbon. The pH using anelectrode pH meter Jenway model.3015 and soil particle size were also determined using sieveLaboratory Analysis Of Water SampleThe water samples were analysed at Soil Science Laboratory of Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), IleOsun state. All readings were taken at room temperature. The anlaysis was carried out to determine somechemical parameters such as pH, Fe, Cr, Si, K+, Na+, Ca++, Mg++, CC-, SO4 and NO3-. The samples were alsoThe pH of water samples was determined using Electronic pH meter. Titrameter method was used in thedetermination of total hardness of water. The chloride and sulphate in water were determined using MolarMn in water were determined using atomic Absorption mode and Na, K, Ca and Mgin water were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer model Buck Scientific 200.Each of the tests was given 3 trials (1st, 2ndand 3rd) to avoid error in the experiments and data collected weresubjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Turkey’s test was used to verify the significant differencesamong treatment means at the 5% probability level. Linear correlation and regression analysis between soil ander parameters (Y) and the distance from quarry (X) was performed using Microsoft ExcelTable 1 and 2 show mean value and significant difference at 0.05 level of chemical analysis of various soilsample parameters with corresponding distances from Strabag and RCC respectively. Table 3 and 4 representmean value and significant difference at 0.05 level of chemical analysis of various water sample parameters withcorresponding distances from Strabag and RCC respectively.SOIL QUALITY OF THE STUDY AREASThe pH value ranges for plant growth is between 5.5 and 7.5 for each crop, the pH of soil as maintained at asuitable level by application to liming material, (Fitz-Patric, 1986). Most of the results obtainedareas show the soil samples to be moderately basic to almost neutral. All the samples, including control, couldlimits for optimum plant growth. Figure 1 shows the pH value of the soil samplesg quarry and RCC quarry.Generally, the mined out soil have very low organic matter contents as shown in Figure 2. The values oforganic matter in SS are a little moderate except those that are very close to the quarry pit. May be, it was due totime abandonment. None of the values in SR is up to sufficient range of 1.5-3.0%. This is unlikely todo with the effect of mining activities in the area, since control, SR13, is even 1.03. This may be as a result ofmonocropping method farming used in the area and several years of use. The significant differences amongOrganic Carbon content of the sample in the two quarries is generally low according to Tekaliqu (1991)guideline. It is very low even with the control sample as shown in Figure 3. It shows that low content of theorganic carbon has nothing to do with the abandoned quarry operation in the study areas.Sodium in soil is present in small quantity and restricted to acid and semi acid regions. It is one of tloosely held of metallic ions and readily lost during leaching. Sodium is beneficial to plants because it canreplace a portion of the potassium requirements. Adeoye (1986) gave critical range of sodium in Nigeriawww.iiste.orgThe soil samples were analysed at Crop and Soil Science (CSS) Laboratory of the Federal University ofTechnology, Akure. All readings were taken at room temperature. Two principal contents looked for weremacronutrients are the major essential nutrients required inproportionately large qualities for plant growth and development while micronutrients are those essentialnutrients required for some purpose but in minute quantities. The following nutrients compositions were87 procedures, Exchangeable K, Na, Ca and Mg wereextracted using ammonium acetate (Jackson, 1962), K and Na were determined on a flame photometer whileamine Tetra Acetic (EDTA) titration method. Soil phosphorouswas determined using the spectrophotometer. The nitrogen in the soil was determined using Macro-Kjeldahl’sganic carbon. The pH using anelectrode pH meter Jenway model.3015 and soil particle size were also determined using sieveemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife,Osun state. All readings were taken at room temperature. The anlaysis was carried out to determine some. The samples were alsoThe pH of water samples was determined using Electronic pH meter. Titrameter method was used in thedetermination of total hardness of water. The chloride and sulphate in water were determined using MolarMn in water were determined using atomic Absorption mode and Na, K, Ca and Mgin water were determined using Atomic absorption Spectrophotometer model Buck Scientific 200.iments and data collected weresubjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Turkey’s test was used to verify the significant differencesamong treatment means at the 5% probability level. Linear correlation and regression analysis between soil ander parameters (Y) and the distance from quarry (X) was performed using Microsoft Excel.Table 1 and 2 show mean value and significant difference at 0.05 level of chemical analysis of various soilistances from Strabag and RCC respectively. Table 3 and 4 representmean value and significant difference at 0.05 level of chemical analysis of various water sample parameters withThe pH value ranges for plant growth is between 5.5 and 7.5 for each crop, the pH of soil as maintained at aPatric, 1986). Most of the results obtained from the studyareas show the soil samples to be moderately basic to almost neutral. All the samples, including control, couldlimits for optimum plant growth. Figure 1 shows the pH value of the soil samplesGenerally, the mined out soil have very low organic matter contents as shown in Figure 2. The values oforganic matter in SS are a little moderate except those that are very close to the quarry pit. May be, it was due to3.0%. This is unlikely to, is even 1.03. This may be as a result ofthe area and several years of use. The significant differences amongOrganic Carbon content of the sample in the two quarries is generally low according to Tekaliqu (1991)sample as shown in Figure 3. It shows that low content of theSodium in soil is present in small quantity and restricted to acid and semi acid regions. It is one of the mostloosely held of metallic ions and readily lost during leaching. Sodium is beneficial to plants because it cangave critical range of sodium in Nigeria
  4. 4. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Agricultural soil as 0.03 – 0.5 Cmol /kg. Figure 4 shows that the sodium values in the study area are within thecritical range. Also, the significant differences among analysed mean values in the two quarries are very low.Potassium is another macronutrients needed for plant growth; itmineral found in basement complex. If is principally found in the flesh coloured KPotassium encourages the production of strong stiff straw and improves whiter hardness; it increase crresistance to leaf diseases ensures high quality plant materials (Wendell, 1996). It is also important forphotosynthesis, it’s balancing effects on both nitrogen and phosphorous forms the basis of application of NPKfertilizer to soil. Adeoye (1986),Figure 5 shows that potassium values Strabag is within the critical range while some soil samples in RCCquarries are even greater than the critical range. The significant differenceincluding the control are very low in the two study areas.Calcium is important both as a soil conditioner and as a plant nutrient, the formation of high percentage ofabsorbed cations by calcium make soil becomes flocculated.infiltration and retention (Adeoye, 1986). The calcium raises the pH value from 5, 6 and 7 increase thebacteriological activities and strengthens plant cell wall (Troch, 1980). Critical range of calcium foragricultural soil is 1.69- 9.00 (Cmol/kg). It can be observed from the Figure 6 that the calcium value is lowthough still fall within the critical range. Also, the significant difference level of the analysed mean values ismoderately high.Magnesium is mainly found as a component in Ferro magnesium minerals in rocks. They are essentially foundin biotiles, muscorite, amphiboles etc. These minerals are generally stable under high temperature conditionsbut unstable under low temperature and quicMagnesium deficiency causes interval chlorosis (Olatunju, 1999) which could be seen on the green grain of theplant leaving the leaf tissues to become uniformly pale yellow (Wendell, 1996 andCritical range of magnesium stated by (Adeoye, 1986), to range between 0.62Agricultural soil. Results shown in Figure 7 indicated that the magnesium contents of soil sample in the studyareas are moderate. There are moderately high significance differences among the mean values.4.2 ANALYSIS OF WATER IN THE STUDY AREASThe permissible range of pH in public water supplied is between 6.5 and 7.5 (WHO, 1982). All samples analysedas presented in Figure 8 are within the limitation range, however suitable for drinking except, sample fromStrabag pit, SW1 which is more acidic than other samples. Also, high level of pH in SWof level of pollution from the environment, since all otThe significant differences among analysed mean values are very low.Electrical conductance is a parameter, which function of total amount of dissolved solids in water. Theconcentration of total dissolved solid is sometimes measured indirectly by specific conductance. Theelectrolytic capacity of natural water is a function of number of moles of each ion and the electric charge of theion. Total amount of solids of water thus determines whetherecommended to have not more than 500mg/l of dissolved solids. Range obtained as shown in Figure 9 wasbetween 140µs/cm and 320µs/cm in both quarries. The control values are even within obtained range.Chloride basically is not a natural constituent of water. It was generally observed from sample analysis that thechloride values obtained are below the recommended unit. Though, no healthfor chloride. It concentrations in excessthreshold depends on the associated cations. More so, since there are no significant changes with sampledistances from the two quarries. Therefore, as shown in Figure 10, low values ofwith the abandoned quarries.The significant differences among analysed mean values in both quarries are moderately high. Sulphate is not anoxious substance (Akande and Awojobi, 2003 and Felter, 1980). Although high sulphateeffect (Felter, 1980). It gets to quarries through several sources; such as the dissolution of gypsum and othermineral deposits containing sulphate or oxidation of sulphide, presence of sulphate in drinking water can alsocause noticeable taste. Based on considerations of taste, the recommended guideline value is 250mg/l. All thesamples observed are below guideline value as indicated in Figure 11. There are low significance differencesamong the mean values.The permissible level of Nitrate in the public water supplies is 10mg/l (WHO, 1992). However, E.C directivesuggests a guide level of 25mg/l. Water containing high Nitrate concentration is potentially harmful to infantsand young children (Twort et al., 1986). In line wiJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)132Cmol /kg. Figure 4 shows that the sodium values in the study area are within thecritical range. Also, the significant differences among analysed mean values in the two quarries are very low.Potassium is another macronutrients needed for plant growth; it is an important component of rock formingmineral found in basement complex. If is principally found in the flesh coloured K-Feldspars (Awojobi, 2002).Potassium encourages the production of strong stiff straw and improves whiter hardness; it increase crresistance to leaf diseases ensures high quality plant materials (Wendell, 1996). It is also important forphotosynthesis, it’s balancing effects on both nitrogen and phosphorous forms the basis of application of NPKgave the critical range of potassium as 0.27 – 0.70 Cmol/kg. Therefore,Figure 5 shows that potassium values Strabag is within the critical range while some soil samples in RCCquarries are even greater than the critical range. The significant differences among analysed mean valuesincluding the control are very low in the two study areas.Calcium is important both as a soil conditioner and as a plant nutrient, the formation of high percentage ofabsorbed cations by calcium make soil becomes flocculated. This facilitates good aeration and good waterinfiltration and retention (Adeoye, 1986). The calcium raises the pH value from 5, 6 and 7 increase thebacteriological activities and strengthens plant cell wall (Troch, 1980). Critical range of calcium for9.00 (Cmol/kg). It can be observed from the Figure 6 that the calcium value is lowthough still fall within the critical range. Also, the significant difference level of the analysed mean values issium is mainly found as a component in Ferro magnesium minerals in rocks. They are essentially foundin biotiles, muscorite, amphiboles etc. These minerals are generally stable under high temperature conditionsbut unstable under low temperature and quickly weather to produce magnesium ions (Lombin and Fayemi, 1976).Magnesium deficiency causes interval chlorosis (Olatunju, 1999) which could be seen on the green grain of theplant leaving the leaf tissues to become uniformly pale yellow (Wendell, 1996 and Lockwood Pimm, 2000).Critical range of magnesium stated by (Adeoye, 1986), to range between 0.62- 2.69 (Coml./kg) for NigeriaAgricultural soil. Results shown in Figure 7 indicated that the magnesium contents of soil sample in the studyate. There are moderately high significance differences among the mean values..2 ANALYSIS OF WATER IN THE STUDY AREASThe permissible range of pH in public water supplied is between 6.5 and 7.5 (WHO, 1982). All samples analysed8 are within the limitation range, however suitable for drinking except, sample fromwhich is more acidic than other samples. Also, high level of pH in SWof level of pollution from the environment, since all others even the control samples fell within permissible range.The significant differences among analysed mean values are very low.Electrical conductance is a parameter, which function of total amount of dissolved solids in water. Thel dissolved solid is sometimes measured indirectly by specific conductance. Theelectrolytic capacity of natural water is a function of number of moles of each ion and the electric charge of theion. Total amount of solids of water thus determines whether it is fresh or saline. Drinking water isrecommended to have not more than 500mg/l of dissolved solids. Range obtained as shown in Figure 9 wasbetween 140µs/cm and 320µs/cm in both quarries. The control values are even within obtained range.basically is not a natural constituent of water. It was generally observed from sample analysis that thechloride values obtained are below the recommended unit. Though, no health-based guideline value is proposedfor chloride. It concentrations in excess of about 250 mg/l can give rise to detectable tastes in water but thethreshold depends on the associated cations. More so, since there are no significant changes with sampledistances from the two quarries. Therefore, as shown in Figure 10, low values of chloride have nothing to doThe significant differences among analysed mean values in both quarries are moderately high. Sulphate is not anoxious substance (Akande and Awojobi, 2003 and Felter, 1980). Although high sulphateeffect (Felter, 1980). It gets to quarries through several sources; such as the dissolution of gypsum and othermineral deposits containing sulphate or oxidation of sulphide, presence of sulphate in drinking water can alsoiceable taste. Based on considerations of taste, the recommended guideline value is 250mg/l. All thesamples observed are below guideline value as indicated in Figure 11. There are low significance differencesvel of Nitrate in the public water supplies is 10mg/l (WHO, 1992). However, E.C directivesuggests a guide level of 25mg/l. Water containing high Nitrate concentration is potentially harmful to infants1986). In line with the directive, all the water samples from both quarries aswww.iiste.orgCmol /kg. Figure 4 shows that the sodium values in the study area are within thecritical range. Also, the significant differences among analysed mean values in the two quarries are very low.is an important component of rock formingFeldspars (Awojobi, 2002).Potassium encourages the production of strong stiff straw and improves whiter hardness; it increase cropresistance to leaf diseases ensures high quality plant materials (Wendell, 1996). It is also important forphotosynthesis, it’s balancing effects on both nitrogen and phosphorous forms the basis of application of NPK0.70 Cmol/kg. Therefore,Figure 5 shows that potassium values Strabag is within the critical range while some soil samples in RCCs among analysed mean valuesCalcium is important both as a soil conditioner and as a plant nutrient, the formation of high percentage ofThis facilitates good aeration and good waterinfiltration and retention (Adeoye, 1986). The calcium raises the pH value from 5, 6 and 7 increase thebacteriological activities and strengthens plant cell wall (Troch, 1980). Critical range of calcium for Nigeria9.00 (Cmol/kg). It can be observed from the Figure 6 that the calcium value is lowthough still fall within the critical range. Also, the significant difference level of the analysed mean values issium is mainly found as a component in Ferro magnesium minerals in rocks. They are essentially foundin biotiles, muscorite, amphiboles etc. These minerals are generally stable under high temperature conditionskly weather to produce magnesium ions (Lombin and Fayemi, 1976).Magnesium deficiency causes interval chlorosis (Olatunju, 1999) which could be seen on the green grain of theLockwood Pimm, 2000).2.69 (Coml./kg) for NigeriaAgricultural soil. Results shown in Figure 7 indicated that the magnesium contents of soil sample in the studyate. There are moderately high significance differences among the mean values.The permissible range of pH in public water supplied is between 6.5 and 7.5 (WHO, 1982). All samples analysed8 are within the limitation range, however suitable for drinking except, sample fromwhich is more acidic than other samples. Also, high level of pH in SW1 is likely to be a resulthers even the control samples fell within permissible range.Electrical conductance is a parameter, which function of total amount of dissolved solids in water. Thel dissolved solid is sometimes measured indirectly by specific conductance. Theelectrolytic capacity of natural water is a function of number of moles of each ion and the electric charge of ther it is fresh or saline. Drinking water isrecommended to have not more than 500mg/l of dissolved solids. Range obtained as shown in Figure 9 wasbetween 140µs/cm and 320µs/cm in both quarries. The control values are even within obtained range.basically is not a natural constituent of water. It was generally observed from sample analysis that thebased guideline value is proposedof about 250 mg/l can give rise to detectable tastes in water but thethreshold depends on the associated cations. More so, since there are no significant changes with samplechloride have nothing to doThe significant differences among analysed mean values in both quarries are moderately high. Sulphate is not anoxious substance (Akande and Awojobi, 2003 and Felter, 1980). Although high sulphate water may has laxativeeffect (Felter, 1980). It gets to quarries through several sources; such as the dissolution of gypsum and othermineral deposits containing sulphate or oxidation of sulphide, presence of sulphate in drinking water can alsoiceable taste. Based on considerations of taste, the recommended guideline value is 250mg/l. All thesamples observed are below guideline value as indicated in Figure 11. There are low significance differencesvel of Nitrate in the public water supplies is 10mg/l (WHO, 1992). However, E.C directivesuggests a guide level of 25mg/l. Water containing high Nitrate concentration is potentially harmful to infantsth the directive, all the water samples from both quarries as
  5. 5. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013illustrated in Figure 12 has maximum value of 19.4mg/l, which indicates that they are all safe for consumption.There are moderately low significance differences among the mean values.Manganese is an essential trace element with an estimated daily nutritional requirement of 0.03Neutrotoxic; a health-base guideline value of 0.5mg/l would be adequate to protect public health (WHO, 1982b).None of the water sample has Manganese exis within the permissible limit for public water (Figure 13).There is usually no noticeable taste at non iron concentration below 0.3mg/l, although turbidity and colour maydevelop. Laundry and sanitary will stain at iron concentrations above 0.3mg/l. Iron value of about 2.5mg/ldoes not present a hazard to health. Also, WHO (1992) gave highest desirable level of 0.1mg/l and maximumlevel 0.1mg/l. The concentrations of iron in water samplimits irrespective of the distance to the quarry. Significance differences among the mean values are moderatelyhigh.Level of Zinc in drinking water above 3mg/ldiscolouration. A guideline value of 3mg/l is recommended by (WHO, 1982). From the Figure 15, it showsthat all the water samples from both quarries are within the recommended value. There are low significancedifferences among the mean values.Magnesium is one of the earth’s most common elements and forms highly soluble salts. Magnesiumcontributes to both carbonate and nonconcentrations of Magnesium are undesirable in domeffect, especially when associate with high level of sulphate (Twortmagnesium in drinking water is 50mg/l and excessive limit is 150mg/l. All samples as sthey are within the permissible limits. Significance differences among the mean values are moderately high.Although potassium is one of the abundant elements, the concentration found in most natural waters rarelyexceeds 20mg/l. The E.C directive recommends a maximum concentration of 120mg/l with a guide level of10mg/l (Twort et al., 1986). As indicated in Figure 18, all the samples have low level of potassium but stillwithin the permissible limits. Significance differencesSodium is one of the alkalis. The maximum permissible level of sodium is 200mg/l (WHO, 1993). Presenceof sodium in water does not constitute any environmental problem. Sodium values from the water samples,shown in Figure 19, are very low though they are still within the permissible limit. However, it has noconnection with the previous quarry operation in the study area. Also, significance differences among the meanvalues are moderately high.5. CONCLUSIONEnvironmental effects of abandoned granite quarries of both Srabag and RCC have been analysed. The siteshave various conditions such as: highof drainage control, lack of acceptable vegetative cover, undesirable water bodies, pollution due to dumping atthe sites, create habitat for reptiles and other dangerous animals. Other effects of the abandoned quarriesinclude breeding ground for disease vectors, visual impacts, publicThough, it was showed from the findings that abandoned quarries (granite) have more of physical constraintsthan the chemical constraints. Most of the deficiencies observed in chemical analysis of soil and water samplesfrom the studied areas have no direct link with previous mining operation in the areas. Also, it was discoveredthat some people were benefiting in terms of provision of water for construction project in the area, fishing fromthe abandoned pond and illegal granBasic solutions to abandoned quarries are encouragement of natural drainage flow pattern during and afteroperation and putting the quarries into imaginative endconservative end-uses by means of “restoration blasting”. The latter technique involves recreatinggeomorphologic features by controlling the last production blast, since the minerals involved are of low valueand there is insufficient overburden material to make good the origiReferencesAdeoye Z. A. (1986), “Critical Range of Nutrient for Nigeria Agricultural Soils”; M. Sc Project Thesis;University of Ibadan, (Unpublished) p. 74.Akande, J. M., Ajaka, E. O., Omosogbe, F. M. and Lawal, A. I. (2013), “Marine Clay in Olotu, Ondo State, Nigeria”, Journal ofEducation (IISTE), Vol.3, No.2, pp. 82Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)133illustrated in Figure 12 has maximum value of 19.4mg/l, which indicates that they are all safe for consumption.There are moderately low significance differences among the mean values.nese is an essential trace element with an estimated daily nutritional requirement of 0.03base guideline value of 0.5mg/l would be adequate to protect public health (WHO, 1982b).None of the water sample has Manganese except WS1, Strabag pond water, with concentration of 0.277Ns whichis within the permissible limit for public water (Figure 13).There is usually no noticeable taste at non iron concentration below 0.3mg/l, although turbidity and colour mayy and sanitary will stain at iron concentrations above 0.3mg/l. Iron value of about 2.5mg/ldoes not present a hazard to health. Also, WHO (1992) gave highest desirable level of 0.1mg/l and maximumlevel 0.1mg/l. The concentrations of iron in water samples, as shown in Figure 14, are within the permissiblelimits irrespective of the distance to the quarry. Significance differences among the mean values are moderatelyLevel of Zinc in drinking water above 3mg/l have an undesirable astringent taste adiscolouration. A guideline value of 3mg/l is recommended by (WHO, 1982). From the Figure 15, it showsthat all the water samples from both quarries are within the recommended value. There are low significancevalues.Magnesium is one of the earth’s most common elements and forms highly soluble salts. Magnesiumcontributes to both carbonate and non-carbonate hardness in water (Twort et al.,concentrations of Magnesium are undesirable in domestic water because magnesium was a catheptic, a diureticeffect, especially when associate with high level of sulphate (Twort et al., 1986). The permissible limit formagnesium in drinking water is 50mg/l and excessive limit is 150mg/l. All samples as sthey are within the permissible limits. Significance differences among the mean values are moderately high.Although potassium is one of the abundant elements, the concentration found in most natural waters rarely. The E.C directive recommends a maximum concentration of 120mg/l with a guide level of1986). As indicated in Figure 18, all the samples have low level of potassium but stillwithin the permissible limits. Significance differences among the mean values are moderately high.Sodium is one of the alkalis. The maximum permissible level of sodium is 200mg/l (WHO, 1993). Presenceof sodium in water does not constitute any environmental problem. Sodium values from the water samples,shown in Figure 19, are very low though they are still within the permissible limit. However, it has noconnection with the previous quarry operation in the study area. Also, significance differences among the meanEnvironmental effects of abandoned granite quarries of both Srabag and RCC have been analysed. The siteshave various conditions such as: high-walls, abandoned structures which serve as hide out for hoodlums, lackeptable vegetative cover, undesirable water bodies, pollution due to dumping atthe sites, create habitat for reptiles and other dangerous animals. Other effects of the abandoned quarriesinclude breeding ground for disease vectors, visual impacts, public health and safety concern.Though, it was showed from the findings that abandoned quarries (granite) have more of physical constraintsthan the chemical constraints. Most of the deficiencies observed in chemical analysis of soil and water sampleshe studied areas have no direct link with previous mining operation in the areas. Also, it was discoveredthat some people were benefiting in terms of provision of water for construction project in the area, fishing fromthe abandoned pond and illegal granite quarry operation.Basic solutions to abandoned quarries are encouragement of natural drainage flow pattern during and afteroperation and putting the quarries into imaginative end-uses, such as recreational water bodies, and alsoby means of “restoration blasting”. The latter technique involves recreatinggeomorphologic features by controlling the last production blast, since the minerals involved are of low valueand there is insufficient overburden material to make good the original contours.Adeoye Z. A. (1986), “Critical Range of Nutrient for Nigeria Agricultural Soils”; M. Sc Project Thesis;University of Ibadan, (Unpublished) p. 74.Akande, J. M., Ajaka, E. O., Omosogbe, F. M. and Lawal, A. I. (2013), “Environmental Effects of ProcessingMarine Clay in Olotu, Ondo State, Nigeria”, Journal of International Institute for Science, Technology andEducation (IISTE), Vol.3, No.2, pp. 82-86. www.iiste.org.www.iiste.orgillustrated in Figure 12 has maximum value of 19.4mg/l, which indicates that they are all safe for consumption.nese is an essential trace element with an estimated daily nutritional requirement of 0.03-0.05mg/kg.base guideline value of 0.5mg/l would be adequate to protect public health (WHO, 1982b)., Strabag pond water, with concentration of 0.277Ns whichThere is usually no noticeable taste at non iron concentration below 0.3mg/l, although turbidity and colour mayy and sanitary will stain at iron concentrations above 0.3mg/l. Iron value of about 2.5mg/ldoes not present a hazard to health. Also, WHO (1992) gave highest desirable level of 0.1mg/l and maximumles, as shown in Figure 14, are within the permissiblelimits irrespective of the distance to the quarry. Significance differences among the mean values are moderatelyhave an undesirable astringent taste and may result indiscolouration. A guideline value of 3mg/l is recommended by (WHO, 1982). From the Figure 15, it showsthat all the water samples from both quarries are within the recommended value. There are low significanceMagnesium is one of the earth’s most common elements and forms highly soluble salts. Magnesiumet al., 1986). Excessiveestic water because magnesium was a catheptic, a diuretic1986). The permissible limit formagnesium in drinking water is 50mg/l and excessive limit is 150mg/l. All samples as shown in Figure 17 thatthey are within the permissible limits. Significance differences among the mean values are moderately high.Although potassium is one of the abundant elements, the concentration found in most natural waters rarely. The E.C directive recommends a maximum concentration of 120mg/l with a guide level of1986). As indicated in Figure 18, all the samples have low level of potassium but stillamong the mean values are moderately high.Sodium is one of the alkalis. The maximum permissible level of sodium is 200mg/l (WHO, 1993). Presenceof sodium in water does not constitute any environmental problem. Sodium values from the water samples, asshown in Figure 19, are very low though they are still within the permissible limit. However, it has noconnection with the previous quarry operation in the study area. Also, significance differences among the meanEnvironmental effects of abandoned granite quarries of both Srabag and RCC have been analysed. The siteswalls, abandoned structures which serve as hide out for hoodlums, lackeptable vegetative cover, undesirable water bodies, pollution due to dumping atthe sites, create habitat for reptiles and other dangerous animals. Other effects of the abandoned quarrieshealth and safety concern.Though, it was showed from the findings that abandoned quarries (granite) have more of physical constraintsthan the chemical constraints. Most of the deficiencies observed in chemical analysis of soil and water sampleshe studied areas have no direct link with previous mining operation in the areas. Also, it was discoveredthat some people were benefiting in terms of provision of water for construction project in the area, fishing fromBasic solutions to abandoned quarries are encouragement of natural drainage flow pattern during and afteruses, such as recreational water bodies, and alsoby means of “restoration blasting”. The latter technique involves recreatinggeomorphologic features by controlling the last production blast, since the minerals involved are of low valueAdeoye Z. A. (1986), “Critical Range of Nutrient for Nigeria Agricultural Soils”; M. Sc Project Thesis;al Effects of ProcessingInternational Institute for Science, Technology and
  6. 6. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Akande, J. M. and Awojobi, D. A. (2003),Deposit in Ilorin, Nigeria”, Journal of Science Engineering and Technology, Vol. 10 (2) pp 4891Alexander, M. J. (1986), “Soil Characteristics and the Factors Influencing their Development on Mine Spoilon the Jos Plateau”, JPERDP, Interim Report No. 11Alexander, M. J. (1985), “An Historical Introduction to the Reclamation of Minesland on the Jos Plateau”.Interim Report No. 4, Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme (JPERDP). Dept. ofGeograpy and Planning, University of Jos and Dept. of Geography University of Durham, UnitedKingdom.Awojobi, D. A. (2002), “Environmental Impact Assessment of Exploitation of Granite Deposits in Ilorin”,Unpublished M. Eng. Project FUTA, p. 20.Ashawa (2007): “Inventory of Abandoned Mines and Quarries; Action Plan for Remediation and Reclamation”;Final Report 2007; Prepare by Ashawa Consult Limited May 2007.Laurence, D. C. (2001), “Mine closure and the community; Mining Environmental Management”, 9(4):pp.10-12.Bureau of Mines, (2002), “This is Mining”, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Washington D. C.,http://mcg.wr.usgs.gov/usbmak/thisis/htmlFAO, (1995), “Food and Agricultural Organisation”; Soil Bulletin, FeResources, pp. 18-25.FME, (1999), “State of the Environment” Federal Ministry of Environment; in perspectives, Abuja, Nigeria.Felter, C. W. (1980), “Applied Hydrogeology”: Charles Merril Publishing Co. Columbs, OhiFitzpatick, E. A. (1986), “An Introduction to Soil Science” Longman Scientific and Technical England, pp.184-196.Steffen, Robertson and Kirsten (2004),of Indian Affairs and Northern DevelopmentJackson, M. L. (1962), “Soil Chemical Analysis” Pretice Hall, New York.Johnson, M. R. (1982) “Characterization and Effectiveness of Remining Abandoned Coal Mines inPennsylvania”. USBMRI 9562: pp. 36Twort, A. C., and Crawly F.W. (1986),WHO, (1993), “International Standard for Drinking Water”, World Helath Organization,Geneva, pp. 10WHO, (1992) “Our Planet Report of the World Health OrganizationGenevaWHO, (1982a), “Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality in small CommunitiesOrganization,Geneva, pp. 24WHO, (1982b), “International Standard for Drinking WJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)134Akande, J. M. and Awojobi, D. A. (2003), “Assessment of Environment Impact of Exploitation of GraniteDeposit in Ilorin, Nigeria”, Journal of Science Engineering and Technology, Vol. 10 (2) pp 4891“Soil Characteristics and the Factors Influencing their Development on Mine Spoilos Plateau”, JPERDP, Interim Report No. 11An Historical Introduction to the Reclamation of Minesland on the Jos Plateau”.Interim Report No. 4, Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme (JPERDP). Dept. ofrapy and Planning, University of Jos and Dept. of Geography University of Durham, United“Environmental Impact Assessment of Exploitation of Granite Deposits in Ilorin”,Unpublished M. Eng. Project FUTA, p. 20.: “Inventory of Abandoned Mines and Quarries; Action Plan for Remediation and Reclamation”;Final Report 2007; Prepare by Ashawa Consult Limited May 2007.“Mine closure and the community; Mining Environmental Management”, 9(4):“This is Mining”, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Washington D. C.,http://mcg.wr.usgs.gov/usbmak/thisis/html“Food and Agricultural Organisation”; Soil Bulletin, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and WaterFME, (1999), “State of the Environment” Federal Ministry of Environment; in perspectives, Abuja, Nigeria.“Applied Hydrogeology”: Charles Merril Publishing Co. Columbs, Ohi“An Introduction to Soil Science” Longman Scientific and Technical England, pp.Steffen, Robertson and Kirsten (2004), “Mine Reclamation in Northwest Territories and Yukson”. Departmentd Northern DevelopmentJackson, M. L. (1962), “Soil Chemical Analysis” Pretice Hall, New York.“Characterization and Effectiveness of Remining Abandoned Coal Mines inPennsylvania”. USBMRI 9562: pp. 361986), “Water Supply”: Edward Amold, London.“International Standard for Drinking Water”, World Helath Organization,Geneva, pp. 10Our Planet Report of the World Health Organization Commission on Health and EnvironmentGuidelines for Drinking Water Quality in small CommunitiesOrganization,Geneva, pp. 24-28Standard for Drinking Water”, World Health Organization,Geneva,pp. 8www.iiste.orgt Impact of Exploitation of GraniteDeposit in Ilorin, Nigeria”, Journal of Science Engineering and Technology, Vol. 10 (2) pp 4891-4900“Soil Characteristics and the Factors Influencing their Development on Mine SpoilAn Historical Introduction to the Reclamation of Minesland on the Jos Plateau”.Interim Report No. 4, Jos Plateau Environmental Resources Development Programme (JPERDP). Dept. ofrapy and Planning, University of Jos and Dept. of Geography University of Durham, United“Environmental Impact Assessment of Exploitation of Granite Deposits in Ilorin”,: “Inventory of Abandoned Mines and Quarries; Action Plan for Remediation and Reclamation”;“Mine closure and the community; Mining Environmental Management”, 9(4):“This is Mining”, U. S. Bureau of Mines, Washington D. C.,deral Ministry of Agriculture and WaterFME, (1999), “State of the Environment” Federal Ministry of Environment; in perspectives, Abuja, Nigeria.“Applied Hydrogeology”: Charles Merril Publishing Co. Columbs, Ohio pp. 306-334“An Introduction to Soil Science” Longman Scientific and Technical England, pp.“Mine Reclamation in Northwest Territories and Yukson”. Department“Characterization and Effectiveness of Remining Abandoned Coal Mines in“International Standard for Drinking Water”, World Helath Organization,Geneva, pp. 10-15Commission on Health and Environment”.Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality in small Communities”, World Health, World Health Organization,Geneva,pp. 8-10.
  7. 7. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 1: Mean Value and Significant Different of Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples at Strabag Quarry7Sample DistanceFrom theQuarry(m)PH PMg/kgN(%)SS1 0.005.73a7.50c0.21SS2 50.00 5.87a9.37f0.20SS3 100.00 6.30a8.30d0.19SS4 150.00 6.23a8.33d0.23SS5 200.00 5.87a7.23abc0.24SS6 250.00 5.83a8.87e0.26SS7 300.00 6.07a9.40f0.31SS8 350.00 6.57ab7.40c0.29SS9 400.00 6.30a6.83a0.26SS10 450.00 6.13a6.90ab0.25SS11 500.00 6.30a7.27bc0.28SS12 550.00 6.13a8.33d0.27SS13 4000.00 7.20b9.27ef0.24* Alphabetical Index IndicatesTable 2: Mean Value and Significant Different of Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples at RCC QuarrySample DistanceFrom theQuarry(m)PH PMg/kgN(%)SR1 0.006.27bc5.77a1.11SR2 50.00 6.67d6.27b1.86SR3 100.00 6.53cd6.47bcd1.72SR4 150.00 6.80d6.50bcd2.50SR5 200.00 5.87a6.30b1.93SR6 250.00 5.93ab6.60cde1.20SR7 300.00 6.03ab6.80ef1.40SR8 350.00 6.17ab7.03f3.17SR9 400.00 5.90a6.70de1.95SR10 450.00 6.07ab6.30b1.71SR11 500.00 6.80d6.70de1.95SR12 550.00 6.80d6.40bc1.62SR13 4000.00 6.53cd6.73de1.44* Alphabetical Index IndicatesJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)135gnificant Different of Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples at Strabag Quarry(%)O. C(%)O. M(%)KCmol/kgNaCmol/kgCaCmol/kgMgCmol/kg0.21ab0.76b1.31ab0.35cd0.40bcd2.40def1.70h0.20a0.81b1.06b0.38de0.38abc2.34c1.60e0.19a0.82b1.41bc0.30b0.38abc2.38def2.33g0.23bc0.95c1.65cd0.25a0.39abc2.40ef1.47d0.24bc1.29e2.23ef0.39e0.41cd0.41a0.59a0.26cd1.15d1.99de0.33bc0.39abc2.42f1.40c0.31f2.14k3.67i0.35cd0.37ab1.97b1.80i0.29ef1.85i3.20hi0.39e0.36a2.39de1.75i0.26cd1.42f2.46efg0.30b0.39abc2.39def1.60ef0.25cd1.75h3.54i0.40e0.41cd2.35cd1.64fg0.28de2.05j2.65fg0.32bc0.39abc2.40ef1.32b0.27de1.65g2.85gh0.45f0.43d2.36cde1.68gh0.24bc0.12a0.21a0.35cd0.36a2.50g2.28gAlphabetical Index Indicates Significant Different at 0.05 levelMean Value and Significant Different of Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples at RCC QuarryN(%)O. C(%)O. M(%)KCmol/kgNaCmol/kgCaCmol/kgMgCmol/kg1.11 a0.78 bc1.37d0.74ab2.15 a1.78 a18.50 a1.86 a0.63abc1.11c0.74ab1.15 a2.07 a18.88 a1.72 a0.79bc1.37d0.72ab0.15 a1.97 a4.22 a2.50 a1.00cd1.72f0.67a0.32 a1.84 a18.29 a1.93 a1.35de2.34h0.71ab0.21 a1.97 a17.77 a1.20 a0.58ab1.01b0.91ab0.17 a2.37 a17.35 a1.40 a0.43ab0.75a0.41a0.21 a1.95 a17.63 a3.17 a0.67abc1.17c0.54a0.31 a1.78 a16.48 a1.95 a0.63abc1.10c0.48a0.18 a2.22 a18.10 a1.71 a1.72e2.98i1.23b0.13 a2.31 a18.08 a1.95 a1.41e2.43h0.72ab0.49ab1.82 a17.50 a1.62 a0.39a1.61e0.87ab0.81 b1.88 a16.74 a1.44 a1.44e1.91g1.89c0.25 a1.97 a17.86 aAlphabetical Index Indicates Significant Different at 0.05 levelwww.iiste.orggnificant Different of Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples at Strabag QuarrySoil Particles Size (%)Sand Clay Silt52.00cd30.00d40.00 a52.00cd25.00abc23.00 a51.67bcd25.00abc22.00 a51.00bcd30.00d20.00 a48.00a27.00c24.00 a49.00ab26.00bc24.13 a50.00abc26.00bc22.00 a49.00ab27.00c23.00 a52.00cd25.00abc22.00 a51.00bcd24.00ab23.27 a50.00abc27.00c24.00 a53.00d23.00a23.13 a50.00abc27.00c21.03 aMean Value and Significant Different of Chemical Analysis of Soil Samples at RCC QuarrySoil Particles Size (%)Sand Clay Silt43.33 a25.10 a21.33bc44.00 a24.90 a18.50a11.31 a25.20 a24.17def43.00 a26.82 a19.93ab34.67 a24.03 a25.30f42.00 a26.00 a22.17bcd41.00 a24.10 a24.20def39.77 a24.13 a26.27f43.67 a24.90 a20.20abc42.80 a25.73 a20.27abc42.23 a24.67 a22.50cde40.00 a25.27 a26.56f41.53 a24.47 a24.73ef
  8. 8. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Table 3: Mean Value and Significant Different of Chemical Analysis of Water Samples at Strabag QuarrySample DistanceFromQuarry(m)SampleOriginPH E.C(µs/cm)WS1 0.00 Pond8.47e200.00eWS2 50.00 Pond 7.23cd241.00hWS3 100.00 Pond 6.53a301.00kWS4 150.00 Well 6.80abc190.67dWS5 200.00 Stream 6.70ab222.00gWS6 250.00 Well 6.80abc183.00cWS7 300.00 Well 7.10bcd171.00bWS8 350.00 Well 6.70ab321.00lWS9 400.00 Bore-hole 6.57a143.00aWS10 450.00 Well 6.77abc274.00jWS11 500.00 Well 6.60a241.00hWS12 550.00 Well 6.77abc215.00fWS13 4000.00 Stream 7.57d261.00i* Alphabetical Index Indicates SigniJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)136Mean Value and Significant Different of Chemical Analysis of Water Samples at Strabag Quarry(µs/cm)Cl-(mg/l)SO4-(mg/l)NO3-(mg/l)HCO3-(mg/l)Mn(mg/l)Fe(mg/l)Zn(mg/l)Ca(mg/l)e99.00cd6.30c11.93i0.45fg0.27 0.29d0.05c28.00h93.40b6.40c6.80c0.42 0.00 0.25c0.04bc27.00k105.67e6.10abc7.20d0.48g0.00 0.25c0.03abc26.00d103.80de6.00abc6.30b0.90h0.00 0.24c0.02ab25.00g117.33gh6.87d8.40e0.37c0.00 0.24c0.01a20.00c112.33fg6.30c9.80g0.35c0.00 0.45f0.02a21.50b120.33h5.70a5.70a0.40de0.00 0.73h0.02ab22.00130.33i6.17bc7.23d0.43ef0.00 0.62g0.02ab22.50a257.00j9.23e10.17h0.25b0.00 0.30d0.01a22.50108.17ef5.80ab7.40d0.38cd0.00 0.36e0.02a20.00h94.67bc7.10d8.87f0.22ab0.14 0.25c0.02ab19.50f79.67a6.40c10.43h0.35c0.21 0.13b0.02ab20.50130.17i9.20e19.40j0.19a0.19 0.04a0.02ab15.60Significant Different at 0.05 levelwww.iiste.orgMean Value and Significant Different of Chemical Analysis of Water Samples at Strabag Quarry(mg/l)Mg(mg/l)Na(mg/l)K(mg/l)28.00d6.80a17.13ab8.53i27.00d7.50b23.50de4.25h26.00d8.57f24.07e2.28abc25.00cd8.20e20.80cd2.75cde20.00b7.80bcd17.07ab2.16ab21.50b7.90cde16.17ab2.45bcd22.00bc7.60bc14.33a1.89a22.50bc7.80bcd18.50bc3.20ef22.50bc7.70bc32.07f9.30j20.00b8.10de24.30e3.45fg19.50b6.80a22.30de2.87de20.50b6.53a20.80cd3.75g15.60a7.90cde32.10f9.27j
  9. 9. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 1:Figure 2: Analysis of Organic Matter Content of Soil SamplesFigure 3: Analysis of Organic Carbon Content of Soil SamplesFigure 4:0510pHValues01234050100OrganicMatterContent(%)00.511.522.5050100150OrganicCarbonContent(%)00.10.20.30.40.5SodiumValues(Cmol/kg)Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)137Figure 1: Analysis of pH Value of Soil SampleAnalysis of Organic Matter Content of Soil SamplesAnalysis of Organic Carbon Content of Soil SamplesFigure 4: Analysis of Sodium Value of Soil SamplesDistance from Quarry (m)1001502002503003504004505005504000Distance from Quarry (m)SSSR1502002503003504004505005504000Distance from Quarry (m)SSSRDistance from Quarry (m)www.iiste.orgSS - pHSR - pHSS - O. M.SR - O. M.SS - O. C.SR - O. C.SS - NaSR - Na
  10. 10. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 5:Figure 6:Figure 7:Figure 8:00.511.52PotassiumValues(Cmol/kg)01234CalciumValues(Cmol/kg)00.511.522.5MagnisiumValues(Cmol/kg)0246810pHValuesJournal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)138Figure 5: Analysis of Potassium Value of Soil SamplesFigure 6: Analysis of calcium Value of Soil SamplesFigure 7: Analysis of Magnesium Value of Soil SamplesFigure 8: Analysis of pH Value of Water SamplesDistance fromQuarry (m)Distance from Quarry (m)Distance from Quarry (m)Distance from Quarry (m)www.iiste.orgSS - KSR - KSS - CaSR - CaSS - MgSR - MgWS-pHWR-pH
  11. 11. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 9: Analysis of ElectricalFigure 10:Figure 11:Figure 12:Figure 13:0200400050ElectricalConductanceValues(μ/cm)0200400ChlorideValues(mg/l)01020SulphateValues(mg/l)0510152025050100NitrateValues(mg/l)00.10.20.3050100ManganeseValues(mg/l)Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)139Analysis of Electrical conductance of Water SamplesFigure 10:Analysis of Chloride of Water SamplesFigure 11:Analysis of Sulphate of Water SamplesFigure 12:Analysis of Nitrate of Water SamplesFigure 13:Analysis of Manganese of Water Samples501001502002503003504004505005504000Distance from Quarry (m)Distance from Quarry (m)Distance from Quarry (m)1001502002503003504004505005504000Distance from Quarry (m)WSWR1001502002503003504004505005504000Distance from Quarry (m)www.iiste.orgWS - E. C.WR - E. C.WS - ClWR - ClWS - SO4WR - SO4WS - NO3WR - NO3WS - MnWR - Mn
  12. 12. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 14:Figure 15:Figure 16:Figure 17:00.20.40.60.8IronValues(mg/l)00.20.40.60.811.2ZinkValues(mg/l)0102030050100CalciumValues(mg/l)0246810050100MagnesiumValues(mg/l)Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)140Figure 14:Analysis of Iron of Water SamplesFigure 15:Analysis of Zinc of Water SamplesFigure 16:Analysis of Calcium of Water SamplesFigure 17:Analysis of Magnesium of Water SamplesDistance from Quarry (m)Distance from Quarry (m)1001502002503003504004505005504000Distance from Quarry (m)1001502002503003504004505005504000Distance from Quarry (m)www.iiste.orgWS - FeWR - FeWS - ZnWR - ZnWS - CaWR - CaWS - MgWR - Mg
  13. 13. Journal of Environment and Earth ScienceISSN 2224-3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol. 3, No.4, 2013Figure 18:Figure 19:0246810PotasiumValues(mg/l)010203040050100SodiumValues(mg/l)Journal of Environment and Earth Science3216 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0948 (Online)141Figure 18:Analysis of Potassium of Water SamplesFigure 19:Analysis of Sodium of Water SamplesDistance from Quarry (m)1001502002503003504004505005504000Distance from Quarry (m)www.iiste.orgWS - KWR - KWS - NaWR - Na
  14. 14. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgCALL FOR PAPERSThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline forsubmission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submissioninstruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar

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