Estimation of fluoride concentration in vegetations in ikot abasi, akwa ibom state,nigeria
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Estimation of fluoride concentration in vegetations in ikot abasi, akwa ibom state,nigeria Document Transcript

  • 1. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.4, 2013Estimation of Fluoride Concentration in Vegetations in Ikot Abasi,Usoro Etesin*1.Chemistry Department, A2.Environmental Department, Notore Chemicals Limited, Onne, Port Harcourt.AbstractA survey of fluoride contents of certain fodder plants like cassava, bitaround aluminium smelting company in Ikot Abasi , Nigeria, were conducted in July , October and November , 2010and July, October and November, 2011 .The fluoride contents of the vegetations obtained in this studycompared with the background fluoride content in vegetations determined elsewhere around the aluminium smeltingplant before the commissioning of the plant . From the results of this study, the fluoride contents in vegetationsconsidered were far higher than the background fluoride contents of less than 2 mg/kg . Fluoride content in cassavaincreased by 200 % , bitterleaf increased by 300 % in 2010, and fluoride content in cassava increased by more than1000 % , wire grass increased by 200 % and bittedaily fluoride intake should not exceed 10 mg per person, there is the need to set up biomonitoring of fluoride emissions and control around the smelting plant.Keywords : Fluoride , Aluminium smelting, Vegetation, Fluorosis , Phytotoxic.1. IntroductionFluorine is the 13thmost abundant element in the earth’s crust ( about 625 mg/kg ) and exists in trace amount inalmost all ground waters , soil and air tExposure of vegetations mostly leaves, to high fluoride concentration causes yellowing of the leaves and necrosis( dead body ) . Fluoride-induced symptoms have been described in many reviews ( WHO, 1984; Canady et aMcDonald and Berkeley,1969; EPA, 1980; Thompson et al, 1971).One source of fluoride pollution is gaseous fluoride emitted from aluminum smelters . Ikot Abasi has an aluminiumsmelting plant established more than fifteen years with an installedaluminium per annum ( ALSCON, 1997 ) .Gaseous fluoride enters the leaf through the stomata , then it dissolves in the water permeating the cell walls( IPCS,2002). Regarding aluminum smelters, the fluorine emisscontrol of which must be ensured. Certain fluorine connections as has been established are highly phytotoxic ; whenbeing fed with polluted fodder , livestock will indirectly suffer health damagN, 1975; Occupational Safety and Health Series, 1980) .More detailed experiences and literature are not availableregarding the danger to human beings.Drinking water and edible vegetation are often the sources offluoride concentration in ground water /or surface water and air are high ( Jaffery et al, 1998 ; Edmunds andSmedley,2005; Telde-Halmanot el al, 2006 ) . Apart from the fact that more than 200 million pon drinking water with fluoride concentration that exceeded the present WHO guidelines of 1.5 mg/l ( WHO, 2004) ,in some areas foodstuffs and /or indoor air pollution due to the burning of coal may make a significant contributionto the daily intake of fluoride ( Nielsen and Dahl,2002 ; Ando et al , 2001 ). Excess fluoride intake causes differenttypes of fluorosis primarily dental and skeletal fluorosis depending on the level and period of exposure ( IPCS,2002).In a given locality , anthropogenic activities such as aluminium smelting , power generation and application ofphosphate containing fertilizers , may contribute considerable amount of fluoride into the environment ( Saxena andAhmed, 2003). Ikot Abasi is an area of intenseusing fossil fuel and cement production. The extent of fluoride contamination in the air in Ikot Abasi has not beenstudied , and a little is known about the incidence of fluorosis , necrosJournal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)47Estimation of Fluoride Concentration in Vegetations in Ikot Abasi,Akwa Ibom State,NigeriaUsoro Etesin* 1; Iniobong Ogbonna 2; Tom Harry11.Chemistry Department, Akwa Ibom State University, Mkpat Enin.2.Environmental Department, Notore Chemicals Limited, Onne, Port Harcourt.* uetesin@gmail.comA survey of fluoride contents of certain fodder plants like cassava, bitterleaf and wire grass at close locationsaround aluminium smelting company in Ikot Abasi , Nigeria, were conducted in July , October and November , 2010and July, October and November, 2011 .The fluoride contents of the vegetations obtained in this studycompared with the background fluoride content in vegetations determined elsewhere around the aluminium smeltingplant before the commissioning of the plant . From the results of this study, the fluoride contents in vegetationsher than the background fluoride contents of less than 2 mg/kg . Fluoride content in cassavaincreased by 200 % , bitterleaf increased by 300 % in 2010, and fluoride content in cassava increased by more than1000 % , wire grass increased by 200 % and bitterleaf increased by 500 % in 2011. As has been suggested that thedaily fluoride intake should not exceed 10 mg per person, there is the need to set up bio-indicator systems for routinemonitoring of fluoride emissions and control around the smelting plant.Fluoride , Aluminium smelting, Vegetation, Fluorosis , Phytotoxic.most abundant element in the earth’s crust ( about 625 mg/kg ) and exists in trace amount inalmost all ground waters , soil and air throughout the world ( Annette, 2008) .Exposure of vegetations mostly leaves, to high fluoride concentration causes yellowing of the leaves and necrosisinduced symptoms have been described in many reviews ( WHO, 1984; Canady et aMcDonald and Berkeley,1969; EPA, 1980; Thompson et al, 1971).One source of fluoride pollution is gaseous fluoride emitted from aluminum smelters . Ikot Abasi has an aluminiumsmelting plant established more than fifteen years with an installed capacity of 190,000 metric tons of primaryaluminium per annum ( ALSCON, 1997 ) .Gaseous fluoride enters the leaf through the stomata , then it dissolves in the water permeating the cell walls( IPCS,2002). Regarding aluminum smelters, the fluorine emission to be expected is a primary consideration, the continuouscontrol of which must be ensured. Certain fluorine connections as has been established are highly phytotoxic ; whenbeing fed with polluted fodder , livestock will indirectly suffer health damages - fluorosis ( Knosel, 1992 ; Less, L.N, 1975; Occupational Safety and Health Series, 1980) .More detailed experiences and literature are not availableregarding the danger to human beings.Drinking water and edible vegetation are often the sources of fluoride intake by humans especially in areas wherefluoride concentration in ground water /or surface water and air are high ( Jaffery et al, 1998 ; Edmunds andHalmanot el al, 2006 ) . Apart from the fact that more than 200 million pon drinking water with fluoride concentration that exceeded the present WHO guidelines of 1.5 mg/l ( WHO, 2004) ,in some areas foodstuffs and /or indoor air pollution due to the burning of coal may make a significant contributionhe daily intake of fluoride ( Nielsen and Dahl,2002 ; Ando et al , 2001 ). Excess fluoride intake causes differenttypes of fluorosis primarily dental and skeletal fluorosis depending on the level and period of exposure ( IPCS,, anthropogenic activities such as aluminium smelting , power generation and application ofphosphate containing fertilizers , may contribute considerable amount of fluoride into the environment ( Saxena andAhmed, 2003). Ikot Abasi is an area of intense anthropogenic activities like aluminium smelting, power generationusing fossil fuel and cement production. The extent of fluoride contamination in the air in Ikot Abasi has not beenstudied , and a little is known about the incidence of fluorosis , necrosis and yellowing of leaves . However,www.iiste.orgEstimation of Fluoride Concentration in Vegetations in Ikot Abasi,kwa Ibom State University, Mkpat Enin.2.Environmental Department, Notore Chemicals Limited, Onne, Port Harcourt.terleaf and wire grass at close locationsaround aluminium smelting company in Ikot Abasi , Nigeria, were conducted in July , October and November , 2010and July, October and November, 2011 .The fluoride contents of the vegetations obtained in this study werecompared with the background fluoride content in vegetations determined elsewhere around the aluminium smeltingplant before the commissioning of the plant . From the results of this study, the fluoride contents in vegetationsher than the background fluoride contents of less than 2 mg/kg . Fluoride content in cassavaincreased by 200 % , bitterleaf increased by 300 % in 2010, and fluoride content in cassava increased by more thanrleaf increased by 500 % in 2011. As has been suggested that theindicator systems for routinemost abundant element in the earth’s crust ( about 625 mg/kg ) and exists in trace amount inExposure of vegetations mostly leaves, to high fluoride concentration causes yellowing of the leaves and necrosisinduced symptoms have been described in many reviews ( WHO, 1984; Canady et al , 1993;One source of fluoride pollution is gaseous fluoride emitted from aluminum smelters . Ikot Abasi has an aluminiumcapacity of 190,000 metric tons of primaryGaseous fluoride enters the leaf through the stomata , then it dissolves in the water permeating the cell walls( IPCS,ion to be expected is a primary consideration, the continuouscontrol of which must be ensured. Certain fluorine connections as has been established are highly phytotoxic ; whenfluorosis ( Knosel, 1992 ; Less, L.N, 1975; Occupational Safety and Health Series, 1980) .More detailed experiences and literature are not availablefluoride intake by humans especially in areas wherefluoride concentration in ground water /or surface water and air are high ( Jaffery et al, 1998 ; Edmunds andHalmanot el al, 2006 ) . Apart from the fact that more than 200 million people worldwide relyon drinking water with fluoride concentration that exceeded the present WHO guidelines of 1.5 mg/l ( WHO, 2004) ,in some areas foodstuffs and /or indoor air pollution due to the burning of coal may make a significant contributionhe daily intake of fluoride ( Nielsen and Dahl,2002 ; Ando et al , 2001 ). Excess fluoride intake causes differenttypes of fluorosis primarily dental and skeletal fluorosis depending on the level and period of exposure ( IPCS,, anthropogenic activities such as aluminium smelting , power generation and application ofphosphate containing fertilizers , may contribute considerable amount of fluoride into the environment ( Saxena andanthropogenic activities like aluminium smelting, power generationusing fossil fuel and cement production. The extent of fluoride contamination in the air in Ikot Abasi has not beenis and yellowing of leaves . However,
  • 2. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.4, 2013preventive measures are likely to be required in this regard.This present study is aimed at the determination of fluoride absorption by leaves in Ikot Abasi as an estimation offluoride contamination of air around this decisive to know , how much of the quantity emitted is finally absorbed by fodder ( plants ), which will ultimatelybe taken in by humans as food. It has been suggested that(Institute of Medicine, 1997 ). In this connection, bioThe fluoride contents of the vegetations will be determined by fluoride ion selectiveeconomical and a precise tool to determine fluoride contents in plant, liquid, food and soil samples ( Tsyr2008 ) .2. The Study AreaIkot Abasi Local Government Area is one of the thirtyNigeria . Ikot Abasi lies near the mouth of Imo River , at geographical coordinates 4Abasi is situated at a break in the mangrove swamps and rain forest of the eastern Niger River Deltbordered by Oruk Anam Local Government Area in the north , Mkpat Enin Local Government Area in the west andEastern Obolo Local Government Area on the Atlantic Ocean in the south (ALSCON, 1997).The region is flat and low-lying , butplains ( mangrove and flood plains), the beach ridge sands and the rolling sandy plains (ALSCON, 1997).The geological formations in the area consist of the Quaternary sedimenSands, generally referred to as Calabar Formation. The Quaternary sediments give rise to alluvial plains as well asthe beach ridge sands. The alluvial plains include mangrove mudflats, which are under the inflwaters along the coast and in the estuaries of rivers and creeks.The flood plains and inter tributary areas have light grey to dark carbonaceous mud and clay. The tertiary CoastalPlain Sand , or Calabar Formation is older and coninter- bedded with layers of fined grained massive clay (ALSCON, 1997).The most important soils in the area are those, developed on Tertiary Coastal Plain Sands in the upland part of thelocal government area. The soils are deep , have loamy sand to sandy loam surface over clay loam to sandy claysubsoil. The soils are acidic and are generally referred to Acid Sands. They are well drained and strongly weathered.The climate of the area is that of humid tropic . Temperatures are high , lying between 26heavy and the mean annual rainfall lies between 2000 mm to 4000 mm. The rainy season lasts from April toNovember and is characterized by high relative humidity , whilein March (ALSCON, 1997). These factors and the decreasing salt content of the upland mainly determine thecomposition of the species of the vegetation; it must be considered that as a result of the dense poforest zone, the agricultural utilization is intensive, which also applies to the surroundings of the site.The locations selected and the various plants leaves sampled from the study area are listed in Table 1.3. Materials and Methods:Leaves of selected plants namely, cassava, bitterleaf and wiregrass ( Table 1 ) , were collected in polyethylene bags.The leaves were oven-dried at 1050and AOAC, 1997 . The dried vegetations were crushed into powdered form using vegetable crusher. To a nickelcrucible was added 5 gram of the ground samples and 15 ml of lime suspension ( 6 gram calcium hydroxide in 300ml water ). The nickel crucible with sample mixture wasdoor slightly opened. The sample was removed from furnace , about 8 gram of NaOH pellets added and put backinto the furnace for 15 minutes .The sample digest was removed from furnace, allowed tThe digest was steam distilled with 50 ml of concentrated perchloric acid below 150volumetric flask ( about 400 ml ) and make up to the mark with dewas determined by the use of ion selective meter with fluoride electrode ( ATI Orion 940 ) . Total ionic strengthadjuster buffer (TISAB) was mixed on a 1: 1 basis with an aliquot (10 ml ) of the distillate before readifluoride content with the instrument (Colina et al, 1990).Vegetation sampling was conducted in July, October and November of 2010 and repeated in July, October andNovember 2011.Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)48preventive measures are likely to be required in this regard.This present study is aimed at the determination of fluoride absorption by leaves in Ikot Abasi as an estimation offluoride contamination of air around the anthropogenic sources in the area. For opinions on fluorine intoxications itis decisive to know , how much of the quantity emitted is finally absorbed by fodder ( plants ), which will ultimatelybe taken in by humans as food. It has been suggested that daily fluoride intake should not exceed 10 mg per person(Institute of Medicine, 1997 ). In this connection, bio-indicator systems have proved successful ( Knosen, 1992).The fluoride contents of the vegetations will be determined by fluoride ion selectiveeconomical and a precise tool to determine fluoride contents in plant, liquid, food and soil samples ( TsyrIkot Abasi Local Government Area is one of the thirty-one local government areas in Akwa Ibom State, in southernNigeria . Ikot Abasi lies near the mouth of Imo River , at geographical coordinates 404|0Abasi is situated at a break in the mangrove swamps and rain forest of the eastern Niger River Deltbordered by Oruk Anam Local Government Area in the north , Mkpat Enin Local Government Area in the west andEastern Obolo Local Government Area on the Atlantic Ocean in the south (ALSCON, 1997).lying , but three major physiographic units can be identified from the terrain, the alluvialplains ( mangrove and flood plains), the beach ridge sands and the rolling sandy plains (ALSCON, 1997).The geological formations in the area consist of the Quaternary sedimentary deposits, and the Tertiary Coastal PlainSands, generally referred to as Calabar Formation. The Quaternary sediments give rise to alluvial plains as well asthe beach ridge sands. The alluvial plains include mangrove mudflats, which are under the inflwaters along the coast and in the estuaries of rivers and creeks.The flood plains and inter tributary areas have light grey to dark carbonaceous mud and clay. The tertiary CoastalPlain Sand , or Calabar Formation is older and consists of beds of unconsolidated coarse textured sandstones ,bedded with layers of fined grained massive clay (ALSCON, 1997).The most important soils in the area are those, developed on Tertiary Coastal Plain Sands in the upland part of theovernment area. The soils are deep , have loamy sand to sandy loam surface over clay loam to sandy claysubsoil. The soils are acidic and are generally referred to Acid Sands. They are well drained and strongly weathered.humid tropic . Temperatures are high , lying between 26heavy and the mean annual rainfall lies between 2000 mm to 4000 mm. The rainy season lasts from April toNovember and is characterized by high relative humidity , while the dry season proper begins in November and endsin March (ALSCON, 1997). These factors and the decreasing salt content of the upland mainly determine thecomposition of the species of the vegetation; it must be considered that as a result of the dense poforest zone, the agricultural utilization is intensive, which also applies to the surroundings of the site.The locations selected and the various plants leaves sampled from the study area are listed in Table 1.Leaves of selected plants namely, cassava, bitterleaf and wiregrass ( Table 1 ) , were collected in polyethylene bags.C and the fluoride concentration determined by the methods of McQuaker, 1977he dried vegetations were crushed into powdered form using vegetable crusher. To a nickelcrucible was added 5 gram of the ground samples and 15 ml of lime suspension ( 6 gram calcium hydroxide in 300ml water ). The nickel crucible with sample mixture was fired in a furnace for two hours at 660door slightly opened. The sample was removed from furnace , about 8 gram of NaOH pellets added and put backThe sample digest was removed from furnace, allowed to cool and some deionised water added to dissolve the melt.The digest was steam distilled with 50 ml of concentrated perchloric acid below 150 OC into 500 ml polyethylenevolumetric flask ( about 400 ml ) and make up to the mark with de-ionized water. Fluoride contents of the distillateswas determined by the use of ion selective meter with fluoride electrode ( ATI Orion 940 ) . Total ionic strengthadjuster buffer (TISAB) was mixed on a 1: 1 basis with an aliquot (10 ml ) of the distillate before readifluoride content with the instrument (Colina et al, 1990).Vegetation sampling was conducted in July, October and November of 2010 and repeated in July, October andwww.iiste.orgThis present study is aimed at the determination of fluoride absorption by leaves in Ikot Abasi as an estimation ofe anthropogenic sources in the area. For opinions on fluorine intoxications itis decisive to know , how much of the quantity emitted is finally absorbed by fodder ( plants ), which will ultimatelydaily fluoride intake should not exceed 10 mg per personindicator systems have proved successful ( Knosen, 1992).The fluoride contents of the vegetations will be determined by fluoride ion selective electrode, which is fast,economical and a precise tool to determine fluoride contents in plant, liquid, food and soil samples ( Tsyr-Horny et al,s in Akwa Ibom State, in southern||North , 7055|0||East. IkotAbasi is situated at a break in the mangrove swamps and rain forest of the eastern Niger River Delta ( Figure 1 ). It isbordered by Oruk Anam Local Government Area in the north , Mkpat Enin Local Government Area in the west andEastern Obolo Local Government Area on the Atlantic Ocean in the south (ALSCON, 1997).three major physiographic units can be identified from the terrain, the alluvialplains ( mangrove and flood plains), the beach ridge sands and the rolling sandy plains (ALSCON, 1997).tary deposits, and the Tertiary Coastal PlainSands, generally referred to as Calabar Formation. The Quaternary sediments give rise to alluvial plains as well asthe beach ridge sands. The alluvial plains include mangrove mudflats, which are under the influence of tidal brackishThe flood plains and inter tributary areas have light grey to dark carbonaceous mud and clay. The tertiary Coastalsists of beds of unconsolidated coarse textured sandstones ,The most important soils in the area are those, developed on Tertiary Coastal Plain Sands in the upland part of theovernment area. The soils are deep , have loamy sand to sandy loam surface over clay loam to sandy claysubsoil. The soils are acidic and are generally referred to Acid Sands. They are well drained and strongly weathered.humid tropic . Temperatures are high , lying between 26 oC and 28 oC , rainfall isheavy and the mean annual rainfall lies between 2000 mm to 4000 mm. The rainy season lasts from April tothe dry season proper begins in November and endsin March (ALSCON, 1997). These factors and the decreasing salt content of the upland mainly determine thecomposition of the species of the vegetation; it must be considered that as a result of the dense population of the rainforest zone, the agricultural utilization is intensive, which also applies to the surroundings of the site.The locations selected and the various plants leaves sampled from the study area are listed in Table 1.Leaves of selected plants namely, cassava, bitterleaf and wiregrass ( Table 1 ) , were collected in polyethylene bags.C and the fluoride concentration determined by the methods of McQuaker, 1977he dried vegetations were crushed into powdered form using vegetable crusher. To a nickelcrucible was added 5 gram of the ground samples and 15 ml of lime suspension ( 6 gram calcium hydroxide in 300fired in a furnace for two hours at 660 oC , with furnacedoor slightly opened. The sample was removed from furnace , about 8 gram of NaOH pellets added and put backo cool and some deionised water added to dissolve the melt.C into 500 ml polyethyleneuoride contents of the distillateswas determined by the use of ion selective meter with fluoride electrode ( ATI Orion 940 ) . Total ionic strengthadjuster buffer (TISAB) was mixed on a 1: 1 basis with an aliquot (10 ml ) of the distillate before reading theVegetation sampling was conducted in July, October and November of 2010 and repeated in July, October and
  • 3. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.4, 20134. Results and DiscussionThe results of fluoride analysis in vegetand graphically presented in Figures 2 and 3.In July, October and November , 2010, the vegetations sampled gave mean fluoride concentrations of 0.452 mg/kgto 6.455 mg/kg ( Table 2). The lowest fluoride concentration of 0.343 mg/kg was obtained in July , 2010, in Cassavaat Akwa Ibom State Industrial Estate (about 300 metres from ALSCON ). The highest fluoride concentration of6.812 mg/kg was obtained in October 2010, in Bitterleafare comparable to the background fluoride concentration of 2 mg/kg in vegetations around ALSCON Plant earlierreported ( Knosel, 1992 ).In July, October and November, 2011, the vegetations sampl41.05 mg/kg (Table 3). The lowest fluoride concentration obtained with the period under consideration was 2.452mg/kg in November , 2011 in Wire grass at Berger Camp. Also, the highest fluoride concenwas obtained in November, 2011 , in Cassava at ALSCON Access Road ( Figs . 2 and 3 ). Comparatively, thesevalues are higher than the background fluoride concentrations of less than 2mg/kg reported in vegetations aroundALSCON Plant ( Knosel, 1992; ALSCON, 1997 ).From the results, there is fluoride burden in vegetations around the Aluminium smelter and within the study areathere is no other identifiable source of fluoride emission. ALSCON Plant started production in 1998 and was shdown in 1999, and under a new investor started production again in 2008 till date. Therefore, fluoride emission to beexpected should be a primary consideration, the continuous control of which must be ensured by effective workingof the fume –treatment units.Although, there is an enhanced concentration of fluoride in vegetations around the smelting plant in the study area( Figures 2 and 3 ) , the mean values are still lower than mean levels of fluoride in vegetation near large sources offluoride emission that ranged from 281 mg/kg ( severely damaged areas ) to 44 mg/kg in slightly damaged areasreported elsewhere ( http://www.greenfacts.org/Evidence shows that the smaller the distance from high fluoride splants , the higher the fluoride levels in soils/ air and hence the degree of damage to vegetation.5. ConclusionThe results of the study indicated that the background fluoride concentration of 2mg/kg inaluminium smelting company have been far exceeded ( Tables 2 and 3) .200 % , bitterleaf increased by 300 % in 2010, and fluoride content in cassava increased by more than 1000 % ,wire grass increased by 200 % and bitterleaf increased by 500 % in 2011. As has been suggested that the dailyfluoride intake should not exceed 10 mg per person,since these vegetations are used as food by the localpopulation, there is the need to set up biocontrol around the smelting plant.As noted elsewhere (Knosel, 1992 ) there was certainly no immediate cause to assume that a previous fluorideburden around the study area-Ikot Abasi existed beenhanced fluoride concentration in the studied vegetations is attributed completely to the aluminium smeltingoperations. Considering the phyto -the area to routinely monitor the intake of fluoride by plants in the study area. More so, due to the location of thealuminium smelter at the coastal area close to the Atlantic ocean ( about 12 nautical miles ) , wherdriving wind of the atlantic ocean ferries fluoride particulates from smelter emissions directly on the coast and thehinterland.From the results, fluoride concentration at all the locations are higher than the background concentrationsmay be appropriate to recommend a further study to estimate the fluoride concentration in the surrounding air andthe soils around the smelter, to ascertain the route of fluoride intake in the fodders in the area.As indicated by the results of the study using biothe local environment, and therefore, there is an urgency to control the emission of fluoride from the aluminiumsmelter, since there is no other suspected source of contJournal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)49The results of fluoride analysis in vegetations around ALSCON Plant in Ikot Abasi are presented in Tables 2 and 3,and graphically presented in Figures 2 and 3.In July, October and November , 2010, the vegetations sampled gave mean fluoride concentrations of 0.452 mg/kg2). The lowest fluoride concentration of 0.343 mg/kg was obtained in July , 2010, in Cassavaat Akwa Ibom State Industrial Estate (about 300 metres from ALSCON ). The highest fluoride concentration of6.812 mg/kg was obtained in October 2010, in Bitterleaf , at Ikot Obong Village ( Table 2 and Fig.2). These resultsare comparable to the background fluoride concentration of 2 mg/kg in vegetations around ALSCON Plant earlierIn July, October and November, 2011, the vegetations sampled gave mean fluoride concentrations of 4.124 mg/kg to41.05 mg/kg (Table 3). The lowest fluoride concentration obtained with the period under consideration was 2.452mg/kg in November , 2011 in Wire grass at Berger Camp. Also, the highest fluoride concenwas obtained in November, 2011 , in Cassava at ALSCON Access Road ( Figs . 2 and 3 ). Comparatively, thesevalues are higher than the background fluoride concentrations of less than 2mg/kg reported in vegetations around( Knosel, 1992; ALSCON, 1997 ).From the results, there is fluoride burden in vegetations around the Aluminium smelter and within the study areathere is no other identifiable source of fluoride emission. ALSCON Plant started production in 1998 and was shdown in 1999, and under a new investor started production again in 2008 till date. Therefore, fluoride emission to beexpected should be a primary consideration, the continuous control of which must be ensured by effective workingAlthough, there is an enhanced concentration of fluoride in vegetations around the smelting plant in the study area( Figures 2 and 3 ) , the mean values are still lower than mean levels of fluoride in vegetation near large sources ofission that ranged from 281 mg/kg ( severely damaged areas ) to 44 mg/kg in slightly damaged areashttp://www.greenfacts.org/ ).Evidence shows that the smaller the distance from high fluoride sources such as aluminium smelters or phosphorusplants , the higher the fluoride levels in soils/ air and hence the degree of damage to vegetation.The results of the study indicated that the background fluoride concentration of 2mg/kg inaluminium smelting company have been far exceeded ( Tables 2 and 3) .Fluoride content in cassava increased by200 % , bitterleaf increased by 300 % in 2010, and fluoride content in cassava increased by more than 1000 % ,ncreased by 200 % and bitterleaf increased by 500 % in 2011. As has been suggested that the dailyfluoride intake should not exceed 10 mg per person,since these vegetations are used as food by the localpopulation, there is the need to set up bio-indicator systems for routine monitoring of fluoride emissions andcontrol around the smelting plant.As noted elsewhere (Knosel, 1992 ) there was certainly no immediate cause to assume that a previous fluorideIkot Abasi existed before the commissioning of the aluminium smelter. Therefore, theenhanced fluoride concentration in the studied vegetations is attributed completely to the aluminium smelting-toxicity of fluoride, it is appropriate to set-up bio-indicator measuring system inthe area to routinely monitor the intake of fluoride by plants in the study area. More so, due to the location of thealuminium smelter at the coastal area close to the Atlantic ocean ( about 12 nautical miles ) , wherdriving wind of the atlantic ocean ferries fluoride particulates from smelter emissions directly on the coast and theFrom the results, fluoride concentration at all the locations are higher than the background concentrationsmay be appropriate to recommend a further study to estimate the fluoride concentration in the surrounding air andthe soils around the smelter, to ascertain the route of fluoride intake in the fodders in the area.e study using bio-indicator systems, the smelting activities have greatly impacted onthe local environment, and therefore, there is an urgency to control the emission of fluoride from the aluminiumsmelter, since there is no other suspected source of contamination.www.iiste.orgations around ALSCON Plant in Ikot Abasi are presented in Tables 2 and 3,In July, October and November , 2010, the vegetations sampled gave mean fluoride concentrations of 0.452 mg/kg2). The lowest fluoride concentration of 0.343 mg/kg was obtained in July , 2010, in Cassavaat Akwa Ibom State Industrial Estate (about 300 metres from ALSCON ). The highest fluoride concentration of, at Ikot Obong Village ( Table 2 and Fig.2). These resultsare comparable to the background fluoride concentration of 2 mg/kg in vegetations around ALSCON Plant earliered gave mean fluoride concentrations of 4.124 mg/kg to41.05 mg/kg (Table 3). The lowest fluoride concentration obtained with the period under consideration was 2.452mg/kg in November , 2011 in Wire grass at Berger Camp. Also, the highest fluoride concentration of 46.69 mg/kgwas obtained in November, 2011 , in Cassava at ALSCON Access Road ( Figs . 2 and 3 ). Comparatively, thesevalues are higher than the background fluoride concentrations of less than 2mg/kg reported in vegetations aroundFrom the results, there is fluoride burden in vegetations around the Aluminium smelter and within the study areathere is no other identifiable source of fluoride emission. ALSCON Plant started production in 1998 and was shotdown in 1999, and under a new investor started production again in 2008 till date. Therefore, fluoride emission to beexpected should be a primary consideration, the continuous control of which must be ensured by effective workingAlthough, there is an enhanced concentration of fluoride in vegetations around the smelting plant in the study area( Figures 2 and 3 ) , the mean values are still lower than mean levels of fluoride in vegetation near large sources ofission that ranged from 281 mg/kg ( severely damaged areas ) to 44 mg/kg in slightly damaged areasources such as aluminium smelters or phosphorusplants , the higher the fluoride levels in soils/ air and hence the degree of damage to vegetation.The results of the study indicated that the background fluoride concentration of 2mg/kg in the vegetations aroundFluoride content in cassava increased by200 % , bitterleaf increased by 300 % in 2010, and fluoride content in cassava increased by more than 1000 % ,ncreased by 200 % and bitterleaf increased by 500 % in 2011. As has been suggested that the dailyfluoride intake should not exceed 10 mg per person,since these vegetations are used as food by the localsystems for routine monitoring of fluoride emissions andAs noted elsewhere (Knosel, 1992 ) there was certainly no immediate cause to assume that a previous fluoridefore the commissioning of the aluminium smelter. Therefore, theenhanced fluoride concentration in the studied vegetations is attributed completely to the aluminium smeltingindicator measuring system inthe area to routinely monitor the intake of fluoride by plants in the study area. More so, due to the location of thealuminium smelter at the coastal area close to the Atlantic ocean ( about 12 nautical miles ) , whereby the in-warddriving wind of the atlantic ocean ferries fluoride particulates from smelter emissions directly on the coast and theFrom the results, fluoride concentration at all the locations are higher than the background concentrations , whichmay be appropriate to recommend a further study to estimate the fluoride concentration in the surrounding air andthe soils around the smelter, to ascertain the route of fluoride intake in the fodders in the area.indicator systems, the smelting activities have greatly impacted onthe local environment, and therefore, there is an urgency to control the emission of fluoride from the aluminium
  • 4. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.4, 2013ReferencesAluminium Smelter Company of NigeriaTransformation of a Nigerian Community.Ando ,M; Tadano, M; Yamamoto, S; Tamura, K; Asanuma, S; Watanabe,T; KCheng,X.Q; Hong, Z;Cao, S. ( 2001). Health Effects of Fluoride Pollution Caused by Coal Burning. Science of TotalEnvironment. 271( 1-3) : 107- 116.Annette Johnson; Manouchehr Amini; Kim Mueller; Karim Abbaspour; ThMoller ; Mamadou Sarr (2008). Statistical Modelling of Global Geogenic Fluoride Contamination in Groundwaters.Enviromental Journal of Science and Technology. 42, 3662AOAC. 1997. Fluoride in Plants- PotentiometGaithersburg. Maryland, USA.Canady ,R et al (1993). Toxicological Profile for Fluorides , Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluorine . Government reports ,announcements and index . Volume 24.Environmental Protection Agency, 1980. Reviews of the Environmental Effects of Pollutants : IX Fluoride .Cincinnati, OH ,US (EPA-600/1-78-International Programme on Chemical SsafHealth Organisation . Geneva . 268.Institute of Medicine . 1997. Fluoride. In “ Dietary Reference Intakes of Calcium, Phosphorus , Magnesium ,Vitamin D and Fluoride “. pp 283 –Jaffery, F.N; Srivastava, A. K; Shaw,A. ; Viswanathan,P.N ; Seth, P.K. (1998). Impact of Nutrition on Fluorosis :Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC): Lucknow , India. 86.Knosel, D ( 1992 ). Inspection of the Vegetation Conditions within the Area of the Aluminium Plant (Unpublished ).Less, L. N. ( 1975). Fluorine Uptake by Grass from Aluminium Smelter Fume. International Journal ofEnvironmental Studies , 7: 153 – 160.McDonald , H.E and Berkeley , P.D.McQuaker, N.R. and Gurney,M. (1977). Determination of Total Fluoride in Soils and Vegetations Using AlkaliFusion-Selective ion electrode Technique. Analytical Chemistry. 49 : 47Nielsen, J.M and Dahl, E. ( 2002). Fluoride Exposure of East African Consumers Using Alkaline Salt DepositsKnown as Magadi ( Trona) as a Food Preparation Aid. Food Addit. Contamination. 19(8): 709Occupational Safety and Health Series. No. 4Substances. 2nd. ed . International Labour Office , Geneva.Saxena, V.K . and Ahmed, S. ( 2003) . Inferring the Chemical Parameters for the Dissolution of Fluoride inGrounwater. Environmental Geology . 43: 731Tekle-Haimanot, R; Melaku , Z. ; Kloos , H; Reimann , C; Fantaye, W; Zerihund, L; Bjorvarn, k. (2006). Thegeographic Distribution of Fluoride in Surface and Groundwaterin Ethiopia with an Emphasis on the Rift Valley.Science of Total Environment .367(1): 182Thompson , R. J. et al ( 1971 ) . Fluoride Concentrations in the Ambient Air . Journal of the Air Pollution ControlAssociation. 21, 484 – 487.Tsyr-Horny Shyu; Jiann-Hwa Chen and YiInfusions by Ion Selective Electrode . Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 17 ( 1 ) : 22World Health Organisation, (1984). Fluorine and Fluorides. Environmental Health Criteria , No. 36. Geneva.World Health Organisation ( 2004) . Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 3Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)50Aluminium Smelter Company of Nigeria-ALSCON ( 1997). Ikot Abasi-The Aluminium Town: SocioTransformation of a Nigerian Community.Ando ,M; Tadano, M; Yamamoto, S; Tamura, K; Asanuma, S; Watanabe,T; Kondo, T ; Sakurai, S; Ji, R.D; Liang C;Cheng,X.Q; Hong, Z;Cao, S. ( 2001). Health Effects of Fluoride Pollution Caused by Coal Burning. Science of TotalAnnette Johnson; Manouchehr Amini; Kim Mueller; Karim Abbaspour; Thomas Rosenberg ; Majid Afyuni; KlausMoller ; Mamadou Sarr (2008). Statistical Modelling of Global Geogenic Fluoride Contamination in Groundwaters.Enviromental Journal of Science and Technology. 42, 3662 – 3668.Potentiometric Method (975.04) . Official Methods of Analysis. 16Canady ,R et al (1993). Toxicological Profile for Fluorides , Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluorine . Government reports ,announcements and index . Volume 24.nmental Protection Agency, 1980. Reviews of the Environmental Effects of Pollutants : IX Fluoride .-050).(online ) http://www.greenfacts.org/International Programme on Chemical Ssafety. ( 2002 ). Fluorides. Environmental Health Criteria, 227. WorldInstitute of Medicine . 1997. Fluoride. In “ Dietary Reference Intakes of Calcium, Phosphorus , Magnesium ,313. National Academy Press. Washington D.C , USA.Jaffery, F.N; Srivastava, A. K; Shaw,A. ; Viswanathan,P.N ; Seth, P.K. (1998). Impact of Nutrition on Fluorosis :Industrial Toxicology Research Centre (ITRC): Lucknow , India. 86.f the Vegetation Conditions within the Area of the Aluminium Plant (Unpublished ).Less, L. N. ( 1975). Fluorine Uptake by Grass from Aluminium Smelter Fume. International Journal of160.McDonald , H.E and Berkeley , P.D. ( 1969). Fluoride as Air Pollutant. Fluoride: Quarterly Reports , 2: 4McQuaker, N.R. and Gurney,M. (1977). Determination of Total Fluoride in Soils and Vegetations Using AlkaliSelective ion electrode Technique. Analytical Chemistry. 49 : 47 – 53.Nielsen, J.M and Dahl, E. ( 2002). Fluoride Exposure of East African Consumers Using Alkaline Salt DepositsKnown as Magadi ( Trona) as a Food Preparation Aid. Food Addit. Contamination. 19(8): 709Occupational Safety and Health Series. No. 47 .( 1980). Occupational Exposure Limits for Airborne Toxic. ed . International Labour Office , Geneva.Saxena, V.K . and Ahmed, S. ( 2003) . Inferring the Chemical Parameters for the Dissolution of Fluoride inology . 43: 731- 736.Haimanot, R; Melaku , Z. ; Kloos , H; Reimann , C; Fantaye, W; Zerihund, L; Bjorvarn, k. (2006). Thegeographic Distribution of Fluoride in Surface and Groundwaterin Ethiopia with an Emphasis on the Rift Valley.Environment .367(1): 182 – 190.Thompson , R. J. et al ( 1971 ) . Fluoride Concentrations in the Ambient Air . Journal of the Air Pollution ControlHwa Chen and Yi-Hwar Lee ( 2008). Determination of Fluoride in Tea Leaves and TeaInfusions by Ion Selective Electrode . Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 17 ( 1 ) : 22 – 27.World Health Organisation, (1984). Fluorine and Fluorides. Environmental Health Criteria , No. 36. Geneva.004) . Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 3RDEdition .Geneva.www.iiste.orgThe Aluminium Town: Socio-Economicondo, T ; Sakurai, S; Ji, R.D; Liang C;Cheng,X.Q; Hong, Z;Cao, S. ( 2001). Health Effects of Fluoride Pollution Caused by Coal Burning. Science of Totalomas Rosenberg ; Majid Afyuni; KlausMoller ; Mamadou Sarr (2008). Statistical Modelling of Global Geogenic Fluoride Contamination in Groundwaters.ric Method (975.04) . Official Methods of Analysis. 16thed. AOAC.Canady ,R et al (1993). Toxicological Profile for Fluorides , Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluorine . Government reports ,nmental Protection Agency, 1980. Reviews of the Environmental Effects of Pollutants : IX Fluoride .ety. ( 2002 ). Fluorides. Environmental Health Criteria, 227. WorldInstitute of Medicine . 1997. Fluoride. In “ Dietary Reference Intakes of Calcium, Phosphorus , Magnesium ,ional Academy Press. Washington D.C , USA.Jaffery, F.N; Srivastava, A. K; Shaw,A. ; Viswanathan,P.N ; Seth, P.K. (1998). Impact of Nutrition on Fluorosis :f the Vegetation Conditions within the Area of the Aluminium Plant (Unpublished ).Less, L. N. ( 1975). Fluorine Uptake by Grass from Aluminium Smelter Fume. International Journal of( 1969). Fluoride as Air Pollutant. Fluoride: Quarterly Reports , 2: 4 – 12.McQuaker, N.R. and Gurney,M. (1977). Determination of Total Fluoride in Soils and Vegetations Using AlkaliNielsen, J.M and Dahl, E. ( 2002). Fluoride Exposure of East African Consumers Using Alkaline Salt DepositsKnown as Magadi ( Trona) as a Food Preparation Aid. Food Addit. Contamination. 19(8): 709 – 714.7 .( 1980). Occupational Exposure Limits for Airborne ToxicSaxena, V.K . and Ahmed, S. ( 2003) . Inferring the Chemical Parameters for the Dissolution of Fluoride inHaimanot, R; Melaku , Z. ; Kloos , H; Reimann , C; Fantaye, W; Zerihund, L; Bjorvarn, k. (2006). Thegeographic Distribution of Fluoride in Surface and Groundwaterin Ethiopia with an Emphasis on the Rift Valley.Thompson , R. J. et al ( 1971 ) . Fluoride Concentrations in the Ambient Air . Journal of the Air Pollution Controlide in Tea Leaves and Tea27.World Health Organisation, (1984). Fluorine and Fluorides. Environmental Health Criteria , No. 36. Geneva.Edition .Geneva.
  • 5. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.4, 2013Corresponding Author.Dr Usoro Monday Etesin was born in Ikpa Ibekwe in April 26, 1964 , and hails from Ikot Akpanata Village in IkpaIbekwe Clan of Ikot Abasi Local Government Area .He attended Primary School Ikot Obong , Ikpa Ibekwe , Ikot Abasi Local Government Area, where he obtained aFirst School Living Certificate in 1974 at Merit level. He later attended Methodist Secondary School Ete , Ikot Abasi ,where he obtained a GCE ( O/L ) in 1981 . He proceeded to Federal University of Technology Owerri , in 1983 ,where he obtained Bachelor of Science Technology degree in Industrial Chemistry in 1988 at First Class level .Having completed the mandatory one year National Youth ServiceMagcobar .Port Harcourt as a Laboratory Technologist. In 1990, proceeded to do a Master of Science degree inAnalytical Chemistry with the University of Port Harcourt and graduated with the degree in 1992.He later joined the services of the Department of Chemistry ,University of Calabar as an Assistant Lecturer in 1994 .He was later promoted to Lecturer II in 1996 . Whilst , with the services of University of Calabar , enrolled for aDoctor of Philosophy degree in AnaAnalytical / Environmental Chemistry in 2003 by the University of Calabar.In July 2010, he joined the services of Akwa Ibom State University , Mkpat Enin , as Lecturer I in theChemistry , and was appointed the Pioneer Acting Head , Department of Chemistry.Dr Usoro Etesin has his hobbies as reading , table tennis , photography and athletic .Figure. 1: Map of Ikot Abasi showing samplTable 1 : Showing location of sample and type of vegetation .S/N Location1 Ikot Etetuk Village Square2 Federal Housing Estate3 ALSCON Estate( Berger Camp)4 ALSCON Access Road5 Primary School , Ikot Obong6 Ikpetim Village7 South of Potroom8 Ikot Obong Village Square9 Akwa Ibom Industrial Estate10 Berger JettyJournal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)51Dr Usoro Monday Etesin was born in Ikpa Ibekwe in April 26, 1964 , and hails from Ikot Akpanata Village in IkpaIbekwe Clan of Ikot Abasi Local Government Area .e attended Primary School Ikot Obong , Ikpa Ibekwe , Ikot Abasi Local Government Area, where he obtained aFirst School Living Certificate in 1974 at Merit level. He later attended Methodist Secondary School Ete , Ikot Abasi ,) in 1981 . He proceeded to Federal University of Technology Owerri , in 1983 ,where he obtained Bachelor of Science Technology degree in Industrial Chemistry in 1988 at First Class level .Having completed the mandatory one year National Youth Service in 1989, worked briefly with DresserMagcobar .Port Harcourt as a Laboratory Technologist. In 1990, proceeded to do a Master of Science degree inAnalytical Chemistry with the University of Port Harcourt and graduated with the degree in 1992.ned the services of the Department of Chemistry ,University of Calabar as an Assistant Lecturer in 1994 .He was later promoted to Lecturer II in 1996 . Whilst , with the services of University of Calabar , enrolled for aDoctor of Philosophy degree in Analytical Chemistry in 1996, and was awarded the Doctor of Philosophy degree inAnalytical / Environmental Chemistry in 2003 by the University of Calabar.In July 2010, he joined the services of Akwa Ibom State University , Mkpat Enin , as Lecturer I in theChemistry , and was appointed the Pioneer Acting Head , Department of Chemistry.Dr Usoro Etesin has his hobbies as reading , table tennis , photography and athletic .Figure. 1: Map of Ikot Abasi showing sample locationsTable 1 : Showing location of sample and type of vegetation .Location Type of vegetationIkot Etetuk Village Square CassavaFederal Housing Estate Cassavate( Berger Camp) Wire grassALSCON Access Road CassavaPrimary School , Ikot Obong CassavaIkpetim Village BitterleafSouth of Potroom CassavaIkot Obong Village Square BitterleafAkwa Ibom Industrial Estate CassavaBerger Jetty Cassavawww.iiste.orgDr Usoro Monday Etesin was born in Ikpa Ibekwe in April 26, 1964 , and hails from Ikot Akpanata Village in Ikpae attended Primary School Ikot Obong , Ikpa Ibekwe , Ikot Abasi Local Government Area, where he obtained aFirst School Living Certificate in 1974 at Merit level. He later attended Methodist Secondary School Ete , Ikot Abasi ,) in 1981 . He proceeded to Federal University of Technology Owerri , in 1983 ,where he obtained Bachelor of Science Technology degree in Industrial Chemistry in 1988 at First Class level .in 1989, worked briefly with DresserMagcobar .Port Harcourt as a Laboratory Technologist. In 1990, proceeded to do a Master of Science degree inAnalytical Chemistry with the University of Port Harcourt and graduated with the degree in 1992.ned the services of the Department of Chemistry ,University of Calabar as an Assistant Lecturer in 1994 .He was later promoted to Lecturer II in 1996 . Whilst , with the services of University of Calabar , enrolled for alytical Chemistry in 1996, and was awarded the Doctor of Philosophy degree inIn July 2010, he joined the services of Akwa Ibom State University , Mkpat Enin , as Lecturer I in the Department ofDr Usoro Etesin has his hobbies as reading , table tennis , photography and athletic .DescriptionClose to ALSCON PlantBehind ALSCON Plant300 metres , East ofALSCONNorth of CasthouseBehind ALSCONWest of ALSCON60 metre from ALSCON1km from ALSCONEast of ALSCON300 metres from ALSCON
  • 6. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.4, 2013Table 2 : Fluoride content in vegetation in 2010S/N Location1 Ikot Etetuk Village Square2 Federal Housing Estate3 ALSCON Estate( BergerCamp)4 ALSCON Access Road5 Primary School , IkotObong6 Ikpetim Village7 South of Potroom8 Ikot Obong Village Square9 Akwa Ibom IndustrialEstate10 Berger JettyTable 3 : Fluoride content in vegetation in2011S/N Location1 Ikot Etetuk Village Square2 Federal Housing Estate3 ALSCON Estate( BergerCamp)4 ALSCON Access Road5 Primary School , IkotObong6 Ikpetim Village7 South of Potroom8 Ikot Obong Village Square9 Akwa Ibom IndustrialEstate10 Berger JettyJournal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)52Table 2 : Fluoride content in vegetation in 2010Type ofvegetationFluoride content (mg/kg)July,2010 October,2010 November, 2010Ikot Etetuk Village Square Cassava 1.635 1.961Cassava 4.561 5.022ALSCON Estate( Berger Wire grass 0.6720.843Cassava 1.7021.788Primary School , Ikot Cassava 1.991.977Bitterleaf 6.682 6.812Cassava 1.552 1.903Ikot Obong Village Square Bitterleaf 3.641 3.672Akwa Ibom Industrial Cassava 0.3430.516Cassava 0.899 1.022Table 3 : Fluoride content in vegetation inType ofvegetationFluoride content (mg/kg)July,2011 October,2011 November, 2011Ikot Etetuk Village Square Cassava 19.59 24.81 15.26Cassava 11.37 7.033 7.731ALSCON Estate( Berger Wire grass 5.8254.0952.452Cassava 39.04 37.43 46.69Primary School , Ikot Cassava 6.7944.4313.271Bitterleaf 9.815 11.45 13.3Cassava 34.28 30.55 25.45Ikot Obong Village Square Bitterleaf 7.019 6.259 7.82Akwa Ibom Industrial Cassava 6.2548.3528.511Cassava 8.293 9.755 8.209www.iiste.orge content (mg/kg)November, 2010 Mean1.973 1.8554.992 4.8570.9120.8081.7921.7611.9461.9715.871 6.4551.875 1.7763.802 3.7050.4980.4521.052 0.991Fluoride content (mg/kg)November, 2011 Mean15.26 19.897.731 8.7112.4524.12446.69 41.053.2714.83213.3 11.5225.45 30.097.821 7.0338.5117.7068.209 8.752
  • 7. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.4, 2013Figure 2: Bar Chart representation of fluoride content in 2010Figure 3 : Bar chart representation of fluoride con012345678CassavaCassavaWiregrassCassavaCassava1 2 3 4 505101520253035404550CassavaCassavaWiregrassCassavaCassava1 2 3 4 5Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)53Figure 2: Bar Chart representation of fluoride content in 2010Figure 3 : Bar chart representation of fluoride content in 2011CassavaBitterleafCassavaBitterleafCassavaCassava6 7 8 9 10Fluoride content (mg/kg)July,2010Fluoride content (mg/kg)October,2010Fluoride content (mg/kg)November, 2010Fluoride content (mg/kg)MeanCassavaBitterleafCassavaBitterleafCassavaCassava6 7 8 9 10Fluoride content (mg/kg)July,2011Fluoride content (mg/kg)October,2011Fluoride content (mg/kg)November, 2011Fluoride content (mg/kg)Meanwww.iiste.orgFluoride content (mg/kg)Fluoride content (mg/kg)Fluoride content (mg/kg)Fluoride content (mg/kg)Fluoride content (mg/kg)Fluoride content (mg/kg)Fluoride content (mg/kg)Fluoride content (mg/kg)
  • 8. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgCALL FOR PAPERSThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline forsubmission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submissioninstruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar