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Construction of dye sensitized solar cell with bouganvilla

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  • 1. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.3, No.5, 201325Construction of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell withBouganvilla,Cordia Sebestena and Talinium Triangulare FlowerAwodibo Michael1, Boyo Adenike 2*, Oluwole Surukite3Abudusalami Ibrahim4and Boyo Henry51Department of Physics, Reedemer’s University,Ogun, Nigeria2Department of Physics, Lagos state university, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria3Department of Botany, Lagos state university, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria4Department of Chemistry, Fountain University, Oshogbo, Lagos, Nigeria5Department of Physics, University of Lagos,Akoka, Lagos, Nigeria*Email Corresponding author: adenikeoboyo@gmail.comAbstractDye sensitized solar cells, are one of the most promising devices for solar energy conversion into electricity, dueto their reduced production cost and low environmental impact especially those sensitized by natural dyes. In thisstudy, three-flowers were used as sensitizer for the dye sensitized solar cell namely Bouganvillae flower (X),Cordea sebestina flower (Y) and Talinium triangulare flower (Z). The Cold extraction method was used withacidified methanol as a solvent to extract the dye from the three samples. The outdoor energy conversionefficiency and fill factor measurement of the solar cells sensitized by Bouganvillae flower extract is 0.15% and0.56 while the indoor values are 0.006% and 0.54 respectively. For the extract of Cordea sebestina flower,outdoor energy conversion efficiency and fill factor values of the solar cells is 0.074% and 0.85 while the indoorvalues are 0.0083 and 0.47 respectively. Lastly, the outdoor conversion efficiency and fill factor value ofTalinium triangulare flower extract is 0.059% and 0.9 while the indoor values are 0.017% and 0.51 respectively.Comparison of the samples outdoor and indoor measurement shows that solar cell made from Bouganvillaeflower has the highest efficiency and would be very useful as a natural dye for dye sensitized solar cell.Key words: Bouganvillae flower, Cordea sebestina flower, Talinium triangulare flower, methanol1. IntroductionSolar power makes use of the abundant energy from the sun. Many technologies in our world today use solarenergy. Solar energy is beneficial because it is less harmful to our environment than other methods of energyproduction and does not create the waste caused by burning fossil fuels. Since solar energy makes use of aninexhaustible and free source of energy, the sun, this technology will lessen our dependence on fossil fuels andprotect our natural resources.Among a variety of renewable sources in progress is the solar cell. This means harvesting energy directly fromsunlight using photovoltaics. The solar cells that have recorded the highest photon to current conversionefficiency are the first generation devices based on single silicon crystal (Belfar and Mostefaoui, 2011). Theproblem with this solar cell is their high cost of production and installation. Various researchers (Konan et al.,2007; Bhatti et al., 2002) have worked on Second generation devices consisting of semiconductor thin film, inorder to reduce the high cost of production and improve the efficiency of first generation solar cells, although theefficiency challenges have not been removed. The third generation solar cells are the dye sensitized solar cells,heterojunction cells and organic cells. These are similar to plants that use photosynthesis to absorb energy fromsunlight (Zainudin et al., 2011; Efurumibe et al., 2012). Dye Sensitised Solar Cell (DSSCs) use dyes orsensitisers to convert sunlight into electricity. Electricity is created when the dye is energised by solarradiation, which then flows from the dye to the metal oxide surface (Zweibel K 1997 and Gratzel M.2004).Predicted consumer uptake of dye-sensitized solar cell will assist in decreasing our reliance on electricitygeneration derived from fossil fuels, thereby decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. They are inexpensive (Amaoand Komori, 2004; Hao et al., 2006; Polo and Iha, 2006). This research focus on the fabrication of dye sensitizedsolar cell by using extracts from Bougainvillea, Cordia sebestena and Talinium triangulare flower as sensitizers.Bougainvillea is an immensely showy floriferous and hardy plant which can be use as hedges, curb-liners andhouse plant or hanging basket in cooler. Cordia sebestena is a fair-sized, deciduous tree with rough, grey orbrown bark, and harsh, leathery, oval leaves. The flowers lie in a cup-shaped calyx and have five curling, whitepetals, revealing the long stamens. The fruit is like a pale cherry and develops in stalked clusters. The nut isedible and use for landscaping. Talinium triangulare commonly known as ‘water leaf’ grows mainly in thetropics and subtropics e.g. Nigeria and Cameron. It is a perennial plant, grown all years round with flowerspossess two sepals and basal placentation (Idu M. et al 2007).Talinium is a weed, cultivated in gardens and large
  • 2. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.3, No.5, 201326farms in Nigeria. The leaves of Talinium triangulare serves as vegetables in preparing soups and stews in someNigerian homes.The objective of this research work is to fabricate, characterize and identify stable high performing natural dyematerials in improving the efficiency of the dye sensitized solar cell.2. Materials and MethodsFresh Bougainvillea, Cordea sebestina and Talinium triangulare flowers were collected from a farmland inMowe along Lagos-Ibadan Expressway, at Obafemi Owode Local Government Area of Ogun State. The flowerswere air dried for one week at room temperature until they became invariant in weight; laboratory ceramic madepestle and mortal were then used to crush each dry specimen into tiny bits.Fifty grams of each crushed samples was weighed and poured into 500ml acidified solution of methanol. Thiswas left to age at room temperature in a dark place for 24 hours. After extraction, the decantation was done andthe solid residues were filtered to remove any residual parts, and the filtrate was concentrated for use assensitizer by using rotary evaporator – a water circulating multifunction vacuum pump (by Zheng Zhou Grsatwall Scientific Industry and Trade Co. Ltd). Also, a digital multi-meter, Fisher brand Hydrus pH meter 300model , OHAUS Electronic weighing Balance Model Brain weight B1500 made in USA and UV-visiblespectrophotometer (1600series) were used for measurement.2.1.1 Construction of the Solar cellPreparing the substrate for depositionThe titania paste was prepared by mixing 20ml of Hydrochloric acid with 20gram of powder titanium oxide andwas well stirred to ensured there was no lumps. The active conductive side of the FTO glass was determined byusing a multimeter. With the conductive side facing up, two parallel strips of tape were applied on the edges ofthe glass plate, such that about 1.5cm by 1.5cm was left uncovered in the middle of the glass for the titania to bedeposited there.A portion of paste was applied near the top edge of the FTO glass between the pieces of tape. and a glass rod,was use in spreading the paste across the plate with the support of the adhesive tapes on the four sides ofconductive glass sheet to restrict the thickness and area of TiO2. The operation was repeated until a reasonablehomogenous layer was obtained and was placed in an oven at a temperature of about 1000C for about 15 minutesand was later removed and soaked in the dye. Then a carbon counter electrode was made by carbon coating theconductive side of another FTO glass.2.1.2 Arrangement of the electrodes.The electrodes were arranged such that the two conductive sides were facing each other ie the stained titaniafaced the carbon of the counter-electrode. The gap left between the two glass plates was filled with electrolyte(potassium Iodide). The electrodes were pressed together, and the electrolyte soaked in the resulting stack bycapillary effect. Two binder clips were used to gently hold the plates together at the edges. Connecting wireswere connected to both the electrode (titanium dioxide coated side of the other slide) and the counter electrode.The cell was then taken out for outdoor readings and indoor readings were taken as well. The results of both theoutdoor and indoor readings are in Table1-23.0 Result and DiscussionTable 3-4 presents the performance of the Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for all the samples extract in terms of shortcircuit photocurrent (Isc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF) and energy conversion efficiency (η). Weobserve that Bouganvillae extract has the highest value of efficiency during the outdoor and indoormeasurement. This is due to the presence of high content of Antocyanin in the extract; Anthocyanin helps theextract to stick to the oxide surface thereby increasing the light harvesting ability of the extract. The higher theAnthocyanin content in plant, the greater the rate of light harvesting ability and the efficiency of the cell.Talinium triangulare and Cordea sebestina extract has the least efficiency values because of the low interactionbetween the extracts and TiO2 film The Talinium triangulare sensitized solar cell has the highest value of fillfactor for indoor readings while Bouganvilla sensitized solar cell has the least value of fill factor. For the outdoormeasurement Bouganvillae flower sensitized solar cell has the highest value of fill factor and the Cordeasebestina sensitized solar cell has the lowest.This shows that there is minimal internal loses in the junction of theTalinium triangulare and Bouganvilla sensitized solar cell.The UV-VIS absorption spectra of samples methanol extract and adsorption on TiO2 are shown in Fig 1-3. It wasobserved that the pattern rises sharply between 400nm and 500nm showing that it has a good light absorbingcapacity. As absorbance increases from 600-1000 there is a flat pattern, meaning no light absorption could occur
  • 3. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.3, No.5, 201327at this range. We notice there is difference in the absorption peaks, they were found at the different wavelengthsfor the methanol extract and extract adsorption on TiO2 surface (Cherepy, N.J et al 1997). The difference is dueto the reaction of the extract with the oxide surface4.0 ConclusionThe DSSC of reasonably high efficiency value can be developed using Bourganvillae flower, Cordea sebestenaand Talinium with methanol as a solvent. The result for Bouganvilla flower extract showed that it has the highestvalue of efficiency for both outdoor and indoor measurement due to high content of Anthocyanin in the extract.Anthocyanin has the ability of absorbing titanium dioxide and that increasing the light harvesting capacity of theextract. It has also been established from the result that a higher value of conversion efficiency can be obtainedwhen the intensity of the sun is high. Overall, natural dyes as sensitizers for Dye Sensitized solar cell arepromising because of their environmental friendliness and low-cost production.REFERENCEBakowsk, A., A.Z. Kucharska and J. Oszmianski, (2003) The effects of heating, UV irradiation and storage onstability of the anthocyanin-polyphenol copigment complex. Food Chem., 81:349-355.Belfar, A. and R. Mostefaoui, (2011). Simulation of n1-p2 microcrystalline silicon tunnel junction with AMPS-1D in s-si : H/μc–si : H tandem solar cells. J. Applied Sci., 11:2932-2939.Bhatti, M. T., A. M. Rana, A.F. Khan and M. I. Ansari, (2002). Effect of annealing on electrical properties ofIndium films. J. Applied Sci., 2:570-573.Cherepy, N.J., G.P. Smestad, M. Gratzel and J.Z. Zang, (1997). Ultrafast electron injection: Implications for aphotoelectrochemical cell utilizing an anthocyanin dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystalline electrode. J. Phys. Chem.B, 101:9342-9351.Efurumibe, E. L., A. D. Asiegbu and M. U. Onuu, (2012) Mathematical modeling of electron transport throughthe standard dye-sensitized solar cell Asian J. Applied Sci. 5:33-42.Gratzel, M. (2004) Dye-sensitized solar cells J. Photochem. Photobio. C: Photochem. Rev., 4:145-153.Hao, S., J. Wu, Y. Huang and J. Lin, (2006) Natural dyes as photosensitizers for dye as phtosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell. Solar Energy, 80: 209-214Idu, M. and H. I. Onyibe, (2007). Medicinal plants of Edo State, Nigeria. Res. J, Med. Plant, 1: 32-41.Konan, K., J.K. Saraka, J.T. Zoueu and P. Gbaha, (2007) Structural and Morphological analysis of CuInSe2 thinfree CSVT for photovoltaic cells. J. Applied Sci. 7: 478-483.Polo, A. S. and N.Y.M. Iha, (2006). Blue sensitizers for solar cells: Natural dyes from Calafate and Jaboticaba.So Cells, 90:136-1944.Zainudin, S.N.F., Markom, H. Abdulah, R., Adami and Tasirm, S.A (2011) Supercritical anti - solvent processfor enhancement of dye – sanitized solar cell efficiency: A review , Asian. J. Applied sci., volume 41. 331 – 342Zweibel K. (1990). Harnessing Solar Power, the photovoltaic challenge New York, plenum Press pp. 235 – 253.
  • 4. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.3, No.5, 201328Fig.1 Absorption spectra of extract of Bourganvillae flower, before(______) and after (_ _ _ _) being adsorbed onto TiO2 surface.400 500 600 700 800 900 1000Absorbancewavelength (nm)
  • 5. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.3, No.5, 201329Fig.2 Absorption spectra of extract of CORDEA SEBESTINA FLOWER before (______) andafter (_ _ _ _) being adsorbed onto TiO2 surface.400 500 600 700 800 900 1000Absorbancewavelength(nm)
  • 6. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.3, No.5, 201330Fig.3 Absorption spectra of extract of TALINIUM triangulare FLOWER before (______) andafter (_ _ _ _) being adsorbed onto TiO2 surface.Table1. outdoor solar cell data for the SamplesX=Bouganvillaeflower Y=Cordea Sebestina Z=Talinium triangulare(flower)R X Y ZV(V) I(A) Power(W)V(V)I(A)Power(W)V(V) I(A) Power(W)0 0 0.73 0 0 0.15 0 0 0.14 0400 4.1 0.72 2.95 21.5 0.15 3.2 20.5 0.14 2.85600 4.8 0.71 3.41 23.2 0.15 3.43 20.54 0.14 2.79800 6.2 0.7 4.34 24.8 0.14 3.47 20.55 0.13 2.751000 7.5 0.68 5.1 26 0.14 3.51 20.6 0.13 2.681200 8.5 0.63 5.36 26.5 0.13 3.45 20.62 0.12 2.521400 9.4 0.62 5.83 26.8 0.13 3.35 20.65 0.12 2.481600 10.6 0.61 6.47 26.9 0.12 3.34 21 0.12 2.411800 11 0.6 6.6 27 0.12 3.24 21.2 0.11 2.372000 17.5 0 0 27.2 0 0 22 0 0400 500 600 700 800 900 1000Absorbancewavelength(nm)
  • 7. Journal of Natural Sciences Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-3186 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0921 (Online)Vol.3, No.5, 201331Table2. indoor solar cell data for the SamplesX=Bouganvillaeflower Y=Cordea SebestinaZ=Taliniumtriangulare(flower)R X Y ZV(V) I(A) Power(W)V (V) I (A) Power(W)V(V) I(A) Power(W)0 0 0.2 0 0 0.2 0 0 0.2 0400 0.1 0.2 0.02 0.24 0.2 0.04 0.5 0.1 0.07600 0.4 0.2 0.07 0.6 0.2 0.09 0.8 0.1 0.11800 0.7 0.2 0.11 1 0.1 0.14 1 0.1 0.131000 0.9 0.1 0.13 1.1 0.1 0.14 2 0.1 0.241200 1.1 0.1 0.15 1.2 0.1 0.14 4 0.1 0.441400 1.3 0.1 0.17 1.4 0.1 0.15 6.8 0.1 0.681600 1.5 0.1 0.2 1.6 0.1 0.16 7 0.1 0.71800 2.2 0.1 0.22 2.2 0.1 0.22 9.2 0.1 0.922000 2.4 0 0 4.6 0 0 10.2 0 0Table 3. Photovoltaic performances of samples (outdoor analysis)sample ISC(mA/cm2) Voc(V) FF η%X 0.73 17.5 0.56 0.15Y 0.15 27.2 0.85 0.074Z 0.14 22 0.9 0.059Table 4. Photovoltaic performances of samples (indoor analysis)sample ISC(mA/cm2) Voc(V) FF η%X 0.2 2.4 0.54 0.06Y 0.18 4.6 0.47 0.0083Z 0.15 10.2 0.51 0.017
  • 8. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgCALL FOR PAPERSThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline forsubmission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submissioninstruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar