Mathematical Theory and Modeling                                                                         www.iiste.orgISSN...
Mathematical Theory and Modeling                                                                                     www.i...
Mathematical Theory and Modeling                                                                         www.iiste.orgISSN...
Mathematical Theory and Modeling                                                                                 www.iiste...
Mathematical Theory and Modeling                                                                              www.iiste.or...
Mathematical Theory and Modeling                                                              www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 ...
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Coincidence points for mappings under generalized contraction

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Coincidence points for mappings under generalized contraction

  1. 1. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.5, 2012 Coincidence Points for Mappings under Generalized Contraction Ajay Gairola*and Mahesh C.Joshi Department of Mathematics, D.S.B. Campus, Kumaun University, Nainital *Email of the corresponding author: ajjumath@gmail.comAbstractIn this paper we establish some results on the existence of coincidence and fixed points for multi-valued and singlevalued mappings extending the result of Feng and Liu [2] and Liu et.al [5]. It is also proved with counter examplethat our results generalize and extend some well known results.Key Words: common fixed point, Coincidence point, multi-valued mappings.1. Introduction and PreliminariesGeneralizing Banach Contraction Principle, Nadler [3] introduced the concept of multivalued contraction mapping.Let (X, d) be a metric space. Following Nadler [3] and Liu et.al [5] we follow following notations throughout thispaper.CB(X) (resp.CL(X)) denote the family of all closed and bounded (resp. closed) subsets of X. C(X) represents set of allcompact subsets of X. The Hausdorff distance for two subsets A, B of X is defined as:H(A, B) = max ({sup d(a, B): a A}, {sup d(A, b): b B})where d(a, B) = inf {d(a, b): b B},It is well known that CB(X) (resp. CL(X)) is a metric space with Hausdorff distance function.Let T:X →CL(X). Using the concept of Hausdorff distance, Nadler [3] defined multivalued contraction as following,H(Tx, Ty) ≤ αd(x, y) ∀ x, y ∈ X and α < 1.Nadler proved that for a multivalued contraction in a complete metric space there exists a fixed point. Recently Fengand Liu [2] and Liu et.al [5] generalized the Nadler’s result. Feng and Liu [2] gave an example to establish that ifthe mapping T does not satisfy the above contractive condition even then it has a fixed point. Feng and Liu [2]generalized the above contractive condition by considering the point y T(x) for any x X in place of x, y ∈ X andproved the following result.Theorem 1 [4]. Let (X, d) be a complete metric space, and let T be a multivalued mapping from X to CL(X). If thereexist constant b, c (0, 1), c < b, such that for any x X there is y T(x) satisfying, bd(x, y) ≤ f(x), f(y) ≤ cd(x, y) (1.1)then T has a fixed point in X provided the function f(x) = d(x, T(x)), x X is lower semi continuous.Generalizing above result and the result of Ciric [1], Liu et.al [5] relax the contractive condition by takingand in place of constant b and c, where :B , :B [0, 1) and B = …(A)In this paper we extend the result of [2] and [5] for the existence of coincidence points.2. Main ResultLet (X, d) be a metric space, T: X →CL(X) and f: X→X. An orbit of the multivalued map T at a point x0 in X is a 1
  2. 2. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.5, 2012sequence {xn: xn Txn-1, n =1, 2, 3 ...}. The space X is T –orbitally complete if every Cauchy sequence of thefrom } converges in X. If for a point x0 in X, there exists a sequence {xn} X such that fxn+1 Txn,n = 0, 1, 2, …, then Of(x0) = {fxn : n = 1, 2 …} is an orbit of (T, f) at x0. A space X is (T, f) –orbitally complete if everyCauchy sequence of the form converges in X. A function R such that = d (fx, Tx)is called (T, f) -orbitally lower semi continuous if for any point z an orbit {f(xn)} of (T, f) with lim fxn = fzimplying that .Theorem 2.1 Let (X, d) be a metric space. T: X →CL(X) and f: X→X such that T(X) f(X) and f(X) is (T, f) -orbitally complete. Iffor any x X there exists y X such that f(y) T(x) andα( )d(fx, fy) ≤ and ≤ (( )d(fx, fy)where and are defined as (A) satisfying , t∈ [0, sup , (2.1)and the function is (T, f) -orbitally lower semi continuous at z. Then there exist a coincidence point z of f and T.Proof: Let = , t [0, sup ) (2.2)Let x0 X, since T(x) f(X) we choose x1 X so that fx1 Tx0,and α( (x0)) d(fx0, fx1) ≤ (x0) = d(fx0, Tx0), (x1) = d(fx1, Tx1) ≤ ( (x0)) d(fx0, fx1)implies (x1) ≤ ( (x0)) .Using (2.2) we get (x1) ≤ ( (x0)) = ( (x0)) ( (x0)continuing the process we get an orbit { xn}n≥ 0 of T satisfyingα( (xn)) d(fxn, fxn+1) ≤ (xn) = d(fxn, Txn) and (xn+1) = d(fxn+1, Txn+1) ≤ ( (xn)) d(fxn, fxn+1), n ≥ 0. (2.3)Using (2.2) we get (xn+1) ≤ ( (xn)) = ( (xn)) ( (xn)). (2.4)Since 0 ≤ (t) < 1 and by (2.4) it is clear that { xn}n≥ 0 is a nonnegative and decreasing sequence. Hence isconvergent.Let =a (2.5) 2
  3. 3. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.5, 2012where a ≥ 0, suppose a >0, taking limit n→∞ in (2.4) and by (2.1), (2.2) and (2.5)a= ≤≤=aWhich is a contradiction hence a = 0i.e., = 0. (2.6)To prove that {fxn}, n ≥ 0 is a Cauchy sequence.Let b = , c= (2.7)Then from (2.1), (2.2) and (2.7)0 ≤ b < 1, c > 0.Let p (0, c), q (b, 1) then from (2.7) < q, > p, n≥0which together with (2.3) and (2.4) gives ≤q d(fxn, fxn+1) ≤Calculating similar calculation we get ≤ , d(fxn, fxn+1) ≤, .which givesd(fxn , fxm) ≤ ≤ ≤. (2.8)Since q < 1 therefore (2.8) implies that {fxn} is a Cauchy sequence. And since f(X) is (T, f) -orbitally complete z X such that = fz.Now we will prove that z is coincidence point of f and T.Since is (T, f) -orbitally lower semi continuous therefore0 ≤ d(fz, Tz) = ≤ )=0 (by 2.6) = 0, 3
  4. 4. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.5, 2012 d(fz, Tz) = 0 f(z) T(z) i.e. f and T have a coincidence point . In Theorem 2.1, taking constants α and in place of α( ) and (( ) respectively we get followingresult as a corollary. The following corollary is also serves as a generalization of Singh and Kulsrestha[4].Corollary 2.1. Let (X, d) be a metric space. T: X →CL(X) and f: X→X are mappings such that T(X) f(X) and f(X) is (T, f) -orbitally complete. If for any x X there is y X such that f(y) T(x) satisfying And ≤ d(fx, fy)where α, (0, 1) and α < and the function is is lower semi continuous. Then T and f has a coincidence point inX.ProofLet x0 X, since T(x) f(X) we choose x1 X such that fx1 Tx0.By the given contractive condition d(fx0, fx1) ≤ (x0) = d(fx0, Tx0) and (x1) = d(fx1, Tx1) ≤ α d(fx0, fx1).In similar way we choose xn+1 X such that f(xn+1) T(xn) andd(fxn+1, Txn+1) ≤ α d(fxn, fxn+1), d(fxn, fxn+1) ≤ (xn) = d(fxn, Txn)which impliesd(fxn+1, Txn+1) ≤ d(fxn, Txn)or d(fxn+1, fxn+2) ≤ d(fxn, fxn+1) d(fxn, Txn) ≤ d(fx0, Tx0)Or d(fxn, fxn+1) ≤ d(fx0, fx1). (2.9)Using (2.9) for m, n N, m>n,d(fxm, fxn) ≤ d(fxm, fxm-1) + d(fxm-1, fxm-2)+ …+ d(fxn+1, fxn)≤ d(fx0, fx1) + d(fx0, fx1) + d(fx0, fx1) +…+ d(fx0, fx1) 4
  5. 5. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.5, 2012≤ d(fx0, fx1) (2.10)As n ,hence {fxn} is a Cauchy sequence. Since f(X) is (T, f) -orbitally complete there exists z X such that converges to fz.Now using the condition of (T, f) –orbitally lower semi continuity of we can be easily prove that z is coincidencepoint of f and T.In theorem 2.1 taking C(X) in place of CL(X) we get we get following result as corollary.Corollary 2.2Let (X, d) be a metric space. T: X →C(X) and f: X→X such that T and f satisfy all conditions as in theorem 2.1 thenthere exist a coincidence point z of f and T.Proof.Proof is same as of theorem 2.1.In corollary 2.1 taking C(X) in place of CL(X) we get we get following result as corollary.Corollary 2.3Let (X, d) be a metric space. T: X →C(X) and f: X→X are mappings such that all conditions as in corollary 2.1 aresatisfied then T and f has a coincidence point in X.ProofProof is same as of corollary 2.1.ExampleLet X = { 1 , 1 , ..., 1 , ...} U {0,1} , d(x, y) = x − y , for x, y X; then X is complete metric space. Define mapping T: n 2 4 2X→ CL(X) as  1    1   2 n+ 2 ,1 , x = n , n = 0,1, 2,...T(x) =      2  2   1   0, 2  , x = 0    and f(x) = x2, x X.Obviously, T and f does not satisfy hybrid contraction condition [4].   1   1 1 1  1 H  T  2 n  , T ( 0 )  = ≥ 2 n = 2 n − 0 = d  2 n , 0  , n = 1, 2..     2    2   2 2 2  5
  6. 6. Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)Vol.2, No.5, 2012On the other hand, we have  1 1 ∅(x) = d(fx, T(x)) =  2 n+ 2 ,x = n , n = 1, 2... 2 2  0, x = 0,1   It shows that ∅ is continuous,Further, there exists y X for any x X such thatd(fy, Ty) ≤Then from corollary 2.1 there exist a coincidence point of f and T.References 1. Ciric,L.B. (2009),“multivalued nonlinear contraction mappings”, Nonlinear Analysis: Theory method and application, vol.57, no. 7-8, 2716-2723. 2. Feng, Y. and Liu, S. (2006), “Fixed Points theorems for multi-valued contractive mappings and multi- valued caristi type mappings” J. Math. Anal. Appl. 317, 103-112. 3. Nadler, S.B. Jr. (1969), “Multi-valued Contraction mappings”, Pacific J. Math. 30, 475-488. 4. Singh, S.L., Kulsresrtha, C., (1983), “Coincidence Theorems”, Indian J. Phy. Natur. Sci. 3B, 5-10. 5. Liu, Z., Sun Wei, Kang Shin Min, Ume, Jeong Sheok, (2010), “On Fixed Point theorem for multivalued Contraction”, Fixed Point theory and applications. 6
  7. 7. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. Prospective authors ofIISTE journals can find the submission instruction on the following page:http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar

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