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Application of geo information techniques in mapping the spatial incidence of malaria in calabar south local government area, cross river state, nigeria.

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  • 1. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Application of Geo-Information Techniques in Mapping the SpatialIncidence of Malaria in Calabar South Local GovernmentCross RiveOluyemi Ayorinde Akintoye , Patrick Ugbe Alasha ,Department of Geography and Environmental ScienceE-Mail of Corresponding AuthorAbstractThis study applied geo-information technique in mapping the incidence of malaria in Calabar South LocalGovernment Area of Nigeria. Consequently, the research identified the potential breestablishing a relationship between residential distance, frequency of malaria incidence and the breeding location ofthe vector by creating a malaria risk map. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was used in collecting realocation and other environmental variables, while an openinformation, aimed at achieving other study objectives. A total of 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed,through stratified and simple random sampling technique. Arc GIS 9.3 software was used in analyzinggeo-information parameters, The result of the study indicated that the closer the distance to the identified breedingpoint, the higher the incidence of malaria and the farthethere is a relationship between distance from mosquito breeding points and malaria incidence in the study area. Thus,this has resulted in observed high level of malaria incidences among resipoints. Due to the high incidence, there is invariably higher loss in occupational manespecially among infants from the malaria disease. It is recommended that more researches shoulwith the aim of further finding more effective solutions.Keywords :Geo-Information, Malaria, Incidence, Breeding Point,1. IntroductionMalaria is a serious infectious disease that has become the number one public health problem in theworld (Colluzi, 2002, WHO, 2008). Malaria has been with man from ancient time to the present civilization. Themalignant and intermittent fever observed in ancient time in China, India, Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome werelikely the same disease conditions as observed in our times (Loban and Polozok, 1985).Malaria is defined as an acuteinfectious disease caused by plasmodium2001). Similarly, Cunningham et alcaused by a protozoan parasite of thevivax and plasmodium falciparum)Malaria is a life threatening parasite disease transmitted byabout 450 BC, ‘Miasma Theory’ was used to explain the occurrence of disease epidemics. Thus malaria means “BadAir” (Akpala, 1994). In 1880, Scientists discovered that the real cause of malaria is a one cell par“plasmodium”. Later, they discovered that the parasite is transmitted from one person to another through the bite of afemale Anopheles mosquito, which requires blood to nurture her eggs. Today, approximately 40% of the poorestcountries are at risk of malaria (WHO, 2008).The disease was widespread throughout the world, but it was successfully eliminated from many countrieswithin the temperate climates during the mid 20sub-tropical regions of the world and results in 300million deaths annually (WHO, 2008). Malaria kills about twice as many people as does AIDS (Acquired ImmuneDeficiency Syndrome). As many as halinfection (Malaria Foundation, 2006)Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)86Information Techniques in Mapping the SpatialIncidence of Malaria in Calabar South Local GovernmentCross River State, Nigeria.Oluyemi Ayorinde Akintoye , Patrick Ugbe Alasha , Asuquo Etim Okon , Marcus Aja IdokoDepartment of Geography and Environmental ScienceUniversity of Calabar,Calabar-NigeriaMail of Corresponding Author:oluwayemijubilee@yahoo.co.ukinformation technique in mapping the incidence of malaria in Calabar South LocalGovernment Area of Nigeria. Consequently, the research identified the potential breeding environment of mosquitoes,establishing a relationship between residential distance, frequency of malaria incidence and the breeding location ofthe vector by creating a malaria risk map. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was used in collecting realocation and other environmental variables, while an open-ended questionnaire was used in collecting data andinformation, aimed at achieving other study objectives. A total of 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed,and simple random sampling technique. Arc GIS 9.3 software was used in analyzinginformation parameters, The result of the study indicated that the closer the distance to the identified breedingpoint, the higher the incidence of malaria and the farther the distance, the less the incidence level of malaria . Hence,there is a relationship between distance from mosquito breeding points and malaria incidence in the study area. Thus,this has resulted in observed high level of malaria incidences among residents living in close proximity to breedingpoints. Due to the high incidence, there is invariably higher loss in occupational man –especially among infants from the malaria disease. It is recommended that more researches shoulwith the aim of further finding more effective solutions.Information, Malaria, Incidence, Breeding Point,Malaria is a serious infectious disease that has become the number one public health problem in theworld (Colluzi, 2002, WHO, 2008). Malaria has been with man from ancient time to the present civilization. Themalignant and intermittent fever observed in ancient time in China, India, Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome wereditions as observed in our times (Loban and Polozok, 1985).Malaria is defined as an acuteplasmodium species and transmitted by mosquitoes of the genuset al (2005) defined malaria as an acute and sometimes chronic infectious diseasecaused by a protozoan parasite of the plasmodium species (plasmodium malariae, plasmodium ovale, plasmodiumMalaria is a life threatening parasite disease transmitted by mosquitoes. During the time of Hippocrates,about 450 BC, ‘Miasma Theory’ was used to explain the occurrence of disease epidemics. Thus malaria means “BadAir” (Akpala, 1994). In 1880, Scientists discovered that the real cause of malaria is a one cell par”. Later, they discovered that the parasite is transmitted from one person to another through the bite of afemale Anopheles mosquito, which requires blood to nurture her eggs. Today, approximately 40% of the poorestt risk of malaria (WHO, 2008).The disease was widespread throughout the world, but it was successfully eliminated from many countrieswithin the temperate climates during the mid 20thcentury. Today, malaria is found throughout the tropical andcal regions of the world and results in 300-500 million clinical cases per year. It is also responsible for onemillion deaths annually (WHO, 2008). Malaria kills about twice as many people as does AIDS (Acquired ImmuneDeficiency Syndrome). As many as half a billion people worldwide are left with chronic anemia, due to malariainfection (Malaria Foundation, 2006)www.iiste.orgInformation Techniques in Mapping the SpatialIncidence of Malaria in Calabar South Local Government Area,Asuquo Etim Okon , Marcus Aja Idoko,oluwayemijubilee@yahoo.co.ukinformation technique in mapping the incidence of malaria in Calabar South Localeding environment of mosquitoes,establishing a relationship between residential distance, frequency of malaria incidence and the breeding location ofthe vector by creating a malaria risk map. The Global Positioning System (GPS) was used in collecting readings forended questionnaire was used in collecting data andinformation, aimed at achieving other study objectives. A total of 300 copies of the questionnaire were distributed,and simple random sampling technique. Arc GIS 9.3 software was used in analyzinginformation parameters, The result of the study indicated that the closer the distance to the identified breedingr the distance, the less the incidence level of malaria . Hence,there is a relationship between distance from mosquito breeding points and malaria incidence in the study area. Thus,dents living in close proximity to breeding–hour, as well as death toll,especially among infants from the malaria disease. It is recommended that more researches should be sponsored inMalaria is a serious infectious disease that has become the number one public health problem in the tropicalworld (Colluzi, 2002, WHO, 2008). Malaria has been with man from ancient time to the present civilization. Themalignant and intermittent fever observed in ancient time in China, India, Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome wereditions as observed in our times (Loban and Polozok, 1985).Malaria is defined as an acutespecies and transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus plasmodium (FMOH,as an acute and sometimes chronic infectious diseaseplasmodium malariae, plasmodium ovale, plasmodiummosquitoes. During the time of Hippocrates,about 450 BC, ‘Miasma Theory’ was used to explain the occurrence of disease epidemics. Thus malaria means “BadAir” (Akpala, 1994). In 1880, Scientists discovered that the real cause of malaria is a one cell parasite called”. Later, they discovered that the parasite is transmitted from one person to another through the bite of afemale Anopheles mosquito, which requires blood to nurture her eggs. Today, approximately 40% of the poorestThe disease was widespread throughout the world, but it was successfully eliminated from many countriescentury. Today, malaria is found throughout the tropical and500 million clinical cases per year. It is also responsible for onemillion deaths annually (WHO, 2008). Malaria kills about twice as many people as does AIDS (Acquired Immunef a billion people worldwide are left with chronic anemia, due to malaria
  • 2. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013More so, ninety percent of deaths due to malaria occur in Africa, south of the Sahara, mostly amongchildren (WHO, 2008). It kills an African chisevere malaria may suffer from learning impairments or brain damage. Pregnant women and their unborn childrenare also particularly vulnerable to malaria, which is a major cause of prenamaternal mortality, as a result of anemia (WHO, 2008).In some African countries, people battle up to 40 (forty) or more episodes independently of malaria in theirlifetime. The spread of malaria is becoming even more seto the drugs used to treat the condition. Its scourge is all encompassing (Center for Disease Control, 2007).A report from the Roll Back Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria (RBMCP), in 2005,still constitutes a serious health problem in Nigeria. Nigeria has an estimated population of 140 million, an infantmortality rate of 110 per 1000 and an undermalaria endemicity, parasite resistant to affordable drugs, breakdown in public health infrastructural facilities, landuse changes such as building of dams, irrigation, deforestation, climatic changes due to global warming and ozonelayer depletion help make malaria a leading killer of children, accounting for an estimated 25%children under five years or an estimated 300000 deaths each year (Allison 1997, UNICEF, 2008). The WHO (2005a, 2005b, 2006a, 2006b, 2007a, 2007b, 2008)made several calculated efforts to solve this emerging and fast evolving problemsMalaria still remains a scourge in marshland environments, especially as a result of bad living conditions inrelation to the breeding environment of the mosquitopattern of malaria transmission at the local level (fixed spatial scale) in Africa has not been well investigated,accurately defined and well documented.maps to identify the locations and populations at highest risk for appropriate planning and implementation of targetedgoals and epidemiologically sound preventive and control measure2009)The existing malaria maps have limited operational use, to support programmatic activities. They are largelybased on expert opinion, climate based models and specific geoinvestigated spatial pattern of malaria distribution at household and community levels , in specific sites , and inrelation to the proximity of mosquito breeding habitats (ponds, stagnant water bodies, drainages) using non–technological methods. These studies have focused on entomological parameters and population prevalence surveys.In this context, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing satellite imagery, and geospatialtechniques provide new methods and solutionother infectious diseases (YeshiwondimIn his study of the use of GIS for the control of malaria in Latin America, Gustavo (2005) states that largeamounts of information are necessary for all malaria control programmes. GIS offers the ability to process quantitiesof data beyond the capacities of manual systems. Data is stored in a structured digital format, which permits rapidretrieval and use. In another study of the sp(2002) states that the application of GPS and GIS technologies in malaria and other vectoraffords the possibility of exploring spatial dimension of diseasethese capabilities.The non availability of GIShas led to a decline in studies showing malaria distribution in relation to magainst this background that this research is carried out to map the spatial incidence of malaria, within a sub set ofCalabar south local government area (LGA), in relation to mosquito breeding habitats (swamp land wwater bodies and silted drainages) through the application of systematic geoGIS, GPS, remote sensing and satellite imagery.This research thus, focuses on identifying the breeding distance of mosquitoesenvironment of the study population. Three specific communities were studied; Ibesikpo, Mbukpa and Ambocommunities. However, the genetic composition, blood group and other pathological characteristics will not beconsidered in this study.Since the primary objective of the research is to evaluate the spatial incidence of malarial infection inCalabar South LGA , other objectives include: to establish a relationship between residential housing distance,frequency of malaria incidence and the breeding location of the vector: to recommend measures in ameliorating theJournal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)87More so, ninety percent of deaths due to malaria occur in Africa, south of the Sahara, mostly amongchildren (WHO, 2008). It kills an African child every thirty (30) seconds. Many children who survive an episode ofsevere malaria may suffer from learning impairments or brain damage. Pregnant women and their unborn childrenare also particularly vulnerable to malaria, which is a major cause of prenatal mortality, low birth weight andmaternal mortality, as a result of anemia (WHO, 2008).In some African countries, people battle up to 40 (forty) or more episodes independently of malaria in theirlifetime. The spread of malaria is becoming even more serious as the parasites that cause malaria develop resistanceto the drugs used to treat the condition. Its scourge is all encompassing (Center for Disease Control, 2007).A report from the Roll Back Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria (RBMCP), in 2005,still constitutes a serious health problem in Nigeria. Nigeria has an estimated population of 140 million, an infantmortality rate of 110 per 1000 and an under-five mortality rate of 183 per 1000 (UNICEF,2002). High levels ofria endemicity, parasite resistant to affordable drugs, breakdown in public health infrastructural facilities, landuse changes such as building of dams, irrigation, deforestation, climatic changes due to global warming and ozonemalaria a leading killer of children, accounting for an estimated 25%children under five years or an estimated 300000 deaths each year (Allison 1997, UNICEF, 2008). The WHO (2005a, 2005b, 2006a, 2006b, 2007a, 2007b, 2008) has shown much concern about the malaria challenge, and hasmade several calculated efforts to solve this emerging and fast evolving problemsMalaria still remains a scourge in marshland environments, especially as a result of bad living conditions into the breeding environment of the mosquito- carrying pathogen (plasmodium). The spatial and temporalpattern of malaria transmission at the local level (fixed spatial scale) in Africa has not been well investigated,accurately defined and well documented. Such researches are needed in developing dynamic and area specific riskmaps to identify the locations and populations at highest risk for appropriate planning and implementation of targetedgoals and epidemiologically sound preventive and control measures, against the malaria disease (YeshiwondimThe existing malaria maps have limited operational use, to support programmatic activities. They are largelybased on expert opinion, climate based models and specific geo-referenced point prevalenceinvestigated spatial pattern of malaria distribution at household and community levels , in specific sites , and inrelation to the proximity of mosquito breeding habitats (ponds, stagnant water bodies, drainages) using nonlogical methods. These studies have focused on entomological parameters and population prevalence surveys.In this context, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing satellite imagery, and geospatialtechniques provide new methods and solutions to analyze the epidemiological and ecological context of malaria andother infectious diseases (Yeshiwondimet al, 2009).In his study of the use of GIS for the control of malaria in Latin America, Gustavo (2005) states that largeare necessary for all malaria control programmes. GIS offers the ability to process quantitiesof data beyond the capacities of manual systems. Data is stored in a structured digital format, which permits rapidretrieval and use. In another study of the spatial pattern of malaria distribution in Padre-(2002) states that the application of GPS and GIS technologies in malaria and other vectoraffords the possibility of exploring spatial dimension of disease transmission, not easily examined in the absence ofThe non availability of GIS-based malaria risk maps in Cross River State (especially in local communities)has led to a decline in studies showing malaria distribution in relation to mosquito breeding habitats. It is thus,against this background that this research is carried out to map the spatial incidence of malaria, within a sub set ofCalabar south local government area (LGA), in relation to mosquito breeding habitats (swamp land wwater bodies and silted drainages) through the application of systematic geo-information techniques, which includes:GIS, GPS, remote sensing and satellite imagery.This research thus, focuses on identifying the breeding distance of mosquitoesenvironment of the study population. Three specific communities were studied; Ibesikpo, Mbukpa and Ambocommunities. However, the genetic composition, blood group and other pathological characteristics will not beSince the primary objective of the research is to evaluate the spatial incidence of malarial infection inCalabar South LGA , other objectives include: to establish a relationship between residential housing distance,nce and the breeding location of the vector: to recommend measures in ameliorating thewww.iiste.orgMore so, ninety percent of deaths due to malaria occur in Africa, south of the Sahara, mostly amongld every thirty (30) seconds. Many children who survive an episode ofsevere malaria may suffer from learning impairments or brain damage. Pregnant women and their unborn childrental mortality, low birth weight andIn some African countries, people battle up to 40 (forty) or more episodes independently of malaria in theirrious as the parasites that cause malaria develop resistanceto the drugs used to treat the condition. Its scourge is all encompassing (Center for Disease Control, 2007).A report from the Roll Back Malaria Control Programme in Nigeria (RBMCP), in 2005, indicates that malariastill constitutes a serious health problem in Nigeria. Nigeria has an estimated population of 140 million, an infantfive mortality rate of 183 per 1000 (UNICEF,2002). High levels ofria endemicity, parasite resistant to affordable drugs, breakdown in public health infrastructural facilities, landuse changes such as building of dams, irrigation, deforestation, climatic changes due to global warming and ozonemalaria a leading killer of children, accounting for an estimated 25%-30% of mortality inchildren under five years or an estimated 300000 deaths each year (Allison 1997, UNICEF, 2008). The WHO (2004,wn much concern about the malaria challenge, and hasMalaria still remains a scourge in marshland environments, especially as a result of bad living conditions in). The spatial and temporalpattern of malaria transmission at the local level (fixed spatial scale) in Africa has not been well investigated,Such researches are needed in developing dynamic and area specific riskmaps to identify the locations and populations at highest risk for appropriate planning and implementation of targeteds, against the malaria disease (Yeshiwondim et al,The existing malaria maps have limited operational use, to support programmatic activities. They are largelyreferenced point prevalence data. Researchers haveinvestigated spatial pattern of malaria distribution at household and community levels , in specific sites , and inrelation to the proximity of mosquito breeding habitats (ponds, stagnant water bodies, drainages) using nonlogical methods. These studies have focused on entomological parameters and population prevalence surveys.In this context, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Remote Sensing satellite imagery, and geospatials to analyze the epidemiological and ecological context of malaria andIn his study of the use of GIS for the control of malaria in Latin America, Gustavo (2005) states that largeare necessary for all malaria control programmes. GIS offers the ability to process quantitiesof data beyond the capacities of manual systems. Data is stored in a structured digital format, which permits rapid-Cocha , Peru, Roper et al(2002) states that the application of GPS and GIS technologies in malaria and other vector-borne disease studies ,transmission, not easily examined in the absence ofbased malaria risk maps in Cross River State (especially in local communities)osquito breeding habitats. It is thus,against this background that this research is carried out to map the spatial incidence of malaria, within a sub set ofCalabar south local government area (LGA), in relation to mosquito breeding habitats (swamp land with stagnantinformation techniques, which includes:This research thus, focuses on identifying the breeding distance of mosquitoes in relation to the livingenvironment of the study population. Three specific communities were studied; Ibesikpo, Mbukpa and Ambocommunities. However, the genetic composition, blood group and other pathological characteristics will not beSince the primary objective of the research is to evaluate the spatial incidence of malarial infection inCalabar South LGA , other objectives include: to establish a relationship between residential housing distance,nce and the breeding location of the vector: to recommend measures in ameliorating the
  • 3. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013spread and consequences of malaria infection in the study area.2. Study AreaThe research area for this study is Calabar South Local Government Area (LGA) of Cross Riverwithin the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Calabar South is located in the southern senatorial district of Cross RiverState and lies between 5o32’and 4o27bounded in the north by Calabar municipality to the south by the Bight of Bonny and the wide expanse of theAtlantic Ocean. To the east the study area is bounded by Great Oua River and westward by Calabar River. Calabarsouth LGA lies within the tropical region of Nexperiences heavy rainfall, as it is close to the Atlantic OceanThe climate of Calabar south is a sub equatorial type of climate. The temperature is moderately high(28oC-33oC), and the coastal portion of Calabar south exercises a considerable influence on its climate (NigerianMetrological Agency, 2000). High relative humidity of about 90% is common in this area. The rainfall range isbetween 1500 mm-3000mm annually. The rainy season usuallseason commences from November and lasts till March (Akintoye , 1995).The dominant vegetation type in the study area is the mangrove forest, which gives rise to the existence ofwetlands; although, there is a high rate of Nypa palm species existence. Animal species found in the area includedifferent species of fishes and other sea foods (periwinkles, snails), and many endemic mammal species andthreatened (Okon,2008)The topography of the study areavaries from 0-50 meters above sea level and increases northward from the coast. Seasonal flooding is a regularfeature from the coast (Akintoye, 1995).The major ethnic group in the sscale, as the major socio economic activity includes: farming, petty trading. Occupational activities include; boatmaking saw milling and migrant business men from neighboringThere are several private and government hospitals, maternities and medical centers within Calabar, butespecially in Calabar municipality. Malaria drugs are easily available, even in Chemist shops, as well as herbalpreparations, from trado-medical practitioners, which most often result in dangerous self medication.3. Method of StudyThe sampling method adopted by the researcher includes stratified sampling. Geographic InformationSystem (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) aheads were the major targets of questionnaire administration to elicit information on the frequency of occurrenceof the disease. Since Calabar South LGA is comprised of ten (10) wards and approthat borders its wetland, a total of three streets were randomly selected using a table of random numbers. The copiesof questionnaire were distributed randomly on these streets to household heads within the sample area.3.1 Geo-Information TechniqueA global positioning system (GPS) unit was used to obtain data on distance of area of incidence frombreeding areas and location of communities and sampled households. Weather tracker was also used to recordclimatic variables such as heat index, humidity, Pressure etc. The centroid for each street was extracted using ArcGIS 9.3 software to verify data from GPS unit. Other attribute data, on wetlands, vegetation cover, and drainagesystems were derived from orthophoto maps and sstudy area were downloaded from the website (http://www.googleearth.com) and extracted using spatial analyst toolsof ArcGIS 9.3.All attributes and datasets were integrated into one geobuffer (50m-250m) was created between the wetland and residential areas, after which each layer was interpolated tobecome one single layer. Analysis of the relationship between distance from the wetland (an identifor mosquitoes ) and malaria incidence in the sampled residential area was carried out by creating a geobase that contains all attribute examined in the study area.The study area was grouped into clusters basemployed Euclidean distance function to verify the spread of the incidence of the disease.Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)88spread and consequences of malaria infection in the study area.The research area for this study is Calabar South Local Government Area (LGA) of Cross Riverwithin the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Calabar South is located in the southern senatorial district of Cross River27’North of the equator and longitude 7o50’ and 7o57’ East of the meridian. It isthe north by Calabar municipality to the south by the Bight of Bonny and the wide expanse of theAtlantic Ocean. To the east the study area is bounded by Great Oua River and westward by Calabar River. Calabarsouth LGA lies within the tropical region of Nigeria and has both wet and dry season (Akintoye, 1995). The areaexperiences heavy rainfall, as it is close to the Atlantic OceanThe climate of Calabar south is a sub equatorial type of climate. The temperature is moderately highstal portion of Calabar south exercises a considerable influence on its climate (NigerianMetrological Agency, 2000). High relative humidity of about 90% is common in this area. The rainfall range is3000mm annually. The rainy season usually start in April and lasts till October, while the dryseason commences from November and lasts till March (Akintoye , 1995).The dominant vegetation type in the study area is the mangrove forest, which gives rise to the existence ofere is a high rate of Nypa palm species existence. Animal species found in the area includedifferent species of fishes and other sea foods (periwinkles, snails), and many endemic mammal species andThe topography of the study area is characterized by levels of gently undulating features. The elevation50 meters above sea level and increases northward from the coast. Seasonal flooding is a regularfeature from the coast (Akintoye, 1995).The major ethnic group in the study area is the Efik tribe. Industrial activity in the study area is on a lowscale, as the major socio economic activity includes: farming, petty trading. Occupational activities include; boatmaking saw milling and migrant business men from neighboring communities (Okon, 2008).There are several private and government hospitals, maternities and medical centers within Calabar, butespecially in Calabar municipality. Malaria drugs are easily available, even in Chemist shops, as well as herbalmedical practitioners, which most often result in dangerous self medication.The sampling method adopted by the researcher includes stratified sampling. Geographic InformationSystem (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS) applications were also utilized in the study. The householdheads were the major targets of questionnaire administration to elicit information on the frequency of occurrenceof the disease. Since Calabar South LGA is comprised of ten (10) wards and approximately nine (9) major streetsthat borders its wetland, a total of three streets were randomly selected using a table of random numbers. The copiesof questionnaire were distributed randomly on these streets to household heads within the sample area.A global positioning system (GPS) unit was used to obtain data on distance of area of incidence frombreeding areas and location of communities and sampled households. Weather tracker was also used to recorduch as heat index, humidity, Pressure etc. The centroid for each street was extracted using ArcGIS 9.3 software to verify data from GPS unit. Other attribute data, on wetlands, vegetation cover, and drainagesystems were derived from orthophoto maps and satellite imagery. Digital Elevation Models (DEM) data for thestudy area were downloaded from the website (http://www.googleearth.com) and extracted using spatial analyst toolsAll attributes and datasets were integrated into one geo –database, a data structure used in ArcGIS 9.3 A250m) was created between the wetland and residential areas, after which each layer was interpolated tobecome one single layer. Analysis of the relationship between distance from the wetland (an identifor mosquitoes ) and malaria incidence in the sampled residential area was carried out by creating a geobase that contains all attribute examined in the study area.The study area was grouped into clusters based on the distance between data points and this researchemployed Euclidean distance function to verify the spread of the incidence of the disease.www.iiste.orgThe research area for this study is Calabar South Local Government Area (LGA) of Cross River State,within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Calabar South is located in the southern senatorial district of Cross River57’ East of the meridian. It isthe north by Calabar municipality to the south by the Bight of Bonny and the wide expanse of theAtlantic Ocean. To the east the study area is bounded by Great Oua River and westward by Calabar River. Calabarigeria and has both wet and dry season (Akintoye, 1995). The areaThe climate of Calabar south is a sub equatorial type of climate. The temperature is moderately highstal portion of Calabar south exercises a considerable influence on its climate (NigerianMetrological Agency, 2000). High relative humidity of about 90% is common in this area. The rainfall range isy start in April and lasts till October, while the dryThe dominant vegetation type in the study area is the mangrove forest, which gives rise to the existence ofere is a high rate of Nypa palm species existence. Animal species found in the area includedifferent species of fishes and other sea foods (periwinkles, snails), and many endemic mammal species andis characterized by levels of gently undulating features. The elevation50 meters above sea level and increases northward from the coast. Seasonal flooding is a regulartudy area is the Efik tribe. Industrial activity in the study area is on a lowscale, as the major socio economic activity includes: farming, petty trading. Occupational activities include; boatcommunities (Okon, 2008).There are several private and government hospitals, maternities and medical centers within Calabar, butespecially in Calabar municipality. Malaria drugs are easily available, even in Chemist shops, as well as herbalmedical practitioners, which most often result in dangerous self medication.The sampling method adopted by the researcher includes stratified sampling. Geographic Informationpplications were also utilized in the study. The householdheads were the major targets of questionnaire administration to elicit information on the frequency of occurrenceximately nine (9) major streetsthat borders its wetland, a total of three streets were randomly selected using a table of random numbers. The copiesof questionnaire were distributed randomly on these streets to household heads within the sample area.A global positioning system (GPS) unit was used to obtain data on distance of area of incidence frombreeding areas and location of communities and sampled households. Weather tracker was also used to recorduch as heat index, humidity, Pressure etc. The centroid for each street was extracted using ArcGIS 9.3 software to verify data from GPS unit. Other attribute data, on wetlands, vegetation cover, and drainageatellite imagery. Digital Elevation Models (DEM) data for thestudy area were downloaded from the website (http://www.googleearth.com) and extracted using spatial analyst toolsse, a data structure used in ArcGIS 9.3 A250m) was created between the wetland and residential areas, after which each layer was interpolated tobecome one single layer. Analysis of the relationship between distance from the wetland (an identified breeding pointfor mosquitoes ) and malaria incidence in the sampled residential area was carried out by creating a geo-spatial dataed on the distance between data points and this research
  • 4. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 20133.2 Sampling PopulationA sampling population of 19,055 inhabitants, living around the wetlands area, wasthe study population (three selected communities) within Calabar South Local Government Area. A total of 100household heads were however sampled to elicit information on incidence of occurrence.4. ResultIt is observed from table 1 that a frequency 39.18% level of incidence was recorded for respondents residingwithin a distance of 50 meters from the pond/ stagnant water body; 23.42% incidence level was recorded for sampledrespondents residing 100 meters away from therespondents living about 150 meters away from the wetland. For those living about 200 meters away, they hadoccurrence of 5. 48 %, while 250 meters away was 10.72 %. It is clear therefore, fthe distance to the identified breeding point, the higher the incidence of malaria and the farther the distance, the lessthe incidence level of malaria.5. Discussion of FindingsThe study is on the application of geoCalabar South LGA, Cross River State. The buffer presents features such as the dominant wetland in the study area,and residential locations within the study area affected by very high, higincidences. The study shows that there is reduction in malaria incidence with increasing distance from the wetland (amajor breeding point of mosquitoes in the study area)The first buffer of 50 meters shows a very high imosquito breeding points. Other buffer created includes; 100m, 150m, and 200m respectively. An altitude wasestablished for the wetland (41 meters above sea level) and residences within the 50m buwith a difference of 2m from the identified breeding point. The altitude for other residential areas is shown in table 2In addition to other factors, the major wind direction of the identified breeding point was established,supports the flight strength of the mosquitoes. Wind direction was given as “Southidentified residential areas, as shown in the maps of the study area. Another factor considered in this research is theflight distance covered by a mosquito. Griffith (1970) in his study ofof America established that there is a nonblood fed or non blood fed mosquito (exceptestablished that the flight distance covered by a mosquito is impaired by the elevation of the land. The higher thealtitude, the less the distance covered by a mosquito from its taketemperature of residents within the 50m buffer is 33.2 and 29.3Arising from these facts, therefore, the results depicts that incidence of malaria relates tand other factors such as wind direction and elevation , Figure 1 gives a description of the study area , while figure2 displays the spatial distribution of malarial incidence with reference to the buffer zones.6. ConclusionGeographic Information System (GIS) is versatile tool for analysis of spatial spread of malaria vectoras well as other diseases. This tool has been used to create spatial data bases for the spread, management and controlof malaria. The technique enhances production of different maps which can be used for surveillance.The result has demonstrated the diminution of incidence of malaria from the breeding grounds of the vector.Moreover, spatial distribution of vectors and incidence of thehabits, lifestyle and behavior of the vectors; as well as climatic and other environmental attributes in favour of thegrowth of the malaria vector.This application used can also be ufrom past and current malaria patterns.and international donors to make available fund for intensive malaria researcReferencesAfolabi, J. (1998). “The geography of African diseases”. African Disease Series.Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)89A sampling population of 19,055 inhabitants, living around the wetlands area, wasthe study population (three selected communities) within Calabar South Local Government Area. A total of 100household heads were however sampled to elicit information on incidence of occurrence.from table 1 that a frequency 39.18% level of incidence was recorded for respondents residingwithin a distance of 50 meters from the pond/ stagnant water body; 23.42% incidence level was recorded for sampledrespondents residing 100 meters away from the wetland, while 21.2% incidence level was recorded for the sampledrespondents living about 150 meters away from the wetland. For those living about 200 meters away, they hadoccurrence of 5. 48 %, while 250 meters away was 10.72 %. It is clear therefore, from the data shown that the closerthe distance to the identified breeding point, the higher the incidence of malaria and the farther the distance, the lessThe study is on the application of geo-information technique in mapping the spatial incidence of malaria inCalabar South LGA, Cross River State. The buffer presents features such as the dominant wetland in the study area,and residential locations within the study area affected by very high, high, moderately high and low malariaincidences. The study shows that there is reduction in malaria incidence with increasing distance from the wetland (amajor breeding point of mosquitoes in the study area)The first buffer of 50 meters shows a very high incidence level of malaria due to its close proximity to themosquito breeding points. Other buffer created includes; 100m, 150m, and 200m respectively. An altitude wasestablished for the wetland (41 meters above sea level) and residences within the 50m buffer have an altitude of 43mwith a difference of 2m from the identified breeding point. The altitude for other residential areas is shown in table 2In addition to other factors, the major wind direction of the identified breeding point was established,supports the flight strength of the mosquitoes. Wind direction was given as “South-identified residential areas, as shown in the maps of the study area. Another factor considered in this research is theered by a mosquito. Griffith (1970) in his study of Anopheles quadrimaculalusof America established that there is a non-availability of sufficient data showing the mean distance covered by ablood fed or non blood fed mosquito (except in laboratory conditions, which is given as > 1 mile). However, it wasestablished that the flight distance covered by a mosquito is impaired by the elevation of the land. The higher thealtitude, the less the distance covered by a mosquito from its take off point. More so, the average heat index (HI) andtemperature of residents within the 50m buffer is 33.2 and 29.3oC, is favorable for the breeding of mosquitoes.Arising from these facts, therefore, the results depicts that incidence of malaria relates to distance to breeding groundand other factors such as wind direction and elevation , Figure 1 gives a description of the study area , while figure2 displays the spatial distribution of malarial incidence with reference to the buffer zones.Geographic Information System (GIS) is versatile tool for analysis of spatial spread of malaria vectoras well as other diseases. This tool has been used to create spatial data bases for the spread, management and controlnique enhances production of different maps which can be used for surveillance.The result has demonstrated the diminution of incidence of malaria from the breeding grounds of the vector.Moreover, spatial distribution of vectors and incidence of the disease can then be correlated with other factors as thehabits, lifestyle and behavior of the vectors; as well as climatic and other environmental attributes in favour of theThis application used can also be used for prediction of malaria occurrence based on extrapolationsfrom past and current malaria patterns. It is therefore pertinent for Government, non-governmental organizationsand international donors to make available fund for intensive malaria research programmes.Afolabi, J. (1998). “The geography of African diseases”. African Disease Series. Special Issues on Tropical Diseaseswww.iiste.orgA sampling population of 19,055 inhabitants, living around the wetlands area, was estimated to representthe study population (three selected communities) within Calabar South Local Government Area. A total of 100from table 1 that a frequency 39.18% level of incidence was recorded for respondents residingwithin a distance of 50 meters from the pond/ stagnant water body; 23.42% incidence level was recorded for sampledwetland, while 21.2% incidence level was recorded for the sampledrespondents living about 150 meters away from the wetland. For those living about 200 meters away, they hadrom the data shown that the closerthe distance to the identified breeding point, the higher the incidence of malaria and the farther the distance, the lessformation technique in mapping the spatial incidence of malaria inCalabar South LGA, Cross River State. The buffer presents features such as the dominant wetland in the study area,h, moderately high and low malariaincidences. The study shows that there is reduction in malaria incidence with increasing distance from the wetland (ancidence level of malaria due to its close proximity to themosquito breeding points. Other buffer created includes; 100m, 150m, and 200m respectively. An altitude wasffer have an altitude of 43mwith a difference of 2m from the identified breeding point. The altitude for other residential areas is shown in table 2In addition to other factors, the major wind direction of the identified breeding point was established, as itEast”, to the direction ofidentified residential areas, as shown in the maps of the study area. Another factor considered in this research is theAnopheles quadrimaculalus in the United statesavailability of sufficient data showing the mean distance covered by ain laboratory conditions, which is given as > 1 mile). However, it wasestablished that the flight distance covered by a mosquito is impaired by the elevation of the land. The higher theoff point. More so, the average heat index (HI) andC, is favorable for the breeding of mosquitoes.o distance to breeding groundand other factors such as wind direction and elevation , Figure 1 gives a description of the study area , while figure2 displays the spatial distribution of malarial incidence with reference to the buffer zones.Geographic Information System (GIS) is versatile tool for analysis of spatial spread of malaria vectoras well as other diseases. This tool has been used to create spatial data bases for the spread, management and controlnique enhances production of different maps which can be used for surveillance.The result has demonstrated the diminution of incidence of malaria from the breeding grounds of the vector.disease can then be correlated with other factors as thehabits, lifestyle and behavior of the vectors; as well as climatic and other environmental attributes in favour of thesed for prediction of malaria occurrence based on extrapolationsgovernmental organizationsh programmes.Special Issues on Tropical Diseases ,
  • 5. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Vol.4, No. 2, Tanzania.Agabi, J. et al (1995). The Nigeria Environment .Nigeria Conservation Foundation. IbadaAkintoye, O.A (1995) Influence of Situation on the Utilization of Calabar Seaport , A Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.)Degree Thesis , Department of Geography and Regional Planning, University of Calabar, Calabar , NigeriaAkpala, E. (1994). Implementations for Malaria Control Strategies.283-299.Allison, M. (1997).Spatial and Temporal Study of Malaria in SubMedicine and Hygiene 56(5) 50Bassey, B. J. (2009). Environment and Human Health. Unpublished lecture notes, Department of Geography andRegional Planning, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.Burce – chwatt, L (1985).Assessing the Scourge of Malaria in the Tropics.56(3) 13-40.Centre for Disease Control (2001). Bulletin of Tropical Diseases , 1998. Kenya.Colluzi, M. 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  • 6. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Geneva,World Health Organization, 2005 WHO/HTM/MAL/2005.1107X,http://www.who.int/malaria/WHO (2006) Malaria Vector Control and Personal Protection: Report of a WHO Study Group.Geneva, World Health Organization,4 ,http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/WHOWHO (2006) Indoor Residual SprayingGlobal Malaria Control and EliminationWHO/HTM/MAL/2006.1112, http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/IRS/IRSWHO (2007) Insecticide-Treated Mosquito Nets: a WHO Position StatementHealth Organization, 2007, http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/itn/ITNspospaperfinal.pdfWHO (2007) Malaria Elimination , A Field Manual for Low and Moderate Endemic CountriesGeneva, World Health Organization,http://www.who .int/malaria/docs/elimination/MalariaElimination_BD.pdfWHO (2008) Global malaria control and elimination: Report of a technical reviewWorld Health Organization ,2008 ISBN 978 92 4 1596756,int/malaria/docs/elimination/MalariaControlEliminationMeeting.pdfYeshiwondim, A. K. et al (2009). Spatial analysis of malaria incidence at the village level in areas with unstabletransmission in Ethiopia. International journal of Health geographics.http://www.iyhealthgeographics.com/content /8 /1/5.Retrieved on 25TABLE 1: MALARIA INCIDENCE DISTRIBUTION (2008BUFFER ZONE RADIUS IN METERSABCDETOTALSOURCE: Researcher’s Fieldwork (2012)TABLE 2: GEO-INFORMATION PARAMETERS OF THE STUDY AREADATE: 07/04/2012TIME: 4.00pm – 6.00pmS/NLOCATIONONGITS/NLOCATIONLATITUDE1 STREAM/POND N04055’40.82. IBESIKPO N04055’41.83. AMBO N04056’12.94. MBUKPA N04055’56.55 ANANTIGHA N04054’40.8Source: Researcher’s Fieldwork (2012)Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)91Geneva,World Health Organization, 2005 WHO/HTM/MAL/2005.1107p://www.who.int/malaria/docs/ce_interagencyfhbook.pdfMalaria Vector Control and Personal Protection: Report of a WHO Study Group.Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006, WHO Technical Report Series ; No. 936http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/WHO-TRS-936s.pdfndoor Residual Spraying - Use of Indoor Residual Spraying for Scaling upGlobal Malaria Control and Elimination. Geneva, World Health Organization,HO/HTM/MAL/2006.1112, http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/IRS/IRS-position.pdfTreated Mosquito Nets: a WHO Position Statement. Geneva, WorldOrganization, 2007, http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/itn/ITNspospaperfinal.pdfMalaria Elimination , A Field Manual for Low and Moderate Endemic CountriesGeneva, World Health Organization, 2007 ISBN 978 92 4 159608 4,.int/malaria/docs/elimination/MalariaElimination_BD.pdfGlobal malaria control and elimination: Report of a technical review. Geneva,World Health Organization ,2008 ISBN 978 92 4 1596756,int/malaria/docs/elimination/MalariaControlEliminationMeeting.pdfwondim, A. K. et al (2009). Spatial analysis of malaria incidence at the village level in areas with unstabletransmission in Ethiopia. International journal of Health geographics.http://www.iyhealthgeographics.com/content /8 /1/5.Retrieved on 25thSeptember, 2010.MALARIA INCIDENCE DISTRIBUTION (2008-2010)RADIUS IN METERS FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE IN %50 39.18100 23.42150 21.2200 5.48250 10.72100SOURCE: Researcher’s Fieldwork (2012)INFORMATION PARAMETERS OF THE STUDY AREA6.00pm DURATION OF OBSERVATION: 2 HOURS 2MINSTUDATITUDITUDEMIDIRATURTDELONGITUDEALTITUDEHUMIDITYTEMP.HEAT40.8”E008018’42.8” 41 65.9 29.30C41.8”E008018’43.8” 43 63.3 29.90C12.9”E008018’44.2” 47 64.8 27.80C56.5”E008018’44.2” 68 62.8 28.20C40.8”E008016’42.8”10 66.1 27.30CSource: Researcher’s Fieldwork (2012)www.iiste.orgGeneva,World Health Organization, 2005 WHO/HTM/MAL/2005.1107 - ISBN 92 4 159389Malaria Vector Control and Personal Protection: Report of a WHO Study Group.2006, WHO Technical Report Series ; No. 936 - ISBN 92 4 120936Use of Indoor Residual Spraying for Scaling up. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006position.pdf. Geneva, WorldOrganization, 2007, http://www.who.int/malaria/docs/itn/ITNspospaperfinal.pdfMalaria Elimination , A Field Manual for Low and Moderate Endemic Countries.2007 ISBN 978 92 4 159608 4,. Geneva,World Health Organization ,2008 ISBN 978 92 4 1596756, http://www.who.wondim, A. K. et al (2009). Spatial analysis of malaria incidence at the village level in areas with unstabletransmission in Ethiopia. International journal of Health geographics.mber, 2010.FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE IN %INFORMATION PARAMETERS OF THE STUDY AREA2 HOURS 2MINSINDIRECESSUHEATINDEXWINDDIRECTIONPRESSURE33.2 South/East 1007.933.9 South/East 1007.830.3 South/East 1007.231.9 South/East 1004.833.2 South/East 1002.6
  • 7. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)92www.iiste.org
  • 8. Journal of Biology, Agriculture and HealthcareISSN 2224-3208 (Paper) ISSN 2225Vol.3, No.5, 2013Journal of Biology, Agriculture and Healthcare208 (Paper) ISSN 2225-093X (Online)93www.iiste.org
  • 9. This academic article was published by The International Institute for Science,Technology and Education (IISTE). The IISTE is a pioneer in the Open AccessPublishing service based in the U.S. and Europe. The aim of the institute isAccelerating Global Knowledge Sharing.More information about the publisher can be found in the IISTE’s homepage:http://www.iiste.orgCALL FOR PAPERSThe IISTE is currently hosting more than 30 peer-reviewed academic journals andcollaborating with academic institutions around the world. There’s no deadline forsubmission. Prospective authors of IISTE journals can find the submissioninstruction on the following page: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/The IISTE editorial team promises to the review and publish all the qualifiedsubmissions in a fast manner. All the journals articles are available online to thereaders all over the world without financial, legal, or technical barriers other thanthose inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. Printed version of thejournals is also available upon request of readers and authors.IISTE Knowledge Sharing PartnersEBSCO, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs Periodicals Directory, JournalTOCS, PKP OpenArchives Harvester, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine, ElektronischeZeitschriftenbibliothek EZB, Open J-Gate, OCLC WorldCat, Universe DigtialLibrary , NewJour, Google Scholar