• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
A study of job stress on job satisfaction among university
 

A study of job stress on job satisfaction among university

on

  • 773 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
773
Views on SlideShare
773
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
33
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    A study of job stress on job satisfaction among university A study of job stress on job satisfaction among university Document Transcript

    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org A Study of Job Stress on Job Satisfaction among University Staff in Pakistan and their Concomitant aftermaths: Empirical Study Tafakhar Hasnain (Corresponding Author) Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Cell No 03339983500 E-Mail: fakhihasnain@gmail.com Dr.Zahid Awan Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Rasheed Muhammad Khattak Govt College of Management Sciences Lakki Marwat KPK (Pakistan) Prof:Dr.Bakhtiar Khan Chairman Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Muhammad Tufail Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Farhat Ullah Lecturer Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Asfand Yar Khattak Scholar M.Phil Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan)AbstractPreponderance of the people expends their time hunting their rationale sloping jobs. Surroundings aside theauthority of stressors which aims at sabotashing their mechanism and lives. People very often look to bedisgusted reaction not self-complacent rather disgruntled about the outcome of their work. People being leastcontent, their behavioral outlook with peels and customers also depicts their grimness and irritation and state ofcrestfallenness.University academic staff is encountering a number of problems regarding their jobs; the administration too, isfaced spirited pressure from other universities. Universities, observance in view new changing worldwidescenario feel grateful to set new goals to struggle with each other. This change is likely to cause inevitable stressfor the university academic staff. Furthermore, this change may affect their job satisfaction and even theirphysical and psychological health.The factors of job strain that have been scrutinized under this study hold, administration role, relationship withothers, workload heaviness, homework interface, role haziness, and performance stress. The sample consists ofpublic universities of KPK, in Pakistan. The fallouts show there is a earth-shattering connection amid four of the 13
    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgconstruct tested. The fallouts also display that there is momentous adverse connection among job anxiety and jobfulfillment.Keywords: Job stress, Job Satisfaction.1. IntroductionJob natural life is one of the crucial remains of our diurnal lives which basis a inordinate accord of anxiety. Dueto the practicable vegetation of the job milieu supreme of the people in the dominion are expenses their time forjob allied application tenacities ensuing snub the stressor those are influence their work and life. Customarilysocieties are more concern about their upshot of their work that can even worry the way them extravagancefurther individuals and how they interconnect with their aristocracies and customers. For instance, people with astylish proportion of job-related strain may not be thankful with their job and therefore they will not touch joyfulworking in the institute. They may sense maddened or “burned out” when they European Journal of SocialSciences – Volume 8, Number 1(2009) 122 are having glitches with aristocracies or customers. This may consentan adverse outcome to the institution itself. Therefore, it is very essential for boss and staffs to grab the stressand the stressor that cause all the deadly effects.The numeral universities in Pakistan have augmented very much in the past few years. Due to the swellingnumber of universities in Pakistan, university imaginary staffs may look more glitches in their job as themanagements are pebbledash viable gravity from other universities. Virtually universities are now scenerynewfangled aim to compete with other universities as well as the approximate staff is surrounding with theultimate goal. This may roots the university hypothetical supervises to façade amply of stress and thereforetouches their consummation and flush their corporeal or cerebral vigor.The ambition of this study is to ascertain the stressors issues that will influence the academic staffs’ jobcontentment. We nominated teaching as educators have been unswervingly acknowledged as a cluster sufferinghigh anxiety at work (Sigler and Wilson, 1988).2. Literature ReviewNumerous studies originate that fob strain influences the employees’ job pleasure and their overall recital in theirwork. Since most of the organizations now are more challenging for the better job outcomes? In fact, up to datetimes have been called as the “age of concern and strain” (Coleman, 1976).The anxiety itself will be pretentiousby number of stressors. Nevertheless, Beehr and Newman (1978) had defined stress as a location which willforce a individual to deviate from normal operation due to the change (i.e. disrupt or enhance) in his/herpsychological and/or physiological condition and the person is enforced to deviate from ordinary functioning.The description that has been identified by researchers, we can terminate that it is truly important for an entity torecognize the stresses that are opposite by him in his career. Some demographic factor may pressure the way auniversity academic staff act in their workplace.Management role of an organization is one of the aspects that affect professional stress amongWorkers (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003).Workers in a society can face professional stress through the rolestress that the management gives. Position stress means something about an organizational role that producesunhelpful consequences for the individual (Kahn and Quinn, 1970). Management will have its own function thatstands. Role associated are anxious with how individuals recognize the potential other have of them and includesrole uncertainty and role conflict (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003).Ancestors and work are consistent and mutually supporting to the level that experiences in one area affect thequality of life in the other (Sarantakos, 1996). Home-work boundary can be known as the overlie among workand home; the two way rapport involves the source of stress at work touching home life and vice versa affects ofnautical on home life, weight from work at home, no support from home, absent of steadiness in home life. Itasks about whether home problems are brought to work and work has a negative collision on home life(Alexandros-Stamatios G.A et al., 2003). For example, it questions whether the staff have to take work home, orpowerlessness to forget about work when the entity is at home. Home-work boundary is important for theworkers to trim down the level of work-related stress. According to Lasky (1995) demands connected withfamily and investments can be a major source of ‘extra-organizational’ constant worry that can cause difficulties,or even hurried, work-place stress. Russo & Vitaliano (1995) argued that the happening of stressors in theheadquarters either without delay following a period of continual stress at home, or in coincidence with othermajor life stressors, is expected to have a marked shock on ending. 14
    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgSeveral studies have dyed the deleterious penalty of high workloads or work overwork. According to Wilkes etal. (1998) work overloads and time constraints were noteworthy contributors to work stress among populationnurses. Workload stress can be defined as lack of enthusiasm to come to work and a reaction of constant stress(i.e. no effort is enough) accompanied by the general physiological, psychological, and behavioral stresssymptoms (Division of Human Resource, 2000).Al-Aameri AS. (2003) has mentioned in his studies that one of the six factors of professional stress is strainoriginating from workload. Alexandros-Stamatios G.A. et al. (2003) also argued that “factors essential to thejob” means explore workload, variety of farm duties and rates of pay.Rapidly varying comprehensive scene is escalating the heaviness of workforce to perform maximum output anddevelop competitiveness. Indeed, to perform better to their job, there is a condition for workers to carry outnumerous tasks in the headquarters to keep alongside each other of varying technologies (Cascio, 1995; Quick,1997). The eventual results of this heaviness have been found to one of the imperative factors influencing jobstress in their work (Cahn et al., 2000). A study in UK indicated that the greater part of the employees wereunhappy with the existing society where they were obligatory to work extensive hours and cope with largeworkloads while concurrently meeting construction targets and deadlines (Townley, 2000).Role uncertainty is another aspect that affects job constant worry in the workplace. According to Beehr et al.(1976), Cordes & Dougherty (1993), Cooper (1991), Dyer & Quine (1998) and Ursprung (1986) role ambiguityexists when an human being lacks in sequence about the requirements of his or her role, how those rolenecessities are to be met, and the evaluative procedures available to make certain that the role is being performedfruitfully. Jackson & Schuler (1985) and Muchinsky (1997) studies found role haziness to lead to such off-putting outcomes as reduces self-belief, a sense of bleakness, anxiety, and misery.3. Link between Job Stress and Job SatisfactionSeveral studies have tried to establish the link among stress and job satisfaction. Job fulfillment and job stressare the two hot focuses in human resource management researches. According to Stamps & Piedmont (1986) jobsatisfaction has momentous affiliation with job stress. One study of general practitioners in England identifiedfour job stressors that were analytical of job disappointment (Cooper, et al., 1989). In other study, Vinokur-Kaplan (1991) avowed that organization factors such as workload and working circumstance were negativelycorrelated with job satisfaction. Fletcher & Payne (1980) acknowledged that a lack of fulfillment can be astarting place of stress, while high pleasure can assuage the effects of stress. This study reveals that, both of jobstrain and job happiness were found to be consistent. The study of Landsbergis (1988) and Terry et al. (1993)transpired that high levels of work anxiety are associated with low levels of job happiness. Moreover, Cummins(1990) have emphasize that job stressors are predictive of job disappointment and greater predisposition to leavethe institute. Sheena et al. (2005) studied in UK found that there are some occupations that are treatment worsethan average scores on each of the factors such as physical wellbeing, psychological well-being, and jobsatisfaction. The rapport between variables can be very important to academician. If a definite link existsbetween two variables, it could be possible for a academician to provide intervention in order to increase thelevel of one of the variables in the hope that the intervention will also pick up the other variable as well(Koslowsky, et al., 1995). In this study, we would like to examine what extent of interrelation between the jobstress and job fulfillment exists among university academic staff setting in Pakistan.4. A Theoretical Framework and HypothesisIn this section a theoretical framework for the job stress behavior is developed based on the objectives andprevious literature survey in this area. The model can be developed dependable with previous theory thatestimates the effects of several extent thought represent academic and professional stress. The reason todemeanor this study is to classify some momentous person and ecological variables which donate to academicand professional stress and to approximation their direct and indirect belongings on various germane outcomes(such as job satisfaction). This research will provide further approaching as to what extent can the six variablespressure in the job pleasure among both universities.Two main constructs are included in the planned research model below encircling job stress and job fulfillment.Their relationships are illustrated in figure 1 below. The definitions of these variables are listed as follows: 15
    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org(1) According to Beehr (1995) job stress is defined as “a situation in which some uniqueness of the worksituation are thought to cause poor psychological or physical health, or to cause risk factors making poor healthmore likely.”(2) Job satisfaction includes general elements and specific elements: the whole discernment of job pleasure iswell thought-out as general elements; job security, pay, co-worker, supervision and personal growth anddevelopment are well thought-out as specific elements (Hackman & Okham, 1980).All six job stressor affect job stress and job anxiety negatively affect happiness among academic staff inPakistan. Figure1: A Schematic diagram of the conceptual framework Role conflict Relationship with Others Workload Pressure Job Stress Job Satisfaction Home-work Interface Role ambiguity Performance pressureThis study infers that there exists a negative relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Igharia andGreenhaus (1992) study reveals that job stress affects job satisfaction and career satisfaction negatively. Basedon the above discussions, statement of hypothesis is as follows:Hypothesis 1: There is a relationship between management role and job stress.Hypothesis 2: There is a relationship between relationship with others and job stress.Hypothesis 3: There is a relationship between home-work interface and job stress.Hypothesis 4: There is a relationship between workload pressure and job stress.Hypothesis 5: There is a relationship between job role ambiguity and job stress.Hypothesis 6: There is a relationship between performance pressure and job stress.Hypothesis 7: There is a negative relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. 16
    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org5. Methods5.1. SampleA survey gadget in the form of close-ended opinion poll was developed for the purpose of collecting the maindata for the study. This study was conducted in a public university KPK.Factors such as accuracy and confidence, populace size, time and cost constraints were taken into deliberation inselecting sample size. Using the non-probability sampling technique, a total of 300 respondents were selected asa sample of the study from that university. The respondents come from various faculties in order to give betterblend between business and non-business academician as well as in term of racial mix stuck betweenrespondents to increase the generalization of the result. The actual field survey was conducted over a period ofone month whereby personal interviews were conducted to obtain the requisite information from therespondents. The reasons of using the personal conference are threefold. Initially, it allows the interviewer todisplay the eligibility of the respondents. Secondly, it also allows a closer direction and better contact betweenthe interviewer and respondents in answering the questionnaire. Lastly, the interviewer was able to assist therespondents when they found difficulty in thoughtful any of the questions in the questionnaire. Two hundred andthree academicians completed the questionnaire and the rest did not return it for mysterious reasons. Theresponse rate was 67.66% which was very much acceptable in social science research (Fowler,1988). Theparticipants were 62.56% female and 37.44% male with mean age of 37.6 years. More than 50% of them weremarried (107 respondent or 52.71%), 71 single, 17 alienated, 8 divorced. The sample represented 192 werePakistani, 7 Afghani, 3 Irani and only 1 foreigner. The average experience of the participants in their presentvocation was 7.2 years.5.2. Instrument DevelopmentThis instrument used in this study is composed of 3 parts. The first part deals with job stress. Job stress ismeasured by “Job Stress Questionnaire, JSQ” planned by Caplan et al. (1975) and Sahu and Gole (2008). Thisscale included four extent from Caplan et al (1975), namely (1) workload, (2) role conflict, (3) role ambiguityand (4) performance pressure which comprised thirteen items. Each of job stressors was measured on a six-pointLikert size in which 1 indicated “strongly disagree”, 2 indicated “disagree”, 3 indicated “somewhat disagree”, 4indicated “somewhat agree”, 5 indicated“agree” and 6 indicated “strongly agree”. The main basis for this choice of all six job stressor was broadly usedin earlier studies. Part 2 includes job fulfillment which is exact using Job Descriptive Index (JDI) (Smith et al.,1969), a unswerving facet measure over time (Kinicki et al., 2002), related across a variety of demographicgroups (Golembiewski and Yeager, 1978; Jung et al., 1986) and careful on a six point scale wit least fulfilled (1)to very satisfied (6). The structure this section differed from prior studies insofar as it well thought-outsatisfaction as a positive experience. Consequently, there was no talent for disappointment. Part 3 includes anumber of demographic questions such as sexual category, age, marital status, race, and schooling level.5.3. Data Analysis MethodVarious statistical methods have been employed to evaluate the data together from 500 respondents. Thesemethods comprise cross-sectional psychiatry, description analysis and regression analysis. Each process has usedto analysis the affiliation of different variables. Firstly, the method of this study will also engross Cross-sectional types of research tactic based on therule given by Hussey and Hussey (1997). Their reports state that cross-sectional studies are a positivemethodology intended to obtain information on variables in dissimilar contexts. Secondly, expressive analysis refers to the alteration of raw data into a form that would offerinformation to describe a set of factors in a circumstances that will make them easy to recognize and interpret(Sekaran, 2000; Zikmund, 2000).This analysis will give information for the data through the occurrence distribution, central inclination, and thespreading. Data collected on demographic variables are processed and reported in percentages. Thirdly, numerous regression analysis is an addition of bivariate regression analysis, which allows forthe instantaneous investigation of the consequence of two or more sovereign variables on a single interval scalereliant variable (Zikmund, 2000). The reliant variable for this study is Job happiness, whose types of extent areinterval. For this study, there are quite a lot of independent variables linking to Job satisfaction, and job stresses 17
    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgwhose types of extent are interval and in chorus investigates the several autonomous variables single patchy amultiple linear regression is fixed for these variables.6. Results and Analysis6.1. ReliabilityThe internal steadfastness of the items was confirmed by computing the Cronbach’s alpha (Nunnally, 1978).Nunnally (1978) not compulsory that a least amount alpha of 0.6 sufficed for early stage of research. TheCronbach alpha probable for current running role scale was 0.889, relationship with others scale was 0.890,workload weight scale was 0.890, homework boundary scale was 0.908, role uncertainty scale was 0.901,performance pressure scale was 0.894, overall job anxiety 0.805 and the overall job happiness scale was 0.729.As the Cronbach’s alpha in this study were all much higher than 0.6, the constructs were therefore deemed tohave enough consistency.6.2. Normality of Data and Multi-CollinearityThis study involves a fairly large sample (203 academicians) and consequently, the inner Limit Theorem couldbe functional and hence there is no difficulty on familiarity of the data. Two major methods were utilized inorder to resolve the presence of multicollinearity among dependent variables in this study. These methodologiesimplicated sum of both a Tolerance test and Variance Inflation aspect (VIF) (Kleinbaum et al, 1988). The falloutof these analyzes are presented in Table 1. As can be seen from this data, i) none of the Tolerance levels is <orequal to .01; and ii) all VIF values are well below 10. Thus, the actions selected for assessing autonomousvariables in this study do not reach levels indicate of multicollinearity. The acceptable Durbin – Watson range isbetween 1.5 and 2.5. In this analysis Durbin – Watson value of 2.015, which is between the adequate ranges,show that there were no auto correlation problems in the data used in this research. Thus, the actions selected forassessing independent variables in this study do not reach levels indicate of multicollinearityTable 1: Test of Collinearity: Variable Tolerance VIFManagement Role .749 1.336Relationship with others .693 1.442Workload pressure .509 1.964Homework Interface .410 2.442Role ambiguity .561 1.783Performance Pressure .679 1.4726.3. Hypotheses TestingTo test seven hypotheses the data were analyzed via numerous linear failure analysis following the guidelineswell-known by Hair et al. (1998). The purpose of deterioration analysis is to relate a reliant variable to a set ofsovereign variables (Mendenhal and Sincich, 1993). Table III present the result of predictors of ICT espousal.The regression coefficient of job stressors on job stress was probable. The overall model is noteworthy at the 1%level. The sovereign variables explain 50% of the variance in the job stress. Of the autonomous variables,workload pressure (+), homework crossing point (+), role ambiguity (+), and performance pressure (+) are thepredictors statistically diverse from zero and had a important and direct effect on job stress. The lingeringmanagement role (+), relationship with others (-) had no significant direct effect on job stress. Table II presentsthe fallout of the entity hypotheses being tested.Table 1: Test of Collinearity: Variable Beta T-value P-valueConstant 1.781 0.76Management Role .053 .909 .364Relationship with others .062 -1.032 .303Workload pressure .283 4.013 .000Homework Interface .218 2.768 .006 18
    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgRole ambiguity .180 2.674 .008Performance Pressure .209 3.429 .0016.3.1. The Results of Hypothesis 1The H1 (management role) is not in harmony with a wide assortment of previous result (Alexandros- Stamatioset. al., 2003 and Susan C., 2003, Kahn and Quinn, 1970). Multiple regression analysis shows results ofmanagement role (beta = 0.053, p-value = .364). The unimportance of management role may be due to thatmanagement of that university which is incredibly much loyal to its academics.6.3.2. The Results of Hypothesis 2Surprisingly, the results of this study shows that the association between affiliation with others and job stress isnot noteworthy with β=0.055 (ρ=0.239). The unimportance of relationship factor may be due to fact that all thefaculty members are very much friendly and obliging. However, we can expect to get stronger involvement if theconflict arises among the colleagues.6.3.3. The Results of Hypothesis 3More than a few studies have tinted the poisonous consequences of high workloads or work overload. A study ofwork stress amongst professionals found that teachers were most likely to experience work overwork and that isone of the source of work stress (Chan et al. (2000). As expected, the results of this study shows that the rapportbetween workload heaviness and job stress is noteworthy with β=0.283 (ρ=0.001). The result further indicatesthat the track of the associations is optimistic in which it implies that more work overkill has given theacademician, the likelihood to face job stress which will be advanced6.3.4. The Results of Hypothesis 4According to Lasky (1995) anxiety associated with relatives and finances can be a major source of ‘extra-organisational’ anxiety that can make problems, or precipitate, work-place stress. The multiple regressionanalysis shows that the involvement between grounding interface and job stress is significant with β=0.218(ρ=0.01). The consequence attests that the occurrence of stressors in the headquarters either without delayfollowing a period of unending stress at home, or in coincidence with other major life stressors, is likely to havea noticeable impact on outcome (Russon & Vitaliano, 1995). In addition, with the optimistic coefficient value, itmight be concluded that the higher the problem in the home, the probability for the job stress will be greater.6.3.5. The Results of Hypothesis 5Most research suggests that role uncertainty is indeed unhelpfully correlated with job satisfaction, job takingpart, performance, tension, inclination to leave the job and job performance variables (Rizzo, House, & Lirtzman1970; Van Sell, Brief, & Schuler 1981; Fisher & Gitelson 1983; Jackson & Schuler 1985; Singh 1998). Theresult of this study shows that the connection between role uncertainty and job stress is noteworthy with β=0.180(ρ=0.01). The support for hypothesis 5 reflects that more complex and rapid changes of organization that exist inthe facility, the possibility of job stress will be higher.6.3.6. The Results of Hypothesis 6The support of H6 (performance pressure) is in line with the fallout found by Chan et al. (2000).Multiple regression analysis shows family member advantage having β=0.209 (ρ=0.001)is the strongestPredictor of job stress. It is probable since past prose has consistently shown that performance pressure now aday is one of most significant and optimistic pressure on job stress (Townley, 2000).6.3.7. The Results of Hypothesis 7To support hypothesis 7 we also used multiple deterioration analysis to recognize the effects of job stress versusjob satisfaction. With job satisfaction as dependent variable and job stress as sovereign variable, a regressionequation to symbolize this relationship is computed. Regress results are shown Tables III and IV. Table IIIdepicts the computer F-value and R quadrangle to understand the overall significance of the regression model.Research model elastic significant p-values (p<0.01) and R square around 10 percent of the difference in job 19
    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.orgsatisfaction was explained. Table IV lists detailed data on the statistical coefficients of the regression model.Therefore, hypothesis 7 is supported by the collected data.Table 3: Summary of Regression Analysis Effects of Job stress toward Job Satisfaction. Regression Statistics F-Value P-Value Adj-R2 Durbin Watson TestValue 24.098 **0.00 0.103 1.869**p<0.01Table 4: Relationship between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction Variables Standarized of Coefficient T- value Standarized Regression Cofficient (beta) (p-value)Job Stress 0.035 -4.909 -0.327(0.00)****p<0.017. ConclusionsBased on the verdict of the study, there are a hardly any key points that can be used to terminate this researchpaper. It is very vital that the university understand the needs of its employees and make available what is bestfor the human resources. invariable appraisal programs and admiration should be given to give back and promptthe employees. inspiration is a key factor as well in upsetting job stress among employees. Employees who areextremely provoked will feel more contented and are more enthusiastic to work for the organizations. Concernedwhole heartedly, under congenial and bracing atmosphere.Unhealthy job stress among the people in charge in assisting the outlook generation’s education will eventuallyaffect their academic and social abilities. Failure of the enlightening institutions in given that a healthy workingsetting or even a working environment with the smallest level possible of detrimental job stress would direct tomany more harms in the near future, especially in the employees’ work routine in teaching students andmanagerial part of the university.At the end of the day, both employer and employees are liable when it comes to the matter of handling stress.Since it is the institution, it inner and its exterior environment that cause the stress. The employees mug thestress, and the employers and students will practice the effect of the stresses experienced by the university staffs.8. Limitation of StudyLike other experiential studies, this study is not devoid of its confines. Our sample consisted of two publicuniversities in KPK may limit the generalizability of the results. The study can be strengthened by mounting themodel size as the data analysis results and result may vary significantly when the taster size is augmented ordecreased. As only one public university can not represent whole universities in Pakistan, more universities’taking part would create a more mellow results and result. Lastly, more factors or variables know how to also beincluded in the opinion poll as stress can be caused by many different aspects of the working situation. With anaugmented sample size, a more detailed experimental study among sovereign variables and the variables thathave numerous categories can be performed. Potential correlation between some of the sovereign variables (e.g.gender, race, education level, organization society, collision of technology, organization environment, affectingdemands of work and uncertain work roles) need to be reported in a future study.References[1] Al-Aameri A.S., 2003. “Source of job stress for nurses in public hospitals”, Saudi Medical Journal, 24(11), pp.1183-1187.[2] Alexandros-Stamatios G. A., Matilyn J.D., and Cary L.C., 2003. “Occupational Stress, Job satisfaction, and health state in male and female junior hospital doctors in Greece”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(6), pp. 592-621.[3] Beehr, Terry A. (1995), Psychological Stress in the Workplace, London and New York.[4] Beehr, T.A. & Newman, J.E.,1978. “Job Stress, Employee Health and Organizational Effectiveness: A Facet Analysis, Model and Literature Review”, Personnel Psychology, 31,pp.665-669. 20
    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org[5] Beehr, T.A., Walsh, J.T., & Taber, T.D. 1976. “Perceived situational moderators of the relationship between subjective role ambiguity and role strain’, Journal of Applied Psychology,61, pp.35-40.[6] Caplan, R.D., Cobb, S., French, J.R.P., Jr., Harrison, R.V., and Pinneau, S.R., 1975. “Job Demands and Worker Health”, HEW Publication No. (NIOSH), pp. 75-160.[7] Cascio, W.F., 1995. “Wither industrial and organizational psychology in a Changing world”? American Psychologist, 50, pp.928-939.[8] Chan, K.B., Lai, G., Ko, Y.C. & Boey K.W., 2000. “Work stress among six professional groups: the Singapore experience”, Social Science Medicine, 50(10), pp.1415-1432.[9] Coleman J.C. 1976. Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life (Indian reprint), Taraporewalla, Bombay.[10] Cooper, C.L., 1991. Stress in organizations. In M. Smith (Ed.). Analysing Organisational Behaviour. London: MacMillan.[11] Cooper, C., U. Rout and B. Faragher. 1989. “Mental Health, Job Satisfaction, and Job Stress Among General Practitioners”, B Medical Journal, 298, pp366-370.[12] Cordes, C.L., and Dougherty, T.W. 1993. “A review and integration of research on job burnout”, Academy of Management Review, 18, pp.621-656.[13] Cummins R.C. 1990. “Job stress and the buffering effort of supervisory support”, Group and Organizational Studies, 15(1), pp.92-104.[14] Dyer, S., & Quine, L. 1998. “Predictors of job satisfaction and burnout among the direct care staff of a community learning disability service”, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 11 (4), pp.320-332.[15] Dyer, S., & Quine, L. 1998. “The effects of job demands and control on employee attendance and satisfaction”, Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 12, pp.596-608.[16] Fisher, C.D., & Gitelson, R. 1983. “A meta-analysis of the correlated of the role conflict and ambiguity”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, pp.320-333.[17] Fletcher, J.B., & Payne, R. 198). “Stress and Work: A Review and a Theoretical Framework”, Part 1, Personnel Review, 9, pp. 1-20.[18] Golembiewski, R.G., & Yeager, S. 1978. “Testing the applicability of the JDI to various demographic groups”, Academy of Management Journal, 21, pp.514-519.[19] Hussey, J. and Hussey, R., 1997. Business Research, A practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students, Macmillan Press Ltd, London.[20] Igharia, Magid and Greenhaus, Jeffrey H. 1992. “Determinants of MIS Employees’ turnover intentions: A Structural Equation Model”, Communications of the ACM, 35(2), pp.34-49[21] Jackson, S.E., & Schuler, R.S. 1985. “A meta-analysis and conceptual critique of research on role ambiguity and role conflict in work settings”, Organisational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36, pp.16-78.[22] Jung, K.G., Dalessio, A., Johnson, S.M., 1986. “Stability of the factor structure of the Job Descriptive Index”, Academy of Management Journal, 29(3), pp.609-616.[23] Kahn, R.L., & Quinn, R.P. 1970. Role stress: A framework for analysis, In A. McLean (Ed.), Occupational mental health, New York: Wiley.[24] Kinicki, A.J., McKee-Ryan, F.M., Schriesheim, C.A., Carson, K.P. 2002. “Assessing the construct validity of the job descriptive index: a review and meta-analysis”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(1), pp.14-32.[25] Kleinbaum, D. G., Kupper, L. L., and Muller, K. E. 1988. Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariate Medhods, Boston: PWS.[26] Koslowsky, M., Kluger, A., & Reich, M. 1995. Commuting Stress: Causes, Effects, and Methods of Coping. Plenum, New York.[27] Landsbergis, P.A. 1988. “Occupational stress among health care workers: A test of the jobdemands- control model”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 9, pp.217-239.[28] Lasky, R.G, 1995. Occupational stress: a disability management perspective. In D.E. Shrey & M. Lacerete (Eds.). Principles and Practices of Disability Management in Industry, pp.370-409.[29] Muchinsky, P. 1997. Psychology applied to work: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (5th Ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brookes/Cole Publishers.[30] Nunnallym J.C. 1978. Psychometric theory, New York: McGraw-Hill.[31] Quick, J.C. 1999. “Occupational health psychology: The convergence of health and clinical psychology with public health preventive medicine in an organizational context”, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30(2), pp.123-128.[32] Rizzo, J.R., House, R.J., Lirtzman, S.I. 1970, “Role conflict and ambiguity in complex organizations”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 15(June), pp.150-63. 21
    • European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org[33] Russo, J., & Vitaliano, P. 1995. “Life events as correlates of burden in spouse caregivers of persons with Alzheimers disease”, Experimental Ageing Research, 21, pp.273-294.[34] Sarantakos, S. 1996. Modern Families, South Yarra: MacMillan Education Australis Pty Ltd.[35] Sheena J., Cary C., Sue C., Ian D., Paul T., Clare M. 2005. “The expereince of work-related stress across occupations”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(2), pp. 178-187.[36] Sigler, R.T. and Wilson, C.N. 1988. “Stress in the work place: Comparing police stress with teacher stress”, Journal of Police Science and Administration, 16 pp. 151–162.[37] Singh, J. 1998. “Striking a balance in boundary-spanning positions: an investigation of some unconventional influences of role stressors and job characteristics on job outcomes of salespeople”, Journal of Marketing. 62, pp. 69–86[38] Smith, P.C., Kendall, I.M., Hulin, C.I. 1969. Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement, Rand-McNally, Chicago, IL,[39] Stamps, P.L., & Piedmonte,E.B. 1986. Nurses and work satisfaction: An index for measurement. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press Perspectives.[40] ownley, G. 2000. “Long hours culture causing economy to suffer”, Management Accounting, 78 (6), pp.3-5. 22