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[32 37]a study of job satisfaction of secondary school teachers

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  • 1. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 1, 2011 A Study of Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Teachers Muhammad Asghar Ali (Corresponding Author) Researcher for PhD (Education) National University of Modern Languages Islamabad, Pakistan Tel:+96-0334-7484414, E-mail: masghar_ali2006@yahoo.com Dr.Tanveer-uz-Zaman Chairman/ Professor, Early Childhood and Elementary Teacher Education Department: Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad, Pakistan Tel:+96-051-9250060, E-mail: tanvir56@yahoo.com Fouzia Tabassum Researcher for PhD (Education) Institute of Education and Research University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan Tel:+96-0334-5258086, E-mail: fouzia.pu@gmail.com Dr.Zafar Iqbal Assistant Director (Training) Federal Directorate of Education Islamabad, Pakistan Tel:+96-0300-8810082, E-mail: malikzafar74@gmail.comAbstractJob satisfaction has always been a question mark and in debate by the researchers since long. It gainedmuch importance due to its significance for the achievement of objectives of any organization. The purposeof this study was to explore job satisfaction of secondary school teachers working in the secondary schoolsat district Sahiwal, the Punjab, Pakistan. The sample of 200 secondary school teachers were takenrandomly from district Sahiwal for this research study. The response rate was 100%. In order to collectrequired data for the study, the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) was used as a tool. The SPSS-15 (evaluation version) was used to analyze the obtained data. Mean score of twenty dimensions werecalculated and t-test was also applied for the sake of comparison of job satisfaction of male-female andurban-rural teachers. The findings show that the secondary school teachers were slightly satisfied with thebasic eight dimensions (out of twenty) of a job i.e. ability utilization, advancement, education policies,independence, compensation, creativity, recognition and working condition. There was a significantdifference of job satisfaction between male and female secondary school teachers. However no significantdifference was found between the job satisfaction of urban and rural teachers. Thus, it is important toovercome the problem in order to give maximum job satisfaction to teachers. Key words: Job satisfaction, Secondary School Teachers1. IntroductionJob satisfaction has always been a flash point of discussion among the researchers and scholars since long.This critical issue has gained enthusiastic attention of researchers all around the world after the beginningof industrialization, but now it is applied to each and every organization. The education system has alsobeen changed into an organization. In the field of education measuring the job satisfaction of teachers hasbecome a prime focus of attention for researchers to make it a dynamic and efficient one. The jobsatisfaction of teachers particularly at secondary level is very vital. The value of secondary education isundeniable; it is very important to provide teachers with the utmost facilities so that they must be satisfiedwith the status of their job. The highlighted topic is a very serious issue due to the importance of secondaryeducation which is central stage of the whole pyramid of education system in the world. A betterperformance from a teacher can only be expected if they are satisfied with their jobs. Job satisfaction is 32
  • 2. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 1, 2011only possible if the job fulfills the basic needs of teachers in term of salary and better status as explained byKhan (1999), “salary or emoluments caters the material needs of the employees in allowing a sense ofstatus and importance”.2. Objectives The present study intends to achieve the following objectives: 1. to explore the job satisfaction of secondary school teachers 2. to compare the level of job satisfaction of male and female teachers3. Hypothesis The following null hypotheses are to be tested for the present study: 1. There is no significant difference of job satisfaction between male and female teachers. 2. There is no significant difference of job satisfaction between urban and rural teachers.4. Literature ReviewAccording to Newstrom (2007), “job satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feeling and emotionswith which employee view their work and the supervisors need to be alert about employee job satisfactionlevel”. Job satisfaction refers to the feeling and emotions of employees in an organization. It includes thebehavior pattern of people that can be favorable or unfavorable. The progress of work is directly related tojob satisfaction. If employees are not satisfied with their jobs, the overall progress of system is affected.The administrators should periodically study the job satisfaction of the employees and try to improve it bypromoting human values and dignity. The importance of job satisfaction in an education system is veryvital than in any other organization. Education is not merely the transfer of information but overalldevelopment of human personality. This can only be possible if teachers of secondary schools are satisfiedwith their jobs. Quality education and human development is only possible if the people involved in thesystem are satisfied with their work.There are two types of factors affecting the job satisfaction Situational characteristics and situationaloccurrences: these are considered as major factors of job satisfaction. Situational characteristics are salary,supervisory practices, working environment, promotion, Whereas situational occurrences are either positivelike extra vacation time, rewards etc or negative like faulty equipment (Quarstein, McAfee, & Glassman,1992). Another view is that job satisfaction is a behavior that shows the satisfaction level of an individualat their work place (Griffin, 2000).In any education system the secondary level is very important stage as it is a link between the elementaryand higher education. Secondary School teachers have to work hard to prepare the young students forfuture education. If they are not given due reward for their services, their satisfaction level decreases andthey will be unable to perform their duty properly. According to Bavendam (2000) job satisfaction ofteachers is too important because their attitude towards job affect the learning process of the students. Onlysatisfied teachers can perform well in the classrooms and their quality of teaching improves. They becomemore industrious and show greater commitment to the teaching learning process. Their retention rate alsobecomes higher. In Pakistan the job satisfaction at secondary school level was conducted by Mahmood(2004) and results show that secondary school teachers were not satisfied with compensation, advancement,and policies of education. Satisfaction, dissatisfaction in the job causes success or failure of any system ororganization. So, it is pertinent to be aware of the job satisfaction level of secondary school teachers. Thepresent study is a serious attempt to find out the job satisfaction level of secondary school teachers workingin the Education System of Pakistan.5. Methodology of the Study 33
  • 3. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 1, 2011This research study was conducted in district Sahiwal the Punjab, Pakistan. All the male and female, urbanand rural secondary school teachers of District Sahiwal are taken into consideration for this study. Thereare fifteen hundred secondary school teachers male and female in the district Sahiwal which is thepopulation of the study. For this research a sample of 200 secondary school teachers (including 100 maleand 100 female) from 20 high/secondary schools (ten from urban and ten from rural area) of DistrictSahiwal are taken randomly.The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) short form of twenty items with five point likert typeformat along with the data sheet was used for collection of data from the respondents. It is widely used toolto measure job satisfaction of employees. It can be administered to either groups or individuals. Beinggender unbiased, it can be administered for both sexes equally.The researchers approached the respondents personally and explained the purpose of the study anddistributed questionnaire. Through personal contact all 200 secondary school teachers responded thequestionnaires which make the response rate 100%.Data was analyzed through software ‘Statistical Package for Social Sciences’ (SPSS) version-15(Evaluation Version). Mean scores, standard deviation were calculated and t-test was applied for thecomparison of job satisfaction level of male-female and urban-rural teachers.6. Discussion and ConclusionThe purpose of this study was to explore and compare the level of job satisfaction of secondary schoolteachers. The finding of this research show that the secondary school teachers are satisfied with respect tothe factors of the job i.e. achievement in the schools, different activities performed, authority in the school,coworkers relations, moral values, responsibility of job, security of job, social service, social status,supervision regarding human relations, supervision regarding technical aspects and variety in tasks (table-1) verify the results of Mahmood (2004). These results also verify the study conducted by Ghazi (2004)who did a research on elementary Head teachers in District Toba Tek Singh, the Punjab, Pakistan. Hefound that elementary head teachers were generally satisfied with their jobs. It also verifies the results ofGhazi et al. (2010) research study on the job satisfaction of university teachers in North West FrontierProvince of Pakistan and found university teachers were generally satisfied with their jobs. The sameresults were obtained in the studies of (McCann 2001, DeMato, 2001 and Newby, 1999).Secondary school teachers of the present study are slightly satisfied with respect to their ability utilization,promotion opportunity, awareness and implementation of education policy, salary package creativity,independence, recognition and working conditions (table-1). The results are consistent with the studies of(Mahmood 2004, Ghazi 2004, Stemple 2004 and Newby 1999). The results are also consistent with Lanzo(2003) who studied job satisfaction level of middle school teachers in New Jersey and found the teacherswere dissatisfied with the aspect of salary and advancement and DeMato (2001) who studied jobsatisfaction of elementary school counselors in Virginia, she found counselors were least satisfied withthree dimensions i.e. compensation, company policies, and advancement. Mhozya (2007) explored jobsatisfaction of primary school teachers’ in Botswana and found that a significant number of teachers werenot satisfied with the salary as compared with the workload. They showed displeasure with the ways ofpromotions.The results of present show that male respondents were more satisfied than female (table-2) which isconsistent with Brogan (2003) who reported a significance difference between the job satisfaction of maleand female principals, male principals enjoyed a higher level of satisfaction than females. It is alsoconsistent with Fitzpatrick, & White (1983) who found males were more satisfied than females. The resultof this study contradict with the following studies: Ghazi (2004) who explored the job satisfaction ofelementary head teachers in district Toba Tek Singh Punjab and found female head teachers scored morethan the male. Female principals were significantly more satisfied than their male counterpart. Mahmood(2004) conducted research on secondary school teachers and found female teachers were significantly moresatisfied than male secondary school teachers. Newby (1999) explored the job satisfaction of middle schoolprincipals in Virginia and found both male and female principals were satisfied with their jobs, however 34
  • 4. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 1, 2011female principals were more satisfied than the male. Regarding gender Konicek (1992) found femalefaculty members were more satisfied than male faculty during a community college faculty research.The respondents were from urban and rural area of District Sahiwal show no significant difference betweenthe job satisfactions (table-3) which is contradictory to Ghazi (2004) who found that urban head teacherswere more satisfied than rural head teachers in the District Toba Tek Singh Punjab. It also contradicts withBennell & Akyeampong (2007) who indicated that the teachers working in the rural areas were lesssatisfied with their jobs than the teachers in the urban areas. It may be due to the fact that there are fewerfacilities in the rural areas of Pakistan, while in urban areas employees have better job opportunities, highstandard educational institutions, better health and transport facilities. This result is consistent withMahmood (2004) who found no significant difference between the job satisfaction of urban and ruralsecondary school teachers in district Sargodha Pakistan, and Jaieoba (2008) also found no significantdifference between the job satisfaction of urban and rural administrators.On the basis of conclusion of this study, it is recommended that elementary teachers may be provided withbetter salary package, rapid promotion, opportunities for creative work, recognition by the department,active participation in policy formulation and better working conditions of the institutions. These eightaspects may be taken for further study at different sample.References 1. Bavendam, J. (2000). Effective Management through Measurement; Special Reports, Volume, (6). Managing Job Satisfaction. Bevendam Research Inc. 2. Bennell, P. & Akyeampong, K. (2007). Teacher Motivation in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. DFID Department of international Development, 71. 3. Brogan, G. B. (2003). Job satisfaction of Idaho high school principals. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Idaho State University, Boise. 4. Demato, D. S. (2001). Job satisfaction among elementary school councilors in Virginia. Unpublished PhD thesis Virginia Tech & State University. 5. Fitzpatrick, W., & White, F. M. (1983). Job satisfaction and role clarity among university and college faculty. The Review of Higher Education, 6(4), 343-365. 6. Ghazi, S. R. (2004). Job Satisfaction of Elementary School Head Teachers (Toba Tek Sigh) in the Punjab. Unpublished PhD thesis NUML Islamabad, Pakistan. 7. Ghazi, et al. (2010). University Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Asian Social Science Vol. 6, No. 11; November 2010. 8. Griffin R. W., & Griffin, S. (2000). Fundamentals of Management. Houghton Miffin Company, New York: pp.238-39. 9. Jaiyeoba, A. O., & Jibril, M. A. (2008). A Study of Job Satisfaction of Secondary School Administrators in Kano State, Nigeria. African Research Review International Journal, Volume 2 (2), pp 94-107 10. Khan, M. A. (1999). A comparative study of job satisfaction among teachers of government and private secondary schools in Karachi: Unpublished PhD thesis Karachi University 11. Konicek, D. G. (1992). Community college faculty who conduct industry training activities: A job satisfaction study. Community/Junior College Quarterly, 16(4), pp. 361-372. 35
  • 5. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 1, 2011 12. Lanzo. A. V. (2003). An assessment of the level of job satisfaction of middle school teacher from selected affluent suburban public school district in Essex county New Jersey. Unpublished PhD thesis Virginia Tech & State University. 13. Mahmood, A. (2004). Study of relationship between organizational climate and job satisfaction of secondary school teachers, Unpublished PhD thesis NUML 14. McCann, D. R. (2001). A Study of Job Satisfaction among Directors of Classified Personnel in Merit (Civil Service) System in California Public School Districts, County Offices of Education and Community College District: An Unpublished PhD Dissertation Faculty of Berne University. 15. Mhozya, C. M. (2007). The Extent to which Incentives Influence Primary Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Botswana. The Social Sciences, 2 (4): 412-418.2007 16. Newby, N. E. (1999). Job satisfaction of middle school principals in Virginia: Unpublished PhD thesis Virginia tech and state University. 17. Newstrom, J. W. (2007). Organizational Behavior 12th edition Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited New Delhi. p. 204-5 18. Quarstein, V. A., McAfee, R. B., & Glassman, M. (1992). The situational occurrences theory of job satisfaction. Human Relations, 45(8), 859-873 19. Stemple, J. D. Jr (2004). Job satisfaction of high school principals in Virginia. Unpublished PhD thesis Virginia, Virginia tech and state University.Table No 1: Descriptive Statistics of twenty Aspects of Job Satisfaction Aspects of Job N Mean Std. Deviation S# 1 Ability Utilization 200 2.37 .84 2 Achievement 200 2.66 .97 3 Activity 200 2.69 .99 4 Advancement 200 2.13 1.04 5 Authority 200 2.62 .97 6 Education Policy 200 1.91 .92 7 Compensation 200 1.86 .92 8 Coworker 200 2.74 1.04 9 Creativity 200 2.47 .95 10 Independence 200 2.35 .97 11 Moral Value 200 2.69 1.02 12 Recognition 200 2.41 1.01 13 Responsibility 200 2.74 1.00 14 Security 200 2.61 1.13 15 Social service 200 2.94 .95 16 Social Status 200 2.80 1.02 17 Supervision Human Relation 200 2.70 1.09 18 Supervision Technical 200 2.71 1.12 36
  • 6. Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 1, 2011 19 Variety 200 2.88 1.00 20 Working Condition 200 2.37 .82Table-1 shows that the respondents reflect slight satisfaction with the following dimensions of job i.e.ability utilization, advancement, education policy, compensation, independence, creativity, recognition andworking condition. Social service and coworker relationship is the area for which respondents show highlevel of satisfaction, while they are satisfied with social status, activity, moral values, achievement,supervision human relation, supervision technical, security, responsibility, authority and variety.Table No 2 Job Satisfaction of Male and Female Teachers Std. Sig. Gender N Mean t df Deviation p Male 100 52.53 9.42 2.916 198 .004 Female 100 48.69 9.20Table-2 shows that t (198) = 2.916, p = .004 value is significant. The job satisfaction level of malerespondents with mean value (M = 52.53, SD = 9.42) and female respondents with mean (M = 48.69, SD =9.20) is different. Hence, the null hypothesis, “There is no significant difference of job satisfaction betweenmale and female teachers” is rejected and alternate hypothesis accepted. It is revealed that malerespondents are significantly more satisfied than the female respondent.Table No 3 Job Satisfaction of Urban and Rural Respondent Std. Sig. Variables N Mean t df Deviation P Urban 100 51.52 10.20 1.359 198 .176 Rural 100 49.70 8.65Table-3 shows that t (198) = 1.359, p = .176 value is not significant. The job satisfaction level of urbanteachers with mean value (M = 51.52, SD = 10.20) and rural teachers with mean (M = 49.70, SD = 8.65) isnearly same. Hence, the null hypothesis, “There is no significant difference of job satisfaction betweenurban and rural teachers” is accepted. There is no significant difference between urban and rural teachers. 37