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24 tourism disaster corrected--264-284

  1. 1. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011 Sustainable Community Development in Africa Nations through Disaster Risk Reduction in Tourism Industries: the Nigerian Experience Albert Ayorinde Abegunde Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Obafemi Awolowo University Ile Ife, Osun State, Nigeria E-mail: abajesulo@yahoo.comAbstractThe paper examines tourism development and disaster risk reduction in Africa, using Nigeria as a case study. It hasthe goal of setting guide and safety strategies to potential tourists with a view to aid socio economic and physicalgrowth of host communities through tourism management. With foreseeable tourism potentials in Nigeria, itemphasizes the need for disaster planning through risk management in tourist areas. This includes risk prevention,reduction, mitigation and coping. The paper posits that effective risk management in tourism industry will assuresafety to tourists, increase their patronage and enhance the economy of host communities.Keywords: Disaster, Economy, Planning, Risk Management, Tourism, Tourist.1. IntroductionIn literature, African tourism potentials are seen as untapped opportunities towards the development of theircommunities and nations at large (Ishii, 2009). In the contrary, poverty amidst plenty is the centre stage indevelopment debates on the continent (Hays, 2006). More than half of the region’s populations earned below one USDollar per day (Abegunde, Omisore and Adeyinka, 2007). They are haunted by negative effects of poverty such asinadequate infrastructure, urban slum, makeshift housing, poor technology, low industrialisation and perennial civilconflicts over scarce resources (Gakunzi, 2005). These have made the search for ‘pro-poor growth’, that is thegrowth that will benefit the poor people and speed community development with little investments very urgent.Tourism industry, the present largest industry in the world holds the key to this in the new millennium (Naude andSaayman, 2004; Wold Tourism Organisation, 2003; Lickorish and Jenkins, 1997). First, in recent years, tourism hasbeen increasingly recognised for its economic potential to contribute to the reduction of poverty in African countries(Awaritefe, 2004; Afolabi, 2001; Awaritefe, 2000; Chokor, 1993). Its geographical expansion and labour intensivenature support a spread of employment and can be particularly relevant in remote and rural areas of Africancommunities where over 70 percent of the land space is occupied by rural populations (Nigeria National PlanningCommission, 2004; World Bank, 2004). Specifically in Nigeria, tourism performance and statistics have been on therise in recent years. It ranked third in the country’s export after petroleum and cocoa (Falade, 2000; Oyejide andBankole, 2001). The country is said to be more endowed with natural and historical resource centres than any othernation in sub-Saharan Africa (Ekpenyong , 2001; Adelaja, 1997).This has stirred scholars to encourage Nigerians and their counterparts in other African nations to utilized potentialsin tourism to promote socio economic growth and physical development of their communities (Omisore, 2002;Awaritefe, 2004; Roe, Ashley, Page and Meyer, 2004; Mohammed, 2004). Past studies on the subject in the countryhave focused more on the provision of infrastructure at tourist centres (Falade, 2000), spatial distribution andpreservation of tourist centres (Omisore, 2002; Ojo, 1978) and socio cultural, economic and environmental impactsof tourism on host communities (Awaritefe, 1994; Smith and Eadington, 1992; Adejuwon and Akpenyong, 2001;Abegunde et al., 2007).Others have noted that natural and artificial hazards in Africa cause disasters that affect both tourists and residents in 264
  2. 2. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011host communities (Nkabahona, 2007; Frankland, 2007; Gambari, 2002; Gakunzi, 2005). Some of these authorsopined that lack of disaster management in tourism industry among African nations risks tourists’ lives and limitssocial integration between tourists’ places of origin and destinations (Manyara, 2007; Sarkar, 2005). Implicit to thisis that disaster risk management in tourism aids inter-regional peace and provide security to tourists (Hays, 2006).In other words, works of these authors can best be categorized into two. The first is concerned more about benefitsof tourism to host communities while the latter focused on the well being of tourists. This paper marries the twoperspectives together. It advocates special safety for tourists and posits that increased risk management will attracttourists. This is with a view to promote national economic development through increased gross domestic productfrom tourism industry.Issues considered in the paper include concepts of tourism, disaster and risk management and planning. It alsoexamines Nigerian economy and trends of its tourism development; and identifies existing tourist potentials that canbe developed to improve national economy. To enhance tourists’ patronage, it identifies common disasters that posedanger to tourists and set guides and safety strategies towards disaster risk management. It concludes by imploringgovernment and other stakeholders in risk management to team together in enhancing national economy througheffective risk management in tourism industry.2. The Concepts of Tourism, Disaster Risk Management and Planning2.1 The Concept of TourismTourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation and business, and the provision of servicesfor this act (Abegunde et al., 2007). Jafari (1977) defined tourism as a study of man away from his usual habitat, ofthe industry which responds to his needs, and impacts that both he and the industry have on the host’s socio-cultural,economic and physical environment. To Mathieson and Wall (1982), tourism is a multi- faceted phenomenon. Itinvolves movements of tourists to and staying in destinations outside their normal places of residence (Burkart andMedlik, 1981:4).Tourists are highly indispensable in tourism development. They are the people who are traveling to and staying inplaces outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and otherpurposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited (Colak and Aydinoglu,2006). The view of Pearce (1982, 1996) on tourism is in agreement with this study. He perceived it to be aninterrelated and amalgamated industry which arises from the movement of people and their stay in variousdestinations outside their houses; with such industries producing economic returns in destination centres andbeyond.Modern tourism started in the western world. At present, international tourism is already important in Africa. Thechance for the region to rise above present economic depression through tourism is very high. This is because ithosts varieties of natural resources that are not common to every continent of the world. It has varieties of wildlife.Many of the wild animals currently cheered by the developed nations were imported from Africa. The continent alsohas varieties of highlands, rivers, spurs, waterfalls and landscapes. For instance, rivers Nile, Nipopo, Congo andNiger among others are few examples. There are mountains like Kilomajaro, Foutajalon and Guinea highland.Despite these potentials, many African governments either do not take tourism seriously and avail themselves ofthese opportunities, or fail to make the link between tourism and poverty reduction – or both (ODI, 2006).The dominance of high-income countries in international tourism is striking. Almost two-thirds of all internationaltourists in 2003 arrived in rich countries. Africa represented a drop in the ocean, with just over 4% of the totalnumber (Overseas Development Institute {ODI}, 2006). Despite these low earnings from tourism in Africa, thecontinent has the necessary attraction to rate with their western counter parts in nature. Cost of tourism in term ofcheaper holidays can be obtained in Africa than in other tourist destinations round the globe (Mathieson and Wall,1982). It is interesting to note from a research conducted by the International Press Institute (IPI) and AfricanEconomic Development (AED) Nairobi, as far as 1983 that a total of 75 million tourists visited Africa with annualtourist expenditure of about US$ one billion (Falade, 2000). Nigeria, the giant of Africa has many tourism potentialsto boast of, the tourism industry in the country is still in its infancy and lies untapped as most tourism resources areunderdeveloped. Those developed are marked with low patronage by international tourists. One of the reasonsbehind this is the concern over safety from hazards causing disasters to tourists.2.2 The Concept of DisasterDisaster is the occurrence of an abnormal or infrequent hazard that affects vulnerable communities or geographicareas. This causes substantial damage, disruption, and perhaps casualties and leaving the affected communitiesunable to function normally (Benson and Clay, 2004). It is also perceived as the sting of nature or repercussion ofman-made actions, causing losses of both natural and man-made resources in affected areas (Cohan and Cole,2002; 265
  3. 3. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011Olayiwola and Adeleye, 2006). Disaster has traditionally been seen as event that affects a large population, but it is in fact any shock that has animpact on communities so that their capacities to cope are overwhelmed. Along this line, endemics and epidemicslike AIDS/HIV, Bird flu, Malaria to mention but few are disastrous to man. From an economic perspective, adisaster implies some combinations of losses, in human, physical, and financial capital, and a reduction in economicactivity such as income generation, investment, consumption, production, and employment in the “real” economy(Fafchamps, Udry and Czukas, 1998; Dayton-Johnson, 2006). There may also be severe effects on financial flowssuch as the revenue and expenditure of public and private bodies (Benson and Clay 1998). A hazard is not disastrous until it has affected man, directly of indirectly. Disaster, as it affects tourism is significantbecause tourists, and many a times, host communities are unprepared for the shock. Disaster according toInternational Federation of Surveyors (2006) can be natural or artificially induced. Natural disasters do come fromclimate variations causing famine, desertification and global warming. It also relates to floods, earthquakes, wildwind attack like Chinook, hurricane, cyclones among others (Bibbee, 1999; Erdik and Durukal,2003).Nearly 9 000 catastrophic natural disasters have occurred during the period 1900-2002. The five countries with thehighest number of disasters during the period 1900-2002 are the United States (655), India (459), China (420), thePhilippines (355) and Indonesia (276) (OECD, 2004). The deadliest natural disaster of the twentieth century was theinfluenza pandemic of 1917, which claimed some 20 million lives worldwide. This was followed, in terms oflethality, by the 1932 famine in the Soviet Union with 5 million dead. Next to this was flooding of the Yangtze,followed by famine in China in July 1931 claiming altogether 3.7 million lives (OECD 2004).Major natural disasters in the 1990s caused economic losses estimated at an average US$66 billion per year (in 2002prices) (Benson and Clay, 2004). In 1995, the year of the Kobe earthquake in Japan, record losses of about US$178billion were observed. This was an equivalent of 0.7 percent of global gross domestic product of that year (Munich,2002).It is well-established that there is a tight link between natural disasters and poverty (World Bank, 1996; Munich,2002; Benson and Clay, 2004). This is true in at least two senses: first, that natural disasters are more frequent indeveloping countries, and second, that the poor in any society that are exposed to natural hazards are more likely tosuffer damages (OECD, 2004). For instance, Ayala (2002) noted that most disasters occur in developing countries,and that death toll of disasters is even more concentrated in developing countries than their developed counterparts.Anderson (2000) also argued that the poor are more affected by hazards. In this sense, poor countries are not onlymore exposed, but they are more vulnerable than rich countries; and the poorest people within them are the mostvulnerable (Brauch, 2003; DFID, 2006; Abegunde, Oluodo, Adeyinka and Olawuni, 2006).Artificial disasters are generated from man-made actions against the ecosystem. Such could sprout from urbansprawl, overcrowding, deforestation and war to mention but few. Studies conducted by Gambari (2002) and Machel(2005) revealed that the most common between natural and human caused disasters in African nations is violentconflict. Smith (1994), earlier commenting on this, observed that out of the total 79 conflict countries in the world,65 are in the Third World and conflicts in Africa often coincides with economic problems.Along this line, New York Times (February 27, 2005) noted that hundreds of thousands of poor men, women andchildren die needlessly each year from preventable man-made disasters like civil wars, communal or politicalconflicts among others in Africa nations. This could be why Wood (2002) argued that natural disasters are notentirely always natural. If this is so, every disaster can be avoided or prevented and where this is not possible can beminimized. Significant in this is that risk prevention, reduction and management is a function of identifying hazardscausing disasters and building this knowledge into development plan for sustainable environment.2.3 The Concept of Disaster Risk Management and PlanningPlanning is an administration of human environment and it is futuristic in nature. It seeks the convenience of man inthe preparation of development plan within the urban space. A development plan is called by different names –“General Plan”, City Plan”, “Master Plan”, or even Disaster Plan”. A development plan is defined as the officialstatement of a municipal legislature body, which sets forth the major policies concerning future physicaldevelopment of a settlement. A development plan is a policy instrument. It provides basis for fulfilling the yeaningand aspiration of the people (Olayiwola and Adeleye, 2006).Disaster planning therefore is a planned action aimed at given all that are necessary to make hazards less disastrousto man and his physical environment, and by this fostering sustainability in the midst of vulnerability. It usesdevelopment control as mechanisms and tools through which planning goals and ideals are achieved (Geis, 1996). Inrelation to disaster risk reduction, it provides tools with which disaster resistance plans are prepared andimplemented. Significant in these is that disaster plan for every tourist area must be prepared. This must includeweather forecasts and climate variations of tourist centres. It must contain plans of zones prone to hazards and likely 266
  4. 4. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011hazards expected at given time(s) and degrees of past occurrences of such in different areas within the planningregion. It provides means out of catastrophes and guides tourists on day to day visitations to areas concerned. Suchmust be regularly updated and made available on the internet for anybody who wishes to access. Disaster planningmust provide environmental effects of every activity in any given area, including those by the tourists. It should statesteps and easy means towards risk management.Risk management is a method of decision making that identifies goals and ends of risk reduction, eradication orprevention where possible and tolerance where hazards cannot be absolutely avoided. It determines the means andprogrammes which are thought to achieve these ends. Hence, risk-management strategies include: risk prevention,actions intended to reduce the likelihood of adverse risks occurring at all; risk mitigation, actions intended to reducethe damages associated with risks should they occur; and risk coping, actions taken after the fact.While risk-prevention strategies seek to reduce the probability of a risk occurring, risk mitigation strategies attemptto reduce the damages associated with the risk should it occur (Reice, 2001; Selcukand Yelden, 2001). These are exante actions; in the natural-disaster context, this corresponds to reducing vulnerability to natural hazards. Risk-mitigation comes in three forms. Diversification of risk reduces the variability of income by using a greater varietyof assets to generate that income. Insurance involves the pooling of risk across agents, by means of formal insurancecontracts or informal arrangements among households. Hedging, finally, as is witnessed in financial markets, iseffected when one agent pays a second agent a sum to assume a risk borne by the first agent (OECD, 2004).3. Nigerian Tourism Potentials and Trends of Tourism Development: their Implications on CommunityDevelopment and National Economy.Nigeria as a country endowed with natural resources and artifacts that are of interest in tourism industry. Forinstance, the presence of savanna grass land and sand dunes in the far north, tropical shrubs and highlands in themiddle belt and mangrove forest and ocean beaches in the low south offer a wide variety of tourist attractions totourists in the country. Table 1 shows major tourist centres that are of interest to both foreign and local tourists inNigeria. The Table divided these tourist centres into six groups. They are resort, urban, cultural/historic,nature/ecotourism/park/zoo, adventure and water/beach tourism centres. As revealed in the Table, tourism has beenhighly promoted by extended and roomy river and ocean beaches ideal for swimming and other water sports as inLekki and Badagri Beaches in Lagos. It also shows unique wildlife like Yankari, Kanji, Borgu and Obudu GamesReserves.There are vast tracts of unspoiled nature ranging from tropical forest to sand dunes as one travels from extremesouth to far north of the country as revealed in Bar Beach, Lagos; Idanre Hills, Ondo State and Zuma Rock,Abuja. Others are magnificent plateau and interlocking spurs that produce waterfalls as found in Jos Plateau,Jos and Ikogosi Warm Spring, Ekiti State. Some new rapidly growing cities like Abuja and Akure exist in contrastwith traditional communities like Ile-Ife and Old-Oyo that have typical rural setting and climatic conditions that areconducive to holidaying (Afolabi, 2001; www.nigeriaonline.com). Other attractions include traditional ways of lifepreserved in local customs; rich and varied handicrafts and other colourful products depicting or illustrative ofnative arts and lifestyle as in Benin City in Edo State, Tuk Ham and Kwoi communities in Kaduna State. There areauthentic unsophisticated but friendly attitude of many residents in communities in the country(www.onlinenigeria.com). Of interest in the country are over 350 ethnic groups, each with its distinct differentdialects, unique culture and tradition.According to the Table, tourist centres that attract foreigners most in order of importance include Yankari GamesReserve, Kanji Lake Reserve, Kano Museum, Lekki Beach - Lagos, Benin Museum and Oni Ife Palace. Those thatare yet to secure the attention of foreign tourists include Ogun Water Fall, Udi Hills, Sambissa Games Reserve,Bonny Island, Liyafia Hotel – Katsina, Victoria Garden and Ay Guest House, – Lagos and Zambissa Hotel amongothers.Despite these opportunities, tourism in Nigeria has been underutilised, hence underdeveloped. Studies have shownthat countries that have well utilized their tourism potentials are living above economic depression in the newmillennium. Example of such in Africa is South Africa. In Bangladesh, a large, hazard-prone Asian country, hereconomy is concentrated, in particular, on public finance, tourism and Manufacturing (Ninno, Dorosh, Smith andRoy, 2001; Benson and Clay 2004). While tourism industry in Nigeria was not developed to international levelbefore its independence, it is also hard to divorce the advent of colonialists in the country from tourismdevelopment. As noted by Raslan (2003), the birth of modern tourism in many African countries is inseparable fromthe activities of wealthy European and American 19th century travelers. There are no excuses for Nigeria to let hertourism industry lie fallow after about fiftieth year of independence. For instance, the visitation of early foreigners toEgypt, Kenya, Morocco and Tunisia to mention but few opened up their tourist potentials to the world. It is evident 267
  5. 5. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011that tourism has played important roles in the changed political economies of these countries (Dieke, 1994, 2000;Christie & Crompton, 2001; Gerosa, 2003; Rogerson, 2003; Youngstedt, 2003). In Africa, among the most importantnewcomers promoting tourism in national development planning are Gambia, Uganda, Tanzania, Mauritius, theSeychelles, Botswana and South Africa (Rogerson & Visser, 2004, 2007; Cornelissen, 2005).What brought changes to Nigerian economy, particularly after independence is petroleum mining. The oil boom of1970s brought with it fundamental changes in the country’s economy. By 1980, the oil sector which accounted for22 percent of the gross domestic product provided 80 percent of government’s revenue and over 96 percent of exportearnings. Between 1962 and 1985, the country implemented four national development plans; first (1962-68),second (1970-74), third (1975-80), and fourth (1981-1985).During these four development plans, little was accomplished in tourism planning and development in the country.The first attempt to initiate tourism in the country was the formal establishment of Colonial Antiquities Commissionin 1953 (Modupe, 1980). Tourism became a national interest in 1959, when a committee was set up to advice thegovernment on the issue. In 1962, a body called Nigeria Tourism Association (NTA) was set up but failed tofunction as expected. In other words, the First National Development Plan of 1962-1968 failed to consider tourismin its agenda. The civil war of 1967-1970 worsened the issue and scared foreigners from the country.In 1971, the Federal Government commissioned the African Development Bank to investigate the feasibility oftourist trade in Nigeria. The resulting report of the Bank was the absence of effective institutional set up for tourism.To close this institutional gap, the Nigerian Tourist Board Decree No. 54 was promulgated and this was finallyinaugurated in September, 1978. In 1979, the government saw the need to give more attention to tourism andpromulgated the 1979 Decree 77 called National Commission for Museums and Monuments (Ekpenyong, 2001).Part of the success recorded by the Board in tourism development is the creation of awareness for it. Notable amongthe success is the second Black African Festival of Arts (FESTAC) held in 1977. Many States in the country boughtthis idea and developed tourist centres for foreigners in their environments. It was during this era that tourist centreslike Bagauda Lake Resort in Kano, Dubar Hotel in Kaduna and Yankari Games Reserve in Bauchi States werecompleted respectively. Arugungu Fishing Festival in Sokoto was also upgraded.Table 2 reveals tourist arrivals in Nigeria as percentage of total arrivals in Africa. In the Table, internationaltourist arrivals rose 16 times between 1967 and 1985 (from 21,829 to 333,679 tourists). The highest arrivalwas recorded in 1983 with 354,292 foreigners, while the least was recorded in 1970 with a figure of 13,094.This made tourists to Nigeria from sub-Saharan Africa to rise from 1.05 percent in 1970 to 7.2 percent in 1985, witha peak percent of 9.02 in 1983 (World Tourism Organisation, 1990).The success made in tourism in late 1970s attracted international organizations to raise support for Nigerian tourismindustry. By 1979, the first United Nations Development Projects/International Labour Organisations/ WorldTourism Organisation project was commissioned and was expected to open the country for more internationalrecognition. The Nigerian Tourism Board also announced its plans to establish Youth Centre in Jos, Plateau Statewith the assistance of the World Federation of Youth Associations. Part of the success recorded during this era wasthe first National Tourism Master Plan, drawn up in 1981 (Ekpenyong, 2001).In addition to this, the federal government of Nigeria formed tourism policy in 1990 and established the NationalTourism Development Corporation (NTDC) under Decree 81. Consequently, the State Tourism and LocalGovernment Tourism Committee were created to man tourism at state and local levels respectively. These were doneto promote tourism and make it sustainable in Nigeria’s economy. On April 9, 1997, the Ministry of Commerce andTourism empowered the NTDC to monitor registration, activities and promotion of tourism industries in Nigeria(Adelaja, 1997). The government encouraged private individuals to establish hotels that meet international standard.It also absorbed tourism experts as members of the Vision 2010 Committee who were then to provide blueprint forthe country’s millennium growth and developmentMuch dependence on oil sector, lack of fund and incessant civil disorder due to military rule and communal conflictsamong discrete communities limited tourism patronage between late 1970s and 1990s. There was a civil war in thecountry between 1967 and 1970. This perhaps accounted for low tourists’ arrival recorded in 1969 and 1970 asshown in Table 2. Starting from mid 1981, the world oil market began to collapse. This led to economic crisis. Thecountry passed through this for more than a decade. For example, crude oil prices which rose rapidly from US$20.94per barrel in 1979 to US$ 35.95 in 1980 and US$40 in 1981 fell gradually and finally to US$14.85 in 1986(Anyanwu, 1993).This placed Nigeria among the poorest countries in the world with a stagnant annual gross domestic product (GDP)between 1980s and 1990s. Within these years, the country has gone into debts, practicing different economic fiscalmeasures to reduce poverty but with no avail. The country has earned about US$300 billion from oil between 1975and 2000, but with its per capita income 20 percent lower than it was in 1975 (Anyanwu, Oyefusi, Oaikhenan and 268
  6. 6. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011Dimowo, 1997). It grew just at 2.2 percent between 1999 and 2003 (Nigerian National Planning Commission, 2004).There has been record of little change in the national GDP in the new millennium, just as the internationaltourist arrivals and tourism receipts have improved. By the end 2008, the GDP from tourism sector is expectedto be about 5.3 percent, while at present, it is a little above 4 percent (World Bank, 2006). Similarly, Figure 1shows that international tourist arrival as at 2004 was 964,000 while its receipts stood at US$21 million. Thereceipts were US$123 million in 2000 and US$97 million in 2001. In the corollary, annual international touristarrivals for the two years were 805,000 and 810,000 respectively. The fell of figure in tourist arrival between2000 and 2001 cannot be divorced from the fear of safety arising from different religious, civil and communalconflicts in different parts of the nation (Albert, 2001).The low records of 420,000 and 405,000 international tourist arrivals in 1995 and 1997 compared with 930,000 and962,000 of 2003 and 2004 respectively are indications that tourism industry in Nigeria is gaining attention, thoughnot as targeted (World Bank, 2006; World Tourism Organisation, 2000). This perhaps could be why UNICTAD(2005) documented that South Africa has invested a total of US$1.4 billion in tourism sector in Nigeria. If this trendcontinues, tourism industry in Nigeria is expected to contribute US$708 million to the country’s GDP by the end of2008.The confidence reposed in oil sector has been betrayed by its inability to singly sustain Nigerian economy. It shouldbe noted that the present change in GDP from 2.26 percent in 1999 to about 4.3 percent in 2007 does not guaranteeeconomic stability in the nation. There is a need for decisive, consistent and sustained efforts to lead the country outof economic recession. There is the need to rethink on growth initiating strategies of the use of national naturalresources and artifacts that will produce maximum return with minimal economic input. The recorded annual globalinternational tourism arrivals of over 800 million tourists with expenditure of about US$500 billion (Rogerson,2007; Aworitefe, 2004) is a lesson for poor countries who possess tourist potentials to transform their economiesthrough tourism.4. Common Disasters affecting Tourism Industry in NigeriaHazards that are disastrous to tourists in Nigeria can either be naturally or artificially induced. It has been observedthat the annual average number of people killed and affected by disasters in Nigeria is 96,786 (Siyanbade, 2006).This is 0.09 percent of the people killed and affected by disasters in the world. Significant among natural hazards inthe country are flood, catastrophic soil erosion, dust storm, drought, epidemics, landslide and extreme weather.Earthquake can be classified among these, though there are no records of its occurrence in Nigeria. Man madehazards, which are more dangerous and sometimes unpredictable in the country, include oil spill, building collapse,bomb explosion, road and air accidents, civil strife and riots, communal, ethnic or religious conflicts, fire outbreakand robbery attack.Table 3 classifies these hazards and likely places of their occurrences. According to the Table, dust storm, extremeweather, drought and desertification are commonly found in the extreme northern belt of Nigeria. Specifically, theyaffect States like Borno, Yobe, Sokoto, Kano, Jigawa, Zamfara and Kebbi. Dust storm blows like hurricane wind,carrying dusts and sand particles and can move at a velocity of 20-30 kilometres per hour. To be protected from itseffects, tourists can wear sun-shade glasses and hats that are well tight to the head. The best protection is to takerefuge in a car or building or turn one’s back to it with the two eyes closed before the wind approaches.Extreme weather can easily be detected through temperature reading as tourists approach hot or cold regions. Asimple knowledge of Nigeria’s geography and its weather behaviour can be of assistance. Cold season in northernNigeria could have been tolerable to tourist except for its dryness. Its low humidity dries off moisture on the skin.The effect of this on the skin can be reduced through the use of oily cream. Hot weather is better handled throughwearing of light dress. Drought and desertification occur when rain ceases to fall for a long period of time, resultingin drastic fall of humidity. This is less hazardous to casual tourists who do not intend to spend more than a week inthe affected tourist centres. Drought is marked with absence of water. Casual tourist who has provided potable waterwith him in his trips may be less affected by drought’s effect.Catastrophic soil and coastal erosion are common in eastern and coastal belts of Nigeria respectively. Itsdanger is that one can cave into canyon or deep gully imperceptibly. It is advisable for tourists visiting suchregions to contact natives or tourist workers for guide. Earth quake is characterized by earth tremor, soil creep,subsidence and liquefaction among others. Land slide occurs in areas relatively steep and underlain by unstablematerials. Visiting sloppy areas in this belt requires a guide. The latter is common in heavy rain forest belt withsteep slopes within eastern and south eastern Nigeria.Flooding is common to nearly every community in Nigeria. It results from increased run-off that reduces the soil’s 269
  7. 7. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011capacity to absorb. Factors causing this include deforestation, unplanned urban development and poor farmingtechniques among others. Record shows that at least 20 percent of Nigerian population is prone to flooding annually(Siyanbade, 2006). It is advisable for tourists to stay in an elevated region when rain falls. In Nigeria, seekinginformation on drainage behaviour of community to be visited can also be of help.Among the most catastrophic man made hazards in Nigeria are civil strife and riots, communal, ethnic or religiousconflicts. Oyerinde (2005) observed that within 2000 and 2005, about 10,000 people were claimed by violentconflicts in the country. In recent times, religious and ethnic crises have been on the increase in the country. Suchcrises have occurred in Kaduna, Kano, Niger Delta Belt, Ife-Modakeke, Taraba, Bauchi and Ebonyi among others(Fagbemi, 2002). The religious crises that took place in Kaduna alone in February claimed 2000 lives and displaced80,000 people (Albert, 2001; Ayo, 2002). It is advisable for tourists to obtain information from both local andinternational news before visiting tourist centres that are located in conflict prone zones in Nigeria. Even wherethere are no strife, tourists who intend to stay in any of the local community for months should first a pay visit topalace of the traditional ruler of that area, seeking for a guide who can render help where to stay and what to dowhen necessary. It has been observed that in some parts of Nigeria, because of traditional rulers’ long establishmentand the respect in which they are held, they make them more effective in controlling their people and pacifyingaggrieved parties within his jurisdiction (Blench, Longtau, Hassan and Walsh, 2006). In addition, community leadersin many occasions have prior knowledge of intending conflicts in their zones.Another common hazard in Nigeria is bomb-blast. Prominent among those cases that have happened in times pastwas explosions in Ikeja Cantonment Armoury in 2002 which claimed about 800 lives (Oguntokun, 2002). Some ofthese bomb blasts were hand work of political thugs in the nation. This kind of hazard is hard to predict. As thecountry is embracing democracy, its occurrence has drastically reduced. Oil spillage is another hazard found in theNiger Delta, Lagos and Ibadan anong others (Abegunde et al, 2006). There are occasions where oil pipe line passesthrough residential zone, either in the urban and rural communities in the country. Incessant oil pipe breakage tosiphon oil illegally is a growing concern to government in Nigeria. The resultant effects of these are fire outbreak,oil spillage among others. Nigerian government has raised teams of monitoring agents along oil pipe linesthroughout the country. Tourists should keep to warnings when visiting oil belt region or areas where oil pipe linesare laid.Building collapse is common in Nigerian cites than its rural communities. They are more common to structures builtby non professionals in building industry. The greed of spending below real cost of construction also account forbuilding collapse. Tourists should lodge in hotels that are of international reputes, rather than residing in placeswhose building structural stabilities are not guaranteed. This is because according to Nigerian Building Codepublished in 2006, buildings erected in accordance to the provisions in the code are safe for usage. To owners ofsuch buildings, the Code made a provision of issuing certificate of use and habitation (Federal Republic of Nigeria,2006).Many Nigerian roads are rough, full of potholes. Apart from danger of accident, it provide avenue for greedypolicemen to mount roadblocks and collect bribes on the highway. There are high way robbers who also seize theadvantage of bad road to rob at nights. Nigerian government is making frantic efforts to clear the roads of hoodlumssanitize the police of corrupt officers. Tourists should avoid inter-city night trips where road surfaces are not goodfor safe driving.5. Strategies towards Disaster Risk Reduction in Tourism CommunitiesRisk identification is the first step towards disaster-proofing development and it includes; assessment of both thehazard (shock or stress) and vulnerabilities and capacities. A network of NGOs in the Philippines found that simplythrough the process of undertaking a vulnerability assessment, communities became more aware of their risks andhow they could address them. This, if available to tourists, will guide their operations, visitations and escape fromforeseeable disasters in due time.Risk reduction activities are essential where hazards are identified and can not be avoided. Where disaster occurs, orhas occurred, there is the need to take opportunities to rebuild more resilient livelihoods in the aftermath of disasters(Holzmann and Jorgensen, 2001). There is the need to ensure that risk reduction is strategically integrated withineach sector so that general vulnerabilities are reduced and specific hazards are addressed. This will requireintegration of risk reduction into key planning processes, ensuring that an enabling environment, in terms ofgovernance, is created.The government is expected to introduce and formalize policies relating to risk management. Government must alsosupport the poor and masses on risk reduction, coping and prevention strategies. One of the ways to accomplishthese is education at all levels and public enlightenment on basic risk management strategies peculiar to any given 270
  8. 8. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011tourist centre. Disaster planning can be introduced to school curriculums for wider dissemination of the knowledge.This is why Hays, (2006) opined that the best way forward towards the goal of institutionalization of disasterreduction is to focus on the creation of “turning points” within the framework of the decade on education forsustainable development.Education can be a focal point, particularly at the grassroots level, if it focuses on children’s schooling, adult literacytraining, and awareness improvement - aiming at facilitating knowledge and technology transfer - and utilizesexisting organizations. Nigerian government need to establish disaster management as a course of study in Nigeriahigher institutions. At present, there is no institution that offers such course in the country. In other words, there isdearth of professionals in disaster risk management with specialization to tourism in Nigeria.An underutilized and effective strategy in modern times is contingency planning. Contingency planning can beimplemented on a wide scale to create major catastrophe scenarios for key population centres in Sub-Saharan Africa.Each scenario should ask the following kinds of questions: (1) What would the disasters look like? (2) What wouldbe necessary in order for the location to survive and recover? (3) Who would end up involved and to what extent?(4) What levels of institutional resources are needed? The import of these is that disaster risk management is a broadtask. It requires the joint support of every individual in the nation. Organisations must be ready to work with thegovernment to make disaster risk management a success. Where all these a properly placed, tourism would not onlybe embraced by tourists anywhere and anytime, communities with tourist attractions would be liberated fromeconomic depression that rules many of the third world nations.In Nigeria, the body saddled with this responsibility is called National Emergency Management Agency (NEMA). Ithas its base in Abuja -the capital seat of Nigerian government. The first showed concern for disaster management inNigeria was 1976 when the country established a body called National Emergency Relief Agency (NERA) viaDecree 48 (Alabi and Ugbelase, 2004). Being a relief organization, its focus was on the distribution of materials tovictims of disasters. In 1999, the government of Nigeria, through Decree 12 replaced NERA with NEMA to allowthe body to coordinate emergency and prepare disaster management plan.The body among others was to conduct researches on disaster, monitor the state of preparedness of all organizationsthat may contribute to disaster management, and educate the public on disaster. In addition, NEMA was to collectdata from relevant agencies on issues directly or indirectly related to disaster planning and link Nigeria withinternational organizations on disaster planning and management. At present, arms of NEMA have been establishedat state/regional level, and in the next few years will be represented at every local government of the country(Fagbemi, 2002). The body also has a website (http://www.nema.gov.ng) where pieces of information on disasters inNigeria are published to guide tourists.Past works of NEMA were reflected in their interventions in different disasters that have occurred in the nations.These include rescuing of lives and property during plan crash, flooding, fire outbreak, oil pipe bursting, bomb blastto mention but few. Such incidences include Bellview Air line plane crash in 2005, religious riots in Kano andKaduna in 2000 and 2002 respectively, oil pipe line fire disaster in Lagos in 2006 and bomb blast in Lagos in 2002among others (Siyanbade, 2006). Many of these disasters would have had less effect on affected people if everyresident is aware of what to do when disaster strikes. In other words, NEMA has the assignment of enlightening thepublic on disaster preparedness and management.Disaster demands urgency. The public in their local and indigenous strategies may not be well equipped to cope withmodern disasters (such as fire from busted oil pipe line) before officials in disaster risk management office arrives atscene. The knowledge of how to avoid hazards causing disasters is very urgent in Nigeria. This is an integral aspectof risk management in disaster planning (Skidmore, 2001; Dominica Commonwealth of Dominica, 1998). Alongthis line, Nigeria has advocated for tree planting since late 1970s. Impacts of this can be seen in trees planted incapital cities of some northern States in Nigeria. These include Kano, Sokoto and Abuja among others. These areexpected to serve as afforestation projects against stormy wind, soil erosion and harsh weather in the northern part ofthe country.There are wild life reserves created in nearly every State of the country to preserve extinction of wild animals andreduce green house effects. The country also launched satellite into space in 2003 to monitor and predict natural andman-made hazards causing disasters. Reports of this are coordinated by National Space Research and DevelopmentAgency (NASRDA). Such reports obtained from satellite are published in the centre’s website for tourists to accessall over the globe.Traditionally, residents in Nigeria are hospitable to strangers. They are also ready to assist others when disasterstrikes. Government also has recognized traditional and institutional heads and has been reaching communities viathese leaders on security of lives and property. Evidence of this can be seen in the creation of local security bodiesthat are directly concern of their own territory. In Yoruba, there is ‘Odua People’s Congress’ while ‘The Arewa’ was 271
  9. 9. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011established in the north. There also exist ‘Bakassi Boy’s in the east. Informal, community-based strategies will belimited in their capacity to manage disaster risks. Where possible, they will be better-of to prevent than face the hugesocial demand and economic cost of risk mitigation. Nevertheless, national or international efforts might be moreeffective in communities with larger stocks of social capital (Wisner 2003). In Nigerian environment, organizations and government bodies that must work with NEMA on disaster riskmanagement to promote tourism industry include Nigeria Fire Brigade, all bodies that have to do with security oflives and property and Nigerian Airways. Others include all oil corporations, institutional heads, all communitybased organizations, all banking and insurance institutions among others. There is the need for fire brigade office inevery local government and particularly in every tourist centre to arrest fire disaster. Nigeria police and Army shouldensure adequate security of lives and properties to tourists by improving on their services to the residents both on thehigh way and at tourist zones.The government of Nigeria must give special attention to safety of tourists both on the road and air by upgradingbad roads and airports. The knowledge of disaster risk management should be taken to Nigerian schools andcitizens should be carried along with government plans for tourism industry through public enlightenment. Bankingand insurance institutions should assist NEMA in funding necessary projects and insuring lives and properties oftourists that formally visit the country respectively. There is the need for institutional and community leaders towork with the government in reaching the populace when necessary, particularly on public enlightenment on disasterrisk management. It is when all these are in place that a holistic disaster plan can be prepared for tourists and theirimpacts positively affecting Nigerian economy. 272
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  14. 14. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011Table 1: Tourism Resources/Destinations Valued by Foreign and Domestic Tourists in NigieriaType/ Destination FT (%) DT (%) FT/DT No. FT/DT (%)(A) RESORT TOURISM PLACES (%)(i ) WATER RESORTS1 Makurdi Plaza 6(0.8) 5(0.6) 21 1.182 Nike Lake Hotel 2(.03) 3(0.3) 5 0.283 Oguta Lake Hotel 3(0.4) 3(0.3) 16 0.894 Orgi River Park 3(0.4) 2(0.2) 5 0.285 Abraka River Resort 91(11.6) 41(4.5) 112 6.27(ii ) ECOLOGICAL RESORTS6 Sam Health Farms, Idiroko, Lagos 7(0.9) 6(0.7) 13 0.737 Whispering Palm, Lagos 10(1.3) 12(1.3) 22 1.238 Okada Wonderland 6(0.8) 3(0.3) 9 0.509 Nguru Games Village 2(0.3) 1(0.1) 3 206(B) URBAN TOURISM( i) Hotels10 Grand Hotel, Asaba 6(0.8) 1(0.1) 7 0.3911 Lachampague Tropicana, Lagos 1(0.1) 5(0.6) 6 0.3412 Victoria Garden, Lagos 2(0.3) 4(0.4) 6 0.3413 Zambissa Hotel, Lagos - 5(0.6) 5 0.2814 Zwanda Hotel, Lokoja - 1(0.1) 1 0.0615 Ay Guest House, Lokoja - 1(0.1) 1 0.0616 Nicon Noga Hotel, Abuja 8(1.0) 15(1.7) 23 1.2917 Liyafia Hotel, Katsina - 1(0.1) 1 0.0618 Country Home Motel, Benin City 2(0.3) 2(0.2) 4 0.2219 Federal Palace Hotel, Lagos 4(0.5) 1(0.1) 5 0.2820 Sheranton, Abuja 5(0.6) 6(0.7) 11 0.6221 Eko Holiday Inn, Lagos 4(0.5) 2(0.5) 6 0.34(ii ) AMUSEMENT PARKS/CLUB HOUSES22 Abuja Golf Club 1(0.1) 4(0.4) 5 0.2823 Ikoyi Club, Lagos 2(0.3) 1(0.1) 3 0.1724 Amusement Park Lagos 3(0.4) 4(0.4) 7 0.3925 Apapa Club, Lagos 2(0.3) 1(0.1) 3 0.1726 Rugly Club, Kaduna 1(0.1) 1(0.1) 2 0.17(iii) ANCIENT/COLONIAL TOWNS ANDFEATURES27 Lokoja Town - 1(0.1) 1 0.0628 Port-Harcourt 8(1.0) 5(0.6) 13 0.7329 Calabar 4(0.1) 1(0.1) 5 0.2830 Enugu 2(0.3) - 2 0.1131 Cocoa House, Abuja 3(0.4) 2(0.2) 5 0.2832 Ikoyi Cementary, Lagos 3(0.4) 2(0.2) 5 0.2833 Bonny Island - 2(0.2) 2 0.1134 New Bussa 2(0.3) - 2 0.11(C) CULTURAL/HISTORIC TOURISM(i ) MUSEUM35 Kano Museum 24(3.1) 12(1.3) 36 2.0236 Jos Museum 60(4.3) 14(4.4) 74 4.1537 Benin Museum 25(3.27) 2(0.2) 27 1.5138 National Museum, Lagos 9(1.2) 2(0.2) 11 0.62(ii ) HISTORIC/ARCHEOLOGICAL FEATURES39 Esie Stone, Kwara State 1(0.1) - 1 0.0640 Obas Palace, Benin-City 4(0.5) 1(0.1) 5 0.2841 Mary Selessor’s Grave, Calabar 1(0.1) - 1 0.0642 Emotan Status, Benin-City 4(0.5) - 4 0.2243 Sura Market, Lagos 3(0.4) 277 - 3 0.1744 Igbo-Ukwu Terra Kota 7(0.9) 3(0.3) 10 0.56
  15. 15. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011 2(0.2) 1(0.1) 2(0.2) 1(0.1) - 3(0.3) 3(0.3) 2(0.2) - 1(0.1) 3(0.3) - 189(21.0) 83(9.2) 52(5.8) 34(3.8) 4(0.4) 23(2.5) 4(0.4) - - 1(0.1) 2(0.2) - 5(0.6) 4(0.4) 8(0.9) 12(1.3) 1(0.1) 18(2.3) 2(0.2) 4(0.4) 1(0.1) 1(0.1) 4(0.4) 4(0.4) 2(0.2) 2(0.2) 19(2.1) 6(6.7) 8(0.9) 1(0.1) 31(3.4) 2(0.2) 1(0.1) - 2(0.2) 11(1.5) 8(0.9) 3(0.3) - 3(0.3) 278
  16. 16. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011 9 4 4 9 2 8 6 4 2 6 20 4 313 129 73 39 10 41 6 6 2 2 5 5 5 7 10 20 2 27 3 6 4 3 8 7 7 7 29 8 10 3 35 2 3 4 7 13 11 4 3 4 279
  17. 17. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011 0.50 0.23 0.22 0.50 0.11 0.45 0.34 0.22 0.115 0.34 1.12 0.22 17.53 7.23 4.09 2.18 0.50 2.30 0.37 0.33 0.11 0.11 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.39 0.56 1.12 0.11 1.51 0.17 0.34 0.23 0.17 0.44 0.39 0.39 0.39 1.62 0.44 0.56 0.17 1.96 0.11 0.17 0.23 0.39 0.73 0.62 0.23 0.17 0.22 280
  18. 18. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 201145 Kano Wall46 Koma Village, Gongola State47 Mongo Park Tomb, Bussa48 Lugard House, Lokoja49 Isaac Boro Park, Port-Harcourt(iii ) CULTURAL FEATURES/FESTIVALS50 Igwe Festival, Benin-City51 Agungu Fishing Festival52 Tuk Ham Festival, Kwoi, Kaduna53 Port-Harcourt Cultural Centre54 Trade Fair Complex, Lagos55 Oni of Ife Palace56 Sultan of Sokoto Palace(D) NATURE/ECOTOURISM/PARKS/ZOO(i ) ECOTOURISM/NATURE TOURISM57 Yankari Games Reserve58 Kainji Lake Reserve59 Obudu Ranch60 Gashaka – Gumti Reserve61 Chad Basin Reserve62 Borgu Games Reserve63 Okomu Games Reserve64 Hadejia-Ngura Wetland65 Ossissa Forest Reserve66 NIFOR, Benin-City67 Rejemu Games Village68 Bembo Games Village69 Sambissa Games Reserve(ii ) PARKS/ZOO70 National Park, Abuja71 Ibadan Amusement Park72 Old Oyo National Park73 Kayayi Park74 Ibadan Zoo75 Katsina National Park76 Isaac Bam Park, Port-Harcourt77 Cross River National Park, Oban78 Cross River National Park, Okwango79 Ogba Zoo, Benin-City80 Enugu Zoo81 Makurdi Zoo82 Ilorin Park(E) ADVENTURE TOURISM83 Jos Plateau/Sherrt Hills84 Mambila Plateau85 Zuma Rock86 Ogbenike Cave87 Olomo Rock88 Udi Hills, Enugu89 Gembu Plateau90 Umudike Cave91 Enugu Coal Mine92 Idanre Hills93 Aso Rock, Abuja94 Itakpe Hill95 Bakassi Peninsula96 Shiroro Dam 281
  19. 19. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011 7(0.9) 3(0.4) 2(0.3) 8(1.0)(F) WATER/BEACH TOURISM AREAS 2(0.3) (i) BEACHES97 Lekki Beach, Lagos 28(3.4) 5(0.6) 32(3.5) 60 3.3098 Ekpe Beach, Lagos 9(1.2) 3(0.4) 20(2.1) 29 1.6299 Bar Beach, Lagos 30(3.8) 2(0.3) 32(3.5) 62 3.47100 Eleko Beach, Lagos 8(1.0) 2(0.3) 7(0.8) 15 0.84101 Badagry Beach, Lagos 18(2.3) 5(0.6) 10(1.1) 28 1.57102 Bomadi Beach 1(0.1) 17(0.9) 2(0.2) 3 0.17103 Abraka Turf 11(1.4) 4(0.5) 10(1.1) 21 1.18 8(0.9) 11 0.62(ii) RIVERS/WATERFALLS 124(15.9)104 Gerada Waterfall 3(0.4) 46(5.9) 8(0.0) 11 0.62105 Takwa Bay Island, Lagos 3(0.4) 21(2.7) 5(0.6) 8 0.45106 Owu Waterfall 2(0.3) 5(0.6) 3(0.3) 5 0.28107 Kwa Falls - 6(0.8) 6(0.7) 6 0.33108 Kure Falls 2(0.3) 18(2.3) 4(0.4) 6 0.33109 Gurara Falls 1(0.1) 2(0.3) 4(0.4) 5 0.28110 Agura Falls 3(0.4) 6(0.8) 4(0.4) 7 0.39111 Ikogosi Spring 6(0.8) 2(0.3) 29(2.9) 35 1.96112 Ogun River/Waterfall - 1(0.1) 2(0.2) 2 0.11113 Ogbenike Waterfall 1(0.1) 3(0.4) 2(0.2) 3 0.17114 R. Ethiope Source, Umuaja 2(0.3) 5(0.6) 3(0.3) 5 0.28115 Lokoja Niger/Benue Confluence - 1(0.1) 3(0.3 4 0.22 3(0.4) 2(0.3) FT = Foreign Tourist, DT= Domestic 8(1.0) Tourist, FT/DT Foreign and Domestic TouristCombined 1(0.1) Source: Adapted from Awaritefe, 2004. 9(1.2) 1(0.1) 2(0.3) Table 2: Tourist Arrivals in Nigeria 3(0.4) as Percentage of Total Arrivals %Change 2(0.3) over TotalArrival 4(0.5) Year Arrival 3(0.4) Previous Year In Africa In Sub-Saharan Africa 5(0.6) 5(0.6) 1967 21, 829 Nil 1.53 2.91 1968 23,373 7.07 1.30 2.37 10(1.37) 1969 13, 767 -41.10 2(0.3) 0.65 1.24 1970 13,094 - 4.89 2(0.3) 0.54 1.o5 1980 85, 704 554.53 2(0.3) 1.21 2.97 1981 112,857 31.49 4(0.5) 1.40 3.37 1983 354,292 213.93 - 4.32 9.02 1984 293,900 -17.05 2(0.3) 3.30 6.73 1985 339,679 15.58 4(0.5) 3.42 7.20Source: Adapted from Adejuwon and 5(0.6) Ekpenyong (2001) 2(0.3) 3(0.4) 1(0.1) 3(0.4) 1(0.1) 282
  20. 20. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011Table 3: The Prevailing Hazards in Nigeria Hazards Area Most AffectedS/N Natural Man-Made1. Drought and desertification Sudan-sahel Belt (Borno, Yobe, Jigawa, Kano,Bauchi, Adamawa, Kastina, Zamfara and KebbioStates)2. Flooding Coastal beit, Flood Plains of major rivers,cities with inadequate drainage.3. Catastrophic soil erosion Enugu, Anambra, Imo, Abia, Ondo, Ekiti,Akwa-Ibom, Ebonyi States.4. Destructive Storms All States5. Dust Storms Sudan-Shahel Belt6. Coastal Erosion Lagos, Ondo, Delta, Rivers, Akwa-Ibom,Bayeisa and Cross River States.7. Earth Tremors South Western States8. Pest invasion All States9. Human disease epidemic All States10. Animal disease epidemic All States11. Dam failure Niger, Bono, Sokoto etc.12. Building collapse All State13. Oil spillage Niger Delta14. Land, Water and Air All States Transport accident15. Bomb Explosion Lagos16. Civil strike Lagos, Kaduna, Kano, Taraba, Benueetc.17. Fire Disaster All States18. Wildfires All States.Source: Adapted from Siyanbade (2006)10008000 International tourist6000 arrivals (Thousands)4000 International tourism2000 receipts (US$ millions)0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005International tourist arrivals (1,000), 2004 .............................962 283
  21. 21. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1700 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2855 (Online)Vol.2, No.4, 2011International tourism receipts (US$ millions), 2004 ................21Figure 1: International Tourist Arrivals and Receipts in Nigeria (1995-2004)Source: Adapted from United Nations World Tourism Organization (2006)Acknowledgement and appreciation: The author acknowledges the source of secondary dataused in this study and appreciates all the authors that had done the previous works that providedplatform for the discussions in this paper.These authors have been well cited in this study. Of significance among others are:1. United Nations World Tourism Organization (2006),2. Siyanbade, O.D. (2006),3. Adejuwon, F. and Ekpenyong A.J.U. (2001), and4. Awaritefe, O.D. 2004 284

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