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    1.perceived readiness of teachers for online instruction 1.perceived readiness of teachers for online instruction Document Transcript

    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 7, 2011 Perceived Readiness of Teachers for Online Instruction in Nigerian Universities Nwokike Obinna (Corresponding Author) Information Resources Management, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo. Ogun State, Nigeria Tel; +234-080-36738913, Email; onwokike@gmail.com Ihekeronye Promise Educational Technology Department, University of Ibadan , Oyo State, Nigeria Email; dzbond@yahoo.com stReceived: October 1 , 2011Accepted: October 11th, 2011Published: October 30th, 2011AbstractThe necessary skills and a good understanding of information and communication technologies is requiredfor designing and implementing any appropriate policy for the use of online education in teaching, learningand research in the university. This study investigated the perception of teachers toward online instructionin faculty of Education, University of Ibadan. The findings revealed that teachers have a positiveperception toward online instruction due to their perceived value of online instruction. Also factors foundto affect the teachers’ perceived readiness include his facilitation skills, enthusiasm, confidence, manpowerskills, perceived benefit/drawback, time constraint, obsession, ease of use and perceived usefulness whileother factors such as social pressure, classroom culture and inadequate facilities had no significant effect onteachers’ perceived readiness. The study indicates that there is the need for appropriate review ofinformation and communication policies, training programmes and infrastructural support our teachers inexploiting the use of online instruction in their faculty.Keywords; perceived readiness, teachers, online instruction, Nigeria University 1. Introduction Among Nigerian-Universities the level of information and communication technologies acquisitions isquite high as observed from massive empirical reports. But to dismay studies by Hopkins (1996) pointedout that in acquiring ICTs, universities exhibit blind faiths in technology, a sort of technologicaldeterminism seeming to suggest that merely installing a machine will lead to its efficient and rational use.This perception of technological determinism seems to prevail in the process of acquiring and providingaccess to ICTs in Nigeria universities. There have been reports of department and faculties that acquirecomputers before deciding what to do with them. Information and Communication equipment arepurchased but never used and internet access have never been personally utilized by academic staff for avariety of reasons (Adagunodo & popoola, 2003 as cited in Ihekeronye 2010) This paper seeks to investigate the teachers’ perceived readiness for online instruction in the faculty ofEducation University of Ibadan so as to enable the university authorities to formulate policies that willenhance the process of quick adoption and use of ICTs at their disposal for online instruction. 2. Review of Literature 1
    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 7, 2011A survey of universities by Mbawonku (1987), in Ihekeronye (2010) investigated the determinants of useand non use of instructional media by lecturers in two selected Nigeria universities and found a significancerelationship between discipline and use of instructional media (including computer assisted instructionCAI) and positive correlation between perception and use of media. She, however, found no significantrelationship between academic status and use of media. In another study Klowu (1997) examined the use of computerized information system in Nigerianuniversity and research institute libraries. Results from the study revealed that librarians were highlypositive in their attitudes towards the use of computers. The gender, age, length of service and type oflibrary were not significantly related to the attitudes of librarians towards computers. Frequency of use ofcomputer and previous training experience in the use of computers were however significantly related topositive attitudes towards computers. In addition, frequency of use of computers has no significantrelationship with place of training as librarians, type of library where they worked, and subject backgroundof the librarians. (Ihekeronye 2010) A similar study by Jumba (2000) found no relationship between attitudes towards online education byScientists in six Nigerian agricultural research institutions and the value they derives from ICTs use. Theyalso found no significant relationship between accessibility to ICTs and research productivity of theScientists. However, there was a significant association between the value derived from frequency of ICTsuse and research experience of respondents in his study. A University of Ibadan-based study investigated prevalence and correlation of computer anxiety,phobia, obsession and work stress among students and staff of the University of Ibadan. Among theirfindings, they reported an inverse correlation of computing experience with information anxiety, computerphobia and obsessive computing, they also found that discipline, occupation and self-esteem weresignificant factor for explaining computer experience while age, locus of control and personality types wasnot (Tiamiyu, Ajayi and Olatokun, 2002). Ehikhamenor, (2001) investigated the use and non-use of internet facilities by scientists in ten NigerianUniversities and found 4.4% of the scientists had computers at their disposal while 50.4% had access to,and were using the internet. His study attributed non-use of the internet to problems of accessibility, ease ofuse and cost. He also reported that the university in which a scientist worked might have had the greatesteffect among the background factors that influenced the data in his study. In addition, he found significantdifferent in internet use by scientists in different age groups, academic ranks, and disciplines. (Ihekeronye,2010) In another university of Ibadan-based study, Sangowusi (2003) investigated the impact of informationand communication technologies on scholarly publications of scientists of university of Ibadan. He foundthat even through 76% of the lecturers were computer literate and 33.5% have been using ICTs for overfive years, only 32.8% owned a personal computer. He also found that ICTs had made very little impact onthe productivity of scientist, especially those in the rank of professor. He concluded that professors in hisstudy seemed to be overwhelmed by teaching and administrative chores which allowed them very littletime for research (and by implication, for using ICT). (Ihekeronye, 2010) In an international study sponsored by the United Nations, Adeya and Oyeyinka (2002) comparedinternet use by academics in four Nigerians and six Kenyan Universities with a view to understanding thedynamics of ICT use in academic research, teaching and information dissemination. They found that 87.7%of the Nigerian respondents in their study used computers while the figure for the Kenyan respondents was98.2%. In addition, they found that computer use among Nigerian University academics had only becomerampant in the last five years while most respondents from Kenyan Universities had been using computersfor between five and ten years. Also, more Kenyan (96.9%) than Nigerians (55.9%) received formaltraining in the use of computers and the internet.Among the two study groups, word-processing was more widely used computer application followed by e-mail. Kenyan University academics also used computers for a wider variety of tasks than their Nigeriancounterparts, use of, and access to the internet also differed among the two groups. Kenyans tended to 2
    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 7, 2011access the internet more from their offices while Nigerians accessed the internet more from either otheraccess points within their universities or from cyber cafés. In addition, unlike the Nigerians, none of theKenyans respondents accessed the internet from their homes or from friends/colleagues’ places. The studyconcluded that even though academics in the two universities had access to the cluster of technologies thatmake up the internet, there were differences in the speed, ease and quality of access to the internet.Constraints to internet use also varies, Cost was the highest constraints to the Nigerians while availabilityof affordable internet connection was the highest constraints to the Kenyans. Due to the focus and comparative nature of Adeya and Oyeyinka (2002) study, only four Nigerianuniversities, all from the south-western part of the countries were sampled; this creates a knowledge gap asto what obtains among academics in universities in other parts of Nigeria. Their research also did notinvestigate perception (as an attitude) as a factor that can affect adoption and use of ICT by academics. Other existing studies of ICT use in Nigerian Universities are not detailed enough to enable one makegeneral conclusions about factors that significantly influence ICT adoption and use by individuals. Forexample, a study by Agbonlahor (2005) revealed that (Ogunleye, 1997; Ojo-Igbinoba, 1997; Ehikhamenor,1993; Idowu Mabawonku, 1999; Oduwole, 2000) the use of ICTs in Nigerian University libraries exploresthe potentials of ICTs for the development of Nigerian universities and their libraries. Even though thesestudies found the level of ICTs use to be quite low, there were no attempt at finding out individual-levelfactors that could account for the level of ICT use and rate of adoption in the University libraries. 2.1 Distance Education and Online Education: With the advent of the information communication revolution fuelled by advances in computer,networking technologies and World Wide Web, the world is witnessing an expansion in distance education.As seen in the provision of a broad range of options for its implementation.Information revolution, brought about by the convergence of telecommunication and computertechnologies has enabled academics institution in several parts of the world to provide a flexible and openlearning environment for students, via online distance learning. It has given rise to concepts such asElectronic University and Virtual University, which are emerging at a fast space. This indicates thatdistance learning as a means of providing higher education will continue to grow. In view of this trend,online education via the web (e-learning) as a means of approaching distance learning in Nigeria must notbe overlooked, since it is a cost –effective and quick method of communication between learners and theteachers. (Ahmed, 2006). Online training was classified as an all encompassing term that refers to training done with acomputer over a network, including an Organization’s intranet, local area network and the internet (Autzen,2007). He mentioned that online training is also known as net-based training. Moron & Kim (2001) arguedthat online learning constitutes just one part of online instruction/education and describes learning viainternet, intranet and extranet. They added that levels of sophistication in online learning vary. It can extendfrom a basic online learning program that includes text and graphics of the course, exercises, testing andrecord keeping, such as test scores and book marks to a sophisticated online learning program.Sophistication would include animations, simulations, audio and video sequences peer and expertdiscussion groups, online mentoring, links to materials on corporate intranet or the web, andcommunications with corporate education records. Like Hubona & Geitz, (1997), Autzen (2007) purportedthat online learning is any technology-based learning and added that this usually implies linkage to acomputer. Given the broad definition of online instruction, it would seem safe to assume that web-basedtraining is online instruction. Hall (1997) defined web-based training as instruction that is delivered overthe internet or over a company’s intranet. Accessibility of this training, related Hall is through the use of aweb-browser such as Netscape Navigator. Hall and Snider (2008) define e-learning as the process oflearning via computers over the internet and intranets. Hall and Snider extended that e-leaning is alsoreferred to as web-based training, online training, distributed learning or technology for learning. Distancelearning, was not included in the e-learning definitions and was defined as its own entity as a learning 3
    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 7, 2011process meeting three criteria: a geographical distance separates communication between the trainer andparticipant; the communication is two way and interactive and some form of technology is used tofacilitates the learning process. Hall (2000) contends that e-learning will take the form of complete courses,access to content for just-in-time” learning, access to components and services, and the separation of“courses” to acquire and test knowledge Vs. content as an immediate, applicable resource to resolve animmediate, perhaps, one time only problem. Learning is and will continue to be a lifelong process, thatcould be accessed anywhere at any time to meet a specific need or want. Hall added that more links to realtime data and research would become readily available. Thus, web-based training, online learning, e-learning, online instruction, distributed learning,interest-based learning and net-based learning all speak of the same thing (Hall and Snider, 2000; Urbanand Weggen, 2000). Similar also to e-learning and it related terms are technology-based learning (Urbanand Weggen 2000). Urban and Weggen shared that e-learning covers a wide set of applications andprocesses, including computer-based learning, web-based leaning, virtual classrooms, digitalcollaborations. For the purpose of their report, they further customized their definition to the delivery ofcontent via all electronic media, including the internet, intranet, extranets, satellite broadcast, audio/videotape, interactive TV and CD-ROM. They warned, however, that e-learning is defined more narrowly thandistance learning, which would including text-based learning and courses conducted via writtencorrespondence. Like Hall and Snider 2000), Urban and Weggen (2000) have set apart distance learningand e-learning in their glossaries, making in their glossaries however, online education inclusive andsynonymous to all computer-related applications, tools and processes that have been strategically aligned tovalue-added learning and teaching processes. Berge (1998) explained the difference between distance education and distance learning. Distanceeducation was seen as the formal process of distance learning, with information being broad in scope forexample, college courses. While, distance learning was seen as the acquisition of knowledge and skillsthrough mediated information and instruction, encompassing all technologies and other forms of learning ata distance. This may be why most educational institutions used the term distance education. Institutional definition of distance education which the main tenets: training offered to learnerswho are in a different location than the source or provider of instruction. Berge (1998) went on to say thatthe technologies used in distance learning, the structure of a course or program, and the degree ofsupervision for a distance learning course can be varied to meet a particular’s group’s needs or interests. Reverting to Halls (2000) online education in all-inclusive form, distance learning plannedinteractive courses, as the acquisition of knowledge and skills at a distance through various technologicalmediums would seem to be one of online education possible disguises. Interestingly Urban and Weggen(2000) saw e-learning as a subset of online learning. With this review of terms, ‘Subset’ does not appear to be the most likely word to describe therelationship among the words and their forms. The definitions show a great depth of interdependenceamong themselves. While one scholar narrowly defines a term, another could give it the all encompassingpower. This communicates that e-learning, if given the all encompassing form, can be the larger circle ofwhich all other terms would be overlapping at different times and extents given their used intention.Another rationale is that “just-in-time” learning is a major advantage of e-learning but not of distancelearning. Distance learning purports planned courses or planned experiences. E-learning does not onlyvalue planned learning but also recognizes the value of the unplanned and the self directedness of thelearner to maximize incidental learning to improve performance. Online instruction is a continuum from basic use of technology in or around the conventionalphysical classroom (e.g. use of a course management system to distribute materials and track grades) towholly online delivery. Online instruction is the art of using internet; computer and other technologies toenhance teaching process or learning process. Online technologies such as computer and the internet can beused creatively for collaborative learning at anytime and anywhere. It enables sharing of knowledge, lessonplan, research project and notes. Apart from teachers and students, it also involves parents, field experts,international students, teachers and society via the internet, anytime and anywhere. New technologies 4
    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 7, 2011associated with e-learning have created opportunities and threats to the institutional structure of highereducation, the learning patterns of individual and learning certification systems. E-learning or onlineinstruction is offering the potential for more accessible, flexible and cost-efficient (and even superior)higher education. Online instruction is viewed by some as central to fashioning higher education systems that are fit-for-purpose in the 21st century. A negative view (e-learning as threat) pictures e-learning as unproven,disrupting legitimate public control of higher education (e.g. enabling students in one country to takeprovision from another and undermining national quality assurance) and is incapable of replicating thedisciplinary breath and socialization of “traditional” Higher Education. Apart from these threats, there areothers affecting online instruction. Factors investigated in this study included inadequate facilities,classroom-culture, social pressure manpower skill, confidence, perceived ease of use, time constraint,obsession, perceived usefulness and enthusiasm. 2.2 Limitation; This study did not explore actual online teaching and learning practices. Responses were related torecent issues that may or may not be sustainable. In addition, we did not survey students for theirperceptions of online learning trends and possibilities.3.0 Method This study adopted an ex-post-facto survey design covering a cross-section of teachers in all thedepartments of faculty of Education, University of Ibadan. Data collected were subjected to factor analysis; which is a statistical approach that can be used toanalyze interrelationship among a large number of variables and to explain these variables in term of theircommon underlying dimension (factors).4.0 Results4.1 Research Question OneWhat perceived values are associated with teachers’ use of online Instruction?Table: Teachers Perceived Values for Use of online instructionS/N Statement SD D SLDA SLA A SA Mean Std.D1. I believe the computer 7 - - - 9 76 can be useful tool for teaching & learning (7.6) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (9.8) (82.6) 4.52 1.342. I don’t think there is 60 32 - - - - need for me to explore (62.5) (34.8) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 0.35 0.48 any concept through computer and internet 5
    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 Table shows that the lecturers strongly agree that they believe the computer can be useful tool for teaching and learning ( X =4.53). They also strongly disagree that they do not think there is need for them to explore any concept through the computer and internet ( X = 0.35). From these, it can be inferred that the teachers perceived values are: (i) computers are useful tools for teaching and learning, (ii) There is need for them to explore concepts through computer and internet. 4.2 Research Question Two What is the influence of prior computer use experience on teacher in the current online instruction usage? Table: Summary of T-test Statistics shows Differences between those with prior knowledge in computer and those that do not have prior knowledge in Computer compare to their level of computer usage. Variable (Computer N Mean Standard T Degree of Sig/P Remark usage) Deviation Freedom Those without Not Significant Prior knowledge of 7 21.0 4.8.6 -1.662 89 .100 computer Those with prior Knowledge of computer 84 26.3 8.27 Table shows that there is no significant difference between lecturers with prior knowledge and those without computer experience in their level of computer usage. (t=-1.662); df = 89; p > 0.05. This implies that prior knowledge has no significant influence on the computer usage of lecturers or prior computer experience of teachers has no significant influence on their online instruction usage. 4.3 Research Question Three What is the perceived influence of Organizational culture toward online instruction usage? Table: Perceived influence of Organizational culture towards Online Instruction Usage.S/N Statement SD D SLDA SLA A SA Mean Std.D1. Educational culture in the 10 13 10 5 46 8 faculty is ready for online (10.6) (14.1) (10.7) (5.4) (50.0) (8.7) 2.96 1.59 instruction2. Online instruction can be - 9 - 16 35 22 easily implemented in my (0.0) (9.8) (0.0) (17.4) (38.0) (23.9) 3.55 1.24 department3. The University Authority - 7 - 29 41 15 6
    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 plays an important role in (0.0) (7.6) (0.0) (31.5) (44.6) (16.3) 3.62 1.01 support of the use of online instruction4. There are no technical 14 7 6 9 33 23 supports for teacher to use (15.2) (7.6) (6.5) (9.8) (35.9) (25.0) 3.18 1.76 online instruction in the faculty Table shows that the lecturers slightly agreed that the culture in the faculty is ready for online instruction ( X =2.96); they also agreed that the online instruction can be easily implemented in the department. ( X =3.35); they agreed that the University Authority plays an important role in support of the use of online instruction. ( X =3.62) and slightly agreed that there are no technical supports for teacher to use online instruction in the Faculty ( X = 3.18). This shows that (i) Online instruction is welcomed in the departments (ii) adequate support of the University Authority for online instruction (iv) Availability of Technical supports for teacher to use online instruction. 4.4 Research Question four What is the perceived benefit/drawback of using online instruction for teaching/ learning and research among teachers? 4.4.1 Table: The Perceived Benefit of Using Online InstructionS/N Statement SD D SLDA SLA A SA Mean Std.D1. Online instruction has - 7 - - 61 24 potential of practicing team (0.0) (7.6) (6.0) (0.0) (66.3) (26.1) 4.03 0.98 work and sharing knowledge2. Online instruction is able to 7 - - - 54 31 promote the acquisition of (7.6) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (58.7) (33.7) 4.03 1.25 skills (e.g. communication skills, computer skill, problem solving skill etc) Table shows that the lecturers agreed that online instruction has potential of practicing team work and sharing knowledge ( X = 4.03); they also agreed that online instruction is able to promote the acquisition of skills ( X = 4.03). This implies that the perceived benefits are: (i) The potentials of practicing teamwork and sharing knowledge (ii) promoting the acquisition of skill (e.g. communication skills, computer skill and problem solving skills). 4.4.2 Table: The Perceived drawbacks of using online instruction for teaching & learning.S/N Statement SD D SLDA SLA A SA Mean SLD1. There are insufficient number of 5 3 7 12 42 23 computers in my department for (5.4) (3.3) (7.6) (13.0) (45.7) (25.0) 3.65 1.32 teaching and learning2. There is insufficient internet 7 - - 3 36 46 access in my department for (7.6) (0.0) (0.0) (3.3) (39.1) (50.0) 41.6 1.32 teaching and learning 7
    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 7, 2011Table shows that the lecturers agreed that there are insufficient number of computer in their departmentsfor teaching and learning ( X = 3.65). They also agreed that there is insufficient internet access in theirdepartments for teaching and learning. This implies that the perceived drawbacks for using onlineinstruction in Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan are: (i) insufficient number of computer forteaching and learning in the departments (ii) Insufficient internet access in the department.4.5 Research Question fiveWhich of the following factors affect the perceived readiness of teachers for online instruction? enthusiasm,classroom culture, social pressure perceived usefulness, confidence, time constraints obsession, ease of use,inadequate facilities and manpower skills.Table: Factors affecting perceived readiness of teachers for online instructions. CoefficientsModel Non-standardized Standardized T Position Sign. Coefficients Coefficients Β Std.err or BetaConstants -2.958 .620 - -4.769 .000Enthusiasm 1.236 .120 .352 10.316 3rd .000 SignificantClassroom -6.22E-02 .164 -0.052 -0.380 8th .705cultureSocial pressure -0.122 0.104 -0.32 -1.182 9th .241Perceived .168 .068 .072 2.458 5th .016 SignificantusefulnessConfidence -338 .084 -.206 -4.034 4th .000 SignificantTime .227 .106 .067 2.152 6th .034 SignificantconstraintObsession -.162 .065 -.062 -2.478 7th .015 SignificantEase of use 1.623 .306 .414 5.299 2nd .000 SignificantInadequate -4.34E.02 .069 -.020 -.628 10th .532facilitiesManpower 772 .149 .573 5.185 1st .000 SignificantskillsThe table above shows that manpower skills, has the highest significant contribution (β=0.573; t = 5.185; p<0.05); followed by ease of use (β=0.414; t=5.299; p <0.05); followed by enthusiasm (β=0.352; t = 10.316;p <0.05); followed by confidence (β= -0.206; t = -4.034; p <0.05); followed by perceived usefulness(β=0.072; t = 2.458; p <0.05); followed by obsession (β=-0.062; t=-2.478; p<0.05). Other i.e., classroomculture, social pressure and inadequate facilities have no significant contribution.5.0 Findings; 8
    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 7, 2011 The findings show that the following factors affects the perceived readiness of teachers for onlineinstruction: Enthusiasm, Manpower skills, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use obsession,confidence, time constraint, classroom culture social pressure, inadequate facilities. It also shows factors affecting teachers perceived readiness and have significant contribution as;manpower skill, confidence, perceived ease of use, time constraint, obsession, perceived usefulness andenthusiasm while those factors with no significant contribution are; inadequate facilities, classroom-cultureand social pressure.5.1 Implication of the Findings;The findings from this study bring a number of issues to light. • There is an obvious need for Universities to adopt a proactive approach to the issue of integrating online instruction into the job functions of our Nigeria University lecturers. The current technological deterministic approach is obviously flawed as this study has shown that by simply providing computers or internet access does not ensure that the equipment will either be used at all or used effectively by these lecturers. • Organizational facilitation especially towards the use of online instruction by lecturers is important. Their needs have to be catered for in the University especially the need to provide functional resource centers where lecturers who have problems (with information and communication equipment or software) can go and receive prompt attention whenever they run into problems with using online instruction. • Another implication of this is the need to ensure that academics are equipped with the skills to effectively, search, retrieve and evaluate materials from the internet and they can also serve as role models of effective internet use and help train peers, aside from formal training programmes that might be organized by the University.Over all, the findings indicates the need for a review of existing policies, training programmes andinfrastructural support, to help lecturers fully exploit online instruction in teaching, learning and research.6.0 Conclusions; It can be concluded from this study that the teachers have the right perception for onlineinstruction as they are aware of the perceived benefits and usefulness of online instruction in theeducational system. Time constraints, perceived usefulness, poor confidence, perceived ease of use, andlow enthusiasm are a relatively common phenomenon among lecturers in the faculty of Education,University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Therefore awareness, seminar and workshop should be provided toencourage the use of online instruction among lecturers in Nigeria Universities.ReferencesAdeya, C. N. and Oyelearan-Oyeyinka, B. 2002. The Internet in African Universities: Case studies from Kenya and Nigeria. Study carried out for the Institute of New Technologies (INTECH), United Nations University, Maastricht, The Netherlands: UNN / INTECH 100 – 109p.Agbonlahor, R. O. 2005. Utilization levels and Attitudes towards Information Technology among University lecturers. (Doctor of Philosophy) Africa Regional Centre for Information Science, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Thesis 102 – 181p.Ahmed, H. 2006 “The impact of erectness on e-Government in Developing Nations – case study of Egypt” proceedings of the 17th Information Resources Management Association International Conference on Emerging Trends and Challenges in Information Technology Management. Washington DC, USA, 21 – 24 May 2006. 9
    • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 7, 2011Ajayi, A., Olatokun, W. M. and Tiamiyu, M. A. 2001. Computer anxiety, phobia, obsession and Work stress at the University of Ibadan: part 1 – prevalence and correlates. African Journal of Libraries, Archives and Information Science, 11 (2), 167 – 183p.Auzten, B 2007. Quality of usage as a neglected aspect of information technology acceptance. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from http://wifol.bwl.uni-mannheim.de/fileadmin/files/publications/working paper 2007 Quality of usage.pdfBerge, Z. L. 1998. Conceptual frame works in Distance Training and Education. In Schreiber, D. A. and Berge, Z. L. (eds.), Distance Training: How innovative Organizations are using technology to maximize learning and meet business objectives. (Pp.13 -36). San Francisco: Jossey – Bass.Hall, B. (2000). New Study seeks to bench-mark enterprises with world-class e-learning in place. E- learning 1(1)18-29.Hall, B., and Snider, A. (2000). Glossary: The hottest buzz words in the industry.Hopkins, J. D. (1996). Information Technology and the Information Society in Europe: expectations and barriers to the Implementation of New Media in Higher Education and Research Sector. Deploy project summary Report, August 1996. Prepared for the Confederation of European Union Reactor’s Conference. Retrieved January 4, 2000 from http://www.uta.fl/FAST/JH/iteurope.htmlIhekeronye. C.P. (2010), factors affecting teachers readiness for online instruction, A case study of faculty of Education, University Ibadan. M.ED Thesis. Unpublished.Moron, J.W. and Kim, Y.G 2001. Extending the TAM for a world-wide context. Information and Management. 38, 217 – 230.Urban, T. A. and Weggen, Z. 2000. Corporate e-learning: Exploring a New Frontier Webber, C. G. et al. Journal of Software, Vol. 2 No. 1. Retrieved on 18th August, 2010 from http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/51877042809004601.on. 10