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1.perceived readiness of teachers for online instruction


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  • 1. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 1 Perceived Readiness of Teachers for Online Instruction in Nigerian Universities Nwokike Obinna (Corresponding Author) Information Resources Management, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo. Ogun State, Nigeria Tel; +234-080-36738913, Email; Ihekeronye Promise Educational Technology Department, University of Ibadan , Oyo State, Nigeria Email; Received: October 1st , 2011 Accepted: October 11th , 2011 Published: October 30th , 2011 Abstract The necessary skills and a good understanding of information and communication technologies is required for designing and implementing any appropriate policy for the use of online education in teaching, learning and research in the university. This study investigated the perception of teachers toward online instruction in faculty of Education, University of Ibadan. The findings revealed that teachers have a positive perception toward online instruction due to their perceived value of online instruction. Also factors found to affect the teachers’ perceived readiness include his facilitation skills, enthusiasm, confidence, manpower skills, perceived benefit/drawback, time constraint, obsession, ease of use and perceived usefulness while other factors such as social pressure, classroom culture and inadequate facilities had no significant effect on teachers’ perceived readiness. The study indicates that there is the need for appropriate review of information and communication policies, training programmes and infrastructural support our teachers in exploiting the use of online instruction in their faculty. Keywords; perceived readiness, teachers, online instruction, Nigeria University 1. Introduction Among Nigerian-Universities the level of information and communication technologies acquisitions is quite high as observed from massive empirical reports. But to dismay studies by Hopkins (1996) pointed out that in acquiring ICTs, universities exhibit blind faiths in technology, a sort of technological determinism seeming to suggest that merely installing a machine will lead to its efficient and rational use. This perception of technological determinism seems to prevail in the process of acquiring and providing access to ICTs in Nigeria universities. There have been reports of department and faculties that acquire computers before deciding what to do with them. Information and Communication equipment are purchased but never used and internet access have never been personally utilized by academic staff for a variety of reasons (Adagunodo & popoola, 2003 as cited in Ihekeronye 2010) This paper seeks to investigate the teachers’ perceived readiness for online instruction in the faculty of Education University of Ibadan so as to enable the university authorities to formulate policies that will enhance the process of quick adoption and use of ICTs at their disposal for online instruction. 2. Review of Literature
  • 2. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 2 A survey of universities by Mbawonku (1987), in Ihekeronye (2010) investigated the determinants of use and non use of instructional media by lecturers in two selected Nigeria universities and found a significance relationship between discipline and use of instructional media (including computer assisted instruction CAI) and positive correlation between perception and use of media. She, however, found no significant relationship between academic status and use of media. In another study Klowu (1997) examined the use of computerized information system in Nigerian university and research institute libraries. Results from the study revealed that librarians were highly positive in their attitudes towards the use of computers. The gender, age, length of service and type of library were not significantly related to the attitudes of librarians towards computers. Frequency of use of computer and previous training experience in the use of computers were however significantly related to positive attitudes towards computers. In addition, frequency of use of computers has no significant relationship with place of training as librarians, type of library where they worked, and subject background of the librarians. (Ihekeronye 2010) A similar study by Jumba (2000) found no relationship between attitudes towards online education by Scientists in six Nigerian agricultural research institutions and the value they derives from ICTs use. They also found no significant relationship between accessibility to ICTs and research productivity of the Scientists. However, there was a significant association between the value derived from frequency of ICTs use and research experience of respondents in his study. A University of Ibadan-based study investigated prevalence and correlation of computer anxiety, phobia, obsession and work stress among students and staff of the University of Ibadan. Among their findings, they reported an inverse correlation of computing experience with information anxiety, computer phobia and obsessive computing, they also found that discipline, occupation and self-esteem were significant factor for explaining computer experience while age, locus of control and personality types was not (Tiamiyu, Ajayi and Olatokun, 2002). Ehikhamenor, (2001) investigated the use and non-use of internet facilities by scientists in ten Nigerian Universities and found 4.4% of the scientists had computers at their disposal while 50.4% had access to, and were using the internet. His study attributed non-use of the internet to problems of accessibility, ease of use and cost. He also reported that the university in which a scientist worked might have had the greatest effect among the background factors that influenced the data in his study. In addition, he found significant different in internet use by scientists in different age groups, academic ranks, and disciplines. (Ihekeronye, 2010) In another university of Ibadan-based study, Sangowusi (2003) investigated the impact of information and communication technologies on scholarly publications of scientists of university of Ibadan. He found that even through 76% of the lecturers were computer literate and 33.5% have been using ICTs for over five years, only 32.8% owned a personal computer. He also found that ICTs had made very little impact on the productivity of scientist, especially those in the rank of professor. He concluded that professors in his study seemed to be overwhelmed by teaching and administrative chores which allowed them very little time for research (and by implication, for using ICT). (Ihekeronye, 2010) In an international study sponsored by the United Nations, Adeya and Oyeyinka (2002) compared internet use by academics in four Nigerians and six Kenyan Universities with a view to understanding the dynamics of ICT use in academic research, teaching and information dissemination. They found that 87.7% of the Nigerian respondents in their study used computers while the figure for the Kenyan respondents was 98.2%. In addition, they found that computer use among Nigerian University academics had only become rampant in the last five years while most respondents from Kenyan Universities had been using computers for between five and ten years. Also, more Kenyan (96.9%) than Nigerians (55.9%) received formal training in the use of computers and the internet. Among the two study groups, word-processing was more widely used computer application followed by e- mail. Kenyan University academics also used computers for a wider variety of tasks than their Nigerian counterparts, use of, and access to the internet also differed among the two groups. Kenyans tended to
  • 3. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 3 access the internet more from their offices while Nigerians accessed the internet more from either other access points within their universities or from cyber cafés. In addition, unlike the Nigerians, none of the Kenyans respondents accessed the internet from their homes or from friends/colleagues’ places. The study concluded that even though academics in the two universities had access to the cluster of technologies that make up the internet, there were differences in the speed, ease and quality of access to the internet. Constraints to internet use also varies, Cost was the highest constraints to the Nigerians while availability of affordable internet connection was the highest constraints to the Kenyans. Due to the focus and comparative nature of Adeya and Oyeyinka (2002) study, only four Nigerian universities, all from the south-western part of the countries were sampled; this creates a knowledge gap as to what obtains among academics in universities in other parts of Nigeria. Their research also did not investigate perception (as an attitude) as a factor that can affect adoption and use of ICT by academics. Other existing studies of ICT use in Nigerian Universities are not detailed enough to enable one make general conclusions about factors that significantly influence ICT adoption and use by individuals. For example, a study by Agbonlahor (2005) revealed that (Ogunleye, 1997; Ojo-Igbinoba, 1997; Ehikhamenor, 1993; Idowu Mabawonku, 1999; Oduwole, 2000) the use of ICTs in Nigerian University libraries explores the potentials of ICTs for the development of Nigerian universities and their libraries. Even though these studies found the level of ICTs use to be quite low, there were no attempt at finding out individual-level factors that could account for the level of ICT use and rate of adoption in the University libraries. 2.1 Distance Education and Online Education: With the advent of the information communication revolution fuelled by advances in computer, networking technologies and World Wide Web, the world is witnessing an expansion in distance education. As seen in the provision of a broad range of options for its implementation. Information revolution, brought about by the convergence of telecommunication and computer technologies has enabled academics institution in several parts of the world to provide a flexible and open learning environment for students, via online distance learning. It has given rise to concepts such as Electronic University and Virtual University, which are emerging at a fast space. This indicates that distance learning as a means of providing higher education will continue to grow. In view of this trend, online education via the web (e-learning) as a means of approaching distance learning in Nigeria must not be overlooked, since it is a cost –effective and quick method of communication between learners and the teachers. (Ahmed, 2006). Online training was classified as an all encompassing term that refers to training done with a computer over a network, including an Organization’s intranet, local area network and the internet (Autzen, 2007). He mentioned that online training is also known as net-based training. Moron & Kim (2001) argued that online learning constitutes just one part of online instruction/education and describes learning via internet, intranet and extranet. They added that levels of sophistication in online learning vary. It can extend from a basic online learning program that includes text and graphics of the course, exercises, testing and record keeping, such as test scores and book marks to a sophisticated online learning program. Sophistication would include animations, simulations, audio and video sequences peer and expert discussion groups, online mentoring, links to materials on corporate intranet or the web, and communications with corporate education records. Like Hubona & Geitz, (1997), Autzen (2007) purported that online learning is any technology-based learning and added that this usually implies linkage to a computer. Given the broad definition of online instruction, it would seem safe to assume that web-based training is online instruction. Hall (1997) defined web-based training as instruction that is delivered over the internet or over a company’s intranet. Accessibility of this training, related Hall is through the use of a web-browser such as Netscape Navigator. Hall and Snider (2008) define e-learning as the process of learning via computers over the internet and intranets. Hall and Snider extended that e-leaning is also referred to as web-based training, online training, distributed learning or technology for learning. Distance learning, was not included in the e-learning definitions and was defined as its own entity as a learning
  • 4. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 4 process meeting three criteria: a geographical distance separates communication between the trainer and participant; the communication is two way and interactive and some form of technology is used to facilitates the learning process. Hall (2000) contends that e-learning will take the form of complete courses, access to content for just-in-time” learning, access to components and services, and the separation of “courses” to acquire and test knowledge Vs. content as an immediate, applicable resource to resolve an immediate, perhaps, one time only problem. Learning is and will continue to be a lifelong process, that could be accessed anywhere at any time to meet a specific need or want. Hall added that more links to real time data and research would become readily available. Thus, web-based training, online learning, e-learning, online instruction, distributed learning, interest-based learning and net-based learning all speak of the same thing (Hall and Snider, 2000; Urban and Weggen, 2000). Similar also to e-learning and it related terms are technology-based learning (Urban and Weggen 2000). Urban and Weggen shared that e-learning covers a wide set of applications and processes, including computer-based learning, web-based leaning, virtual classrooms, digital collaborations. For the purpose of their report, they further customized their definition to the delivery of content via all electronic media, including the internet, intranet, extranets, satellite broadcast, audio/video tape, interactive TV and CD-ROM. They warned, however, that e-learning is defined more narrowly than distance learning, which would including text-based learning and courses conducted via written correspondence. Like Hall and Snider 2000), Urban and Weggen (2000) have set apart distance learning and e-learning in their glossaries, making in their glossaries however, online education inclusive and synonymous to all computer-related applications, tools and processes that have been strategically aligned to value-added learning and teaching processes. Berge (1998) explained the difference between distance education and distance learning. Distance education was seen as the formal process of distance learning, with information being broad in scope for example, college courses. While, distance learning was seen as the acquisition of knowledge and skills through mediated information and instruction, encompassing all technologies and other forms of learning at a distance. This may be why most educational institutions used the term distance education. Institutional definition of distance education which the main tenets: training offered to learners who are in a different location than the source or provider of instruction. Berge (1998) went on to say that the technologies used in distance learning, the structure of a course or program, and the degree of supervision for a distance learning course can be varied to meet a particular’s group’s needs or interests. Reverting to Halls (2000) online education in all-inclusive form, distance learning planned interactive courses, as the acquisition of knowledge and skills at a distance through various technological mediums would seem to be one of online education possible disguises. Interestingly Urban and Weggen (2000) saw e-learning as a subset of online learning. With this review of terms, ‘Subset’ does not appear to be the most likely word to describe the relationship among the words and their forms. The definitions show a great depth of interdependence among themselves. While one scholar narrowly defines a term, another could give it the all encompassing power. This communicates that e-learning, if given the all encompassing form, can be the larger circle of which all other terms would be overlapping at different times and extents given their used intention. Another rationale is that “just-in-time” learning is a major advantage of e-learning but not of distance learning. Distance learning purports planned courses or planned experiences. E-learning does not only value planned learning but also recognizes the value of the unplanned and the self directedness of the learner to maximize incidental learning to improve performance. Online instruction is a continuum from basic use of technology in or around the conventional physical classroom (e.g. use of a course management system to distribute materials and track grades) to wholly online delivery. Online instruction is the art of using internet; computer and other technologies to enhance teaching process or learning process. Online technologies such as computer and the internet can be used creatively for collaborative learning at anytime and anywhere. It enables sharing of knowledge, lesson plan, research project and notes. Apart from teachers and students, it also involves parents, field experts, international students, teachers and society via the internet, anytime and anywhere. New technologies
  • 5. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 5 associated with e-learning have created opportunities and threats to the institutional structure of higher education, the learning patterns of individual and learning certification systems. E-learning or online instruction is offering the potential for more accessible, flexible and cost-efficient (and even superior) higher education. Online instruction is viewed by some as central to fashioning higher education systems that are fit- for-purpose in the 21st century. A negative view (e-learning as threat) pictures e-learning as unproven, disrupting legitimate public control of higher education (e.g. enabling students in one country to take provision from another and undermining national quality assurance) and is incapable of replicating the disciplinary breath and socialization of “traditional” Higher Education. Apart from these threats, there are others affecting online instruction. Factors investigated in this study included inadequate facilities, classroom-culture, social pressure manpower skill, confidence, perceived ease of use, time constraint, obsession, perceived usefulness and enthusiasm. 2.2 Limitation; This study did not explore actual online teaching and learning practices. Responses were related to recent issues that may or may not be sustainable. In addition, we did not survey students for their perceptions of online learning trends and possibilities. 3.0 Method This study adopted an ex-post-facto survey design covering a cross-section of teachers in all the departments of faculty of Education, University of Ibadan. Data collected were subjected to factor analysis; which is a statistical approach that can be used to analyze interrelationship among a large number of variables and to explain these variables in term of their common underlying dimension (factors). 4.0 Results 4.1 Research Question One What perceived values are associated with teachers’ use of online Instruction? Table: Teachers Perceived Values for Use of online instruction S/N Statement SD D SLDA SLA A SA Mean Std.D 1. I believe the computer can be useful tool for teaching & learning 7 - - - 9 76 (7.6) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (9.8) (82.6) 4.52 1.34 2. I don’t think there is need for me to explore any concept through computer and internet 60 32 - - - - (62.5) (34.8) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 0.35 0.48
  • 6. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 6 Table shows that the lecturers strongly agree that they believe the computer can be useful tool for teaching and learning ( X =4.53). They also strongly disagree that they do not think there is need for them to explore any concept through the computer and internet ( X = 0.35). From these, it can be inferred that the teachers perceived values are: (i) computers are useful tools for teaching and learning, (ii) There is need for them to explore concepts through computer and internet. 4.2 Research Question Two What is the influence of prior computer use experience on teacher in the current online instruction usage? Table: Summary of T-test Statistics shows Differences between those with prior knowledge in computer and those that do not have prior knowledge in Computer compare to their level of computer usage. Variable (Computer usage) N Mean Standard Deviation T Degree of Freedom Sig/P Remark Those without Not Significant Prior knowledge of computer 7 21.0 4.8.6 -1.662 89 .100 Those with prior Knowledge of computer 84 26.3 8.27 Table shows that there is no significant difference between lecturers with prior knowledge and those without computer experience in their level of computer usage. (t=-1.662); df = 89; p > 0.05. This implies that prior knowledge has no significant influence on the computer usage of lecturers or prior computer experience of teachers has no significant influence on their online instruction usage. 4.3 Research Question Three What is the perceived influence of Organizational culture toward online instruction usage? Table: Perceived influence of Organizational culture towards Online Instruction Usage. S/N Statement SD D SLDA SLA A SA Mean Std.D 1. Educational culture in the faculty is ready for online instruction 10 13 10 5 46 8 (10.6) (14.1) (10.7) (5.4) (50.0) (8.7) 2.96 1.59 2. Online instruction can be easily implemented in my department - 9 - 16 35 22 (0.0) (9.8) (0.0) (17.4) (38.0) (23.9) 3.55 1.24 3. The University Authority - 7 - 29 41 15
  • 7. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 7 plays an important role in support of the use of online instruction (0.0) (7.6) (0.0) (31.5) (44.6) (16.3) 3.62 1.01 4. There are no technical supports for teacher to use online instruction in the faculty 14 7 6 9 33 23 (15.2) (7.6) (6.5) (9.8) (35.9) (25.0) 3.18 1.76 Table shows that the lecturers slightly agreed that the culture in the faculty is ready for online instruction ( X =2.96); they also agreed that the online instruction can be easily implemented in the department. ( X =3.35); they agreed that the University Authority plays an important role in support of the use of online instruction. ( X =3.62) and slightly agreed that there are no technical supports for teacher to use online instruction in the Faculty ( X = 3.18). This shows that (i) Online instruction is welcomed in the departments (ii) adequate support of the University Authority for online instruction (iv) Availability of Technical supports for teacher to use online instruction. 4.4 Research Question four What is the perceived benefit/drawback of using online instruction for teaching/ learning and research among teachers? 4.4.1 Table: The Perceived Benefit of Using Online Instruction S/N Statement SD D SLDA SLA A SA Mean Std.D 1. Online instruction has potential of practicing team work and sharing knowledge - 7 - - 61 24 (0.0) (7.6) (6.0) (0.0) (66.3) (26.1) 4.03 0.98 2. Online instruction is able to promote the acquisition of skills (e.g. communication skills, computer skill, problem solving skill etc) 7 - - - 54 31 (7.6) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (58.7) (33.7) 4.03 1.25 Table shows that the lecturers agreed that online instruction has potential of practicing team work and sharing knowledge ( X = 4.03); they also agreed that online instruction is able to promote the acquisition of skills ( X = 4.03). This implies that the perceived benefits are: (i) The potentials of practicing teamwork and sharing knowledge (ii) promoting the acquisition of skill (e.g. communication skills, computer skill and problem solving skills). 4.4.2 Table: The Perceived drawbacks of using online instruction for teaching & learning. S/N Statement SD D SLDA SLA A SA Mean SLD 1. There are insufficient number of computers in my department for teaching and learning 5 3 7 12 42 23 (5.4) (3.3) (7.6) (13.0) (45.7) (25.0) 3.65 1.32 2. There is insufficient internet access in my department for teaching and learning 7 - - 3 36 46 (7.6) (0.0) (0.0) (3.3) (39.1) (50.0) 41.6 1.32
  • 8. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 8 Table shows that the lecturers agreed that there are insufficient number of computer in their departments for teaching and learning ( X = 3.65). They also agreed that there is insufficient internet access in their departments for teaching and learning. This implies that the perceived drawbacks for using online instruction in Faculty of Education, University of Ibadan are: (i) insufficient number of computer for teaching and learning in the departments (ii) Insufficient internet access in the department. 4.5 Research Question five Which of the following factors affect the perceived readiness of teachers for online instruction? enthusiasm, classroom culture, social pressure perceived usefulness, confidence, time constraints obsession, ease of use, inadequate facilities and manpower skills. Table: Factors affecting perceived readiness of teachers for online instructions. Coefficients Model Non-standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients Beta T Position Sign. Β Std.err or Constants -2.958 .620 - -4.769 .000 Enthusiasm 1.236 .120 .352 10.316 3rd .000 Significant Classroom culture -6.22E-02 .164 -0.052 -0.380 8th .705 Social pressure -0.122 0.104 -0.32 -1.182 9th .241 Perceived usefulness .168 .068 .072 2.458 5th .016 Significant Confidence -338 .084 -.206 -4.034 4th .000 Significant Time constraint .227 .106 .067 2.152 6th .034 Significant Obsession -.162 .065 -.062 -2.478 7th .015 Significant Ease of use 1.623 .306 .414 5.299 2nd .000 Significant Inadequate facilities -4.34E.02 .069 -.020 -.628 10th .532 Manpower skills 772 .149 .573 5.185 1st .000 Significant The table above shows that manpower skills, has the highest significant contribution (β=0.573; t = 5.185; p <0.05); followed by ease of use (β=0.414; t=5.299; p <0.05); followed by enthusiasm (β=0.352; t = 10.316; p <0.05); followed by confidence (β= -0.206; t = -4.034; p <0.05); followed by perceived usefulness (β=0.072; t = 2.458; p <0.05); followed by obsession (β=-0.062; t=-2.478; p<0.05). Other i.e., classroom culture, social pressure and inadequate facilities have no significant contribution. 5.0 Findings;
  • 9. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 9 The findings show that the following factors affects the perceived readiness of teachers for online instruction: Enthusiasm, Manpower skills, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use obsession, confidence, time constraint, classroom culture social pressure, inadequate facilities. It also shows factors affecting teachers perceived readiness and have significant contribution as; manpower skill, confidence, perceived ease of use, time constraint, obsession, perceived usefulness and enthusiasm while those factors with no significant contribution are; inadequate facilities, classroom-culture and social pressure. 5.1 Implication of the Findings; The findings from this study bring a number of issues to light. • There is an obvious need for Universities to adopt a proactive approach to the issue of integrating online instruction into the job functions of our Nigeria University lecturers. The current technological deterministic approach is obviously flawed as this study has shown that by simply providing computers or internet access does not ensure that the equipment will either be used at all or used effectively by these lecturers. • Organizational facilitation especially towards the use of online instruction by lecturers is important. Their needs have to be catered for in the University especially the need to provide functional resource centers where lecturers who have problems (with information and communication equipment or software) can go and receive prompt attention whenever they run into problems with using online instruction. • Another implication of this is the need to ensure that academics are equipped with the skills to effectively, search, retrieve and evaluate materials from the internet and they can also serve as role models of effective internet use and help train peers, aside from formal training programmes that might be organized by the University. Over all, the findings indicates the need for a review of existing policies, training programmes and infrastructural support, to help lecturers fully exploit online instruction in teaching, learning and research. 6.0 Conclusions; It can be concluded from this study that the teachers have the right perception for online instruction as they are aware of the perceived benefits and usefulness of online instruction in the educational system. Time constraints, perceived usefulness, poor confidence, perceived ease of use, and low enthusiasm are a relatively common phenomenon among lecturers in the faculty of Education, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Therefore awareness, seminar and workshop should be provided to encourage the use of online instruction among lecturers in Nigeria Universities. References Adeya, C. N. and Oyelearan-Oyeyinka, B. 2002. The Internet in African Universities: Case studies from Kenya and Nigeria. Study carried out for the Institute of New Technologies (INTECH), United Nations University, Maastricht, The Netherlands: UNN / INTECH 100 – 109p. Agbonlahor, R. O. 2005. Utilization levels and Attitudes towards Information Technology among University lecturers. (Doctor of Philosophy) Africa Regional Centre for Information Science, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Thesis 102 – 181p. Ahmed, H. 2006 “The impact of erectness on e-Government in Developing Nations – case study of Egypt” proceedings of the 17th Information Resources Management Association International Conference on Emerging Trends and Challenges in Information Technology Management. Washington DC, USA, 21 – 24 May 2006.
  • 10. Journal of Education and Practice ISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online) Vol 2, No 7, 2011 10 Ajayi, A., Olatokun, W. M. and Tiamiyu, M. A. 2001. Computer anxiety, phobia, obsession and Work stress at the University of Ibadan: part 1 – prevalence and correlates. African Journal of Libraries, Archives and Information Science, 11 (2), 167 – 183p. Auzten, B 2007. Quality of usage as a neglected aspect of information technology acceptance. Retrieved May 30, 2010 from paper 2007 Quality of usage.pdf Berge, Z. L. 1998. Conceptual frame works in Distance Training and Education. In Schreiber, D. A. and Berge, Z. L. (eds.), Distance Training: How innovative Organizations are using technology to maximize learning and meet business objectives. (Pp.13 -36). San Francisco: Jossey – Bass. Hall, B. (2000). New Study seeks to bench-mark enterprises with world-class e-learning in place. E- learning 1(1)18-29. Hall, B., and Snider, A. (2000). Glossary: The hottest buzz words in the industry. Hopkins, J. D. (1996). Information Technology and the Information Society in Europe: expectations and barriers to the Implementation of New Media in Higher Education and Research Sector. Deploy project summary Report, August 1996. Prepared for the Confederation of European Union Reactor’s Conference. Retrieved January 4, 2000 from http://www.uta.fl/FAST/JH/iteurope.html Ihekeronye. C.P. (2010), factors affecting teachers readiness for online instruction, A case study of faculty of Education, University Ibadan. M.ED Thesis. Unpublished. Moron, J.W. and Kim, Y.G 2001. Extending the TAM for a world-wide context. Information and Management. 38, 217 – 230. Urban, T. A. and Weggen, Z. 2000. Corporate e-learning: Exploring a New Frontier Webber, C. G. et al. Journal of Software, Vol. 2 No. 1. Retrieved on 18th August, 2010 from