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  • 1. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 1 | P a g e www.iiste.org Studying Efficacy of Organizational and Conceptual Factors on Manager’s Decision Amalendu Bhunia Reader, Department of Commerce Fakir Chand College, Diamond Harbour and IGNOU, Kolkata Chapter, India South 24-Parganas – 743331 West Bengal, India bhunia.amalendu@gmail.com Received: 2011-10-23 Accepted: 2011-10-29 Published:2011-11-04 Abstract The purpose of the present research is to investigate the impact of organizational factors on the styles of manager’s decision makings and the difference between the perception of managers and employees of the styles used by managers in India. On this basis, 100 manager and 500 employees has been chosen as statistical sample. The analytical model of this study is based on General Decision Making Style by Scott and Bruce. Questionnaire validity, content validity and compatibility based on 10 experts and professors as well as the experimental implementation of the questionnaire between 20 managers and 100 employees and also analyzing exploratory factor for both questionnaires were checked. According to the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test results have confirmed the normal distribution of the data thus confirmed chi-square test, one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and the two samples T of Friedman were used. Keywords: General decision-making style, organization’s size, position of manager, perception difference, government organizations 1. Introduction Decision making in fact is the most difficult practice and sometimes the most dangerous work every manager should do. A manager by an incorrect decision may cause irreparable damage to the body of his or her organization (Atayi, 2010). Environmental changes and shifts results in that organizations look at their managers as an important factor to overcome alterations, demands and environmental challenges ahead. In such circumstances, managers need endless skills and capabilities (Gholi pour, 2008). Decisions are taken along with achieving goals and by considering the available resources. Decisions determine the kind of goals and the way to achieve them. Therefore decision making is a mechanism which encompasses all the activities of the organization, and indeed affects all members of the organization as an individual or as a member of the group. Organization collapsed without any mechanism to decide and to set its own target
  • 2. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 2 | P a g e www.iiste.org individuals who are looking for (Moorhead and Griffin, 2007). Stephen P Robbins thinks of decision as something present and relevant in all tasks. According to Herbert Simon's decision means management and management means decisions for efficient use of energy and resources of an organization, which is essential for the manager. Kountz said the existence of plan; program and policies depend on the existence of the decisions. Studying of decision making processes is not a new topic. In recent years, numerous studies in various fields and surrounding areas took place about decisions making as a subject that results in offering several classifications so far in relation to style and decision-making models which have been presented by experts (Olivera, 2007). Each of these classifications according to which categories of individual, organizational and environmental factors are important in the kind of reaction and behavior on how people face decision making situations are different from one another (Karls et al, 2003). Corporate managers considering various influential factors such as their personal details and their workplace organizational structure and cultural backgrounds of the environment use different decision making methods (Mortazavi, 2000). Hafstead (1980) believes the continuing use of a method of decision making to a considerable degree depends on the subordinates. According to Hafstead classification from the field of culture, managers practicing in the collectivist culture use different decision making methods in comparison to individualist culture. According to another study, four important environmental pressure factors, interaction with other members of the organization, responsibility requirements and characteristic peculiarities is effective in selecting the decision making method (Comer and Becker) decide how to respond to these four determining factors of the style by his decisions making. (Gholi Pour, 2008). Scott and Bruce paid great attention in his studies about decision-making styles of individuals and factors affecting its internal characteristics and individual differences of the people. On this basis they introduced five styles of decision making as general decision making styles. These five styles are: rational decision-making styles, decision making style of intuition, dependent decision making style, instantaneous decision-making style and avoidance style of decision making (Hadyzadh Moghaddam 2009). Its aim is to find checking the effect of organizational factors like (size, position in the organizational hierarchy) and the difference of perception between staff and managers about decision making. 2. Review of Related Literatures On the subject of this study, the definition of decision making, decision making styles and empirical studies of decision making are described as follows: 2.1 Decision making Harrison (1987) defines decision making in this way: ((.... a moment in a continuous process of evaluation options to achieve the goal of different expectations about how certain actions to decision makers choose the option that is highly likely to achieve the goal one seeks)) (Roshandel 2009). Prediction, evaluation and comparing the outcome of solutions available and choosing the available solution for certain to be able to reach an optimal outcome is called decision (Atayi 2010). Decision making is a process which according to that a specific way of practicing for problem solving is chosen (Astuner, 1982). Munday assign decision-making process to find various aspects, evaluate and select one among them. This process is obvious in all responsibilities of the manager and helps him in doing all those tasks. (Gholi Poor, 2008). 2.2 Decision making Style
  • 3. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 3 | P a g e www.iiste.org Decision making Style has been defined as a habitual pattern that people use when deciding (Driver, 1971) or is called special way of individuals to receive and respond to the decision-making tasks (Harn, 1979). Drive, Bursiue and Mansakar (1990) have noted that the style of decision-making is defined by the amount of information collected and the number of other solutions when the decision is considered. Although others suggest that it is called the differences that people collect data (Hunt, Criztokhiat, Mindel, Viusery, 1989, Mackenny and Kane, 1974, 1983 Bruce and Scott 1995). In other words, each individual decision-making style approach and procedure shows his personality and his reaction to the decision task (Thunholm, 2003). Style of decision-making behavior from a perceptional point of view indicate the kind of behavior and the way people encounter situations when the decision is made (Spicer and Smith, 2005). 2.3 Rational Decision Making Style Rational decision-making style conceptually represents a decision to follow a completely logical process when it is going to be made. According to rational style objectives are defined clearly, all possible solutions are selected according to identified goals and finally the best solution is implemented. (Singh, Greenhouse 1, 2004). 2.4 Intuitive Decision Making Style Intuitive decision-making style from a perceptual point of view shows the individual’s trust to his awareness and internal intuition when deciding. Managers of the intuitive style when deciding without needing rational reasons to be a just solution chosen, based on insights into consciousness and instincts chose a solution that seems to fit.(Falloup and et al, 2006). 2.5 Dependent Decision Making Style Dependence decision making style from a conceptual point of view represents the mere reliance of the decision maker to help and guidance from others when faced with decision situations. People, who enjoy this style due to weakness in consciousness and inability to receive information from their environment, are totally dependent upon others while taking decisions. (Singh and Greenhouse, 2004) 2.6 Instantaneous Decision making Style Instantaneous decision making style conceptually represent decisions as fast and short as possible and instantly when facing decision situations. 2.7 Avoidance Decision Making Style Avoidance decision making style from a conceptual point of view means dodge any person's decision to adopt when faced with decision situations. In other words people who have this style when confronted with issues and topics that require decisions on their behalf delay the decision as far as possible (Spicer and Smith, 2005). 2.8 Difference between managers and staff perceptions of the style used by the manager It means the existing level of disagreements about the usage of general decision making styles among employees and managers. Style in terms of operational decisions is a score that a person gets on the questionnaire of decision making style. Different perceptions of managers and staff in the style manager use in the organization: The difference from the operational point of view would be the amount of disagreement between two questionnaire of management and staff. 3. Methodology This study made use of a quantitative research approach, and from the viewpoint of relationship between the
  • 4. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 4 | P a g e www.iiste.org variables (dependent and independent variables) is a type of correlation research. 3.1 Population and Sample The population for this study includes all employees and managers in the counties, governorships and in the general-governor of India in the years 2010.Which according to 2010 statistics is 920 people among which 352 are selected including 60 managers and 290 employees which have been classified through a random sampling method with a simple proportional allocation. 3.2 Research Instrument The measuring instrument used was a structured questionnaire which was developed and validated by Bruce and Scott (1995); Hadyzadeh and Tehrani(2008) Of course with the help of this questionnaire the content validity were also approved by professors and managers too where for the structural validity of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and the KMO index was used. The KMO value equals 0.852 and the Bartlett test, even at a meaningful level of 0.99% (Sig = 0.000) is rejected. Note that the variances are equal to 55.21 and specific values of each factor were greater than one, we conclude that the credibility factor of this variable is appropriate. 3.3 Reliability Reliability of questionnaires to measure the Cronbach's alpha was calculated that 0.817 of the reliability of Cronbach's alpha showed good general decision-making style questionnaire. Regarding the use of Kolmogorov – Smirnov test the normality of data distribution was confirmed and the appropriate tests were used as follows. Chi-square test is used to check for the study of relationship status in decision making style. MANOVA or multivariate one-sided is used to investigate the relationship between style of decision-making managers and size of organization. The two sample T test was used to check for homogenization of styles used by managers and the style diagnosed used by the staff for managers. Friedman test was used for showing the ranking of decision-making from the perspective of managers and employees and Pearson correlation test was used to determine correlation between the styles used by managers. Using two software SPSS 18 and LISREL 8.5 analysis was developed and answers were codified with Likert’s range of five options. The collections of questions are offered in two questionnaires. The first questionnaire for managers and officials, and the second questionnaire for employees and manager’s assistant. Each questionnaire included two set of questions, the first part of the questions related to demographic data of the respondent and the second Part of the questionnaire to measure decision-making styles of managers and directors from the perspective of staff which includes 25 questions. 5 of 25 questions are related to the rational style, 5 to intuitive style, 5 to dependent style, 5 to instant style and 5 to avoidance style. 3.4 Validity When assessing validity, researchers determines whether a measure used in the study actually does measure what the researchers in tends in to measure. As already indicated, the measurement instrument developed by Bruce and Scott (1995); Hadyzadeh and Tehrani (2008) was used in this study. The instrument was considered valid for the purpose of the present study. 3.5 Research framework Research framework developed in this study has used the theoretical principles which have been taken from the ideas and opinions of experts, scholars and scientists in management science. In designing variables and their dimensions we used Tanenbaum and Schmitt, path - goal theory, Heller theory, Fiedler leadership
  • 5. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 5 | P a g e www.iiste.org contingency theory and also to evaluate them in three stages by a number of university professors and a number of senior managers. Dependent variables from general decision making styles that were introduced by Bruce and Scott (1995) were used because of completeness and relative comprehensiveness to the classification with highest usage of in internal and external research was. Theories that have been mentioned above have been used as following in choosing the independent variables. From Tanenbaum and Schmidt theory, largeness and smallness (the size of the organization), nature of organizational tasks (institutional status and hierarchy) and the theory of perception were used. From the path-goal theory (House and Mitchell) in order to determine the environmental variables such as position in the hierarchy, variable and size like the perception of the style used for this theory. This theory has been used in this context that differences in decision-making skills exists among managers and subordinates (employees). Also under this theory, the leader and director’s responsibility is to match his actions to coup with the contingency situations. But with using these cases, we recognize the importance of views and perceptions of employees and managers with decision-making styles. we choose it as the independent variable and from the theory of Heller the position of manager as variable is emphasized. Because, according to Heller theory the importance of decision for the organization is crucial for choosing the style and this related to the decision maker and his position. According to Heller another effective cases for choosing the style is the gaps in the hierarchy which emphasis manager’s position. Heller mentions span of control as another important factor in choosing decision making style (Heler, 1998). This will confirm the size and position variable because the position in the hierarchy and the size and position as a place that can monitor more or Less effectively (In the general-governor example according to the size and position success of surveillance area is larger than the county governor and the governor's staff and area monitoring is more than the county administrator. According to Heller who conceded that the time and place specific requirements is very important in selecting the style of decision making procedure and also the nature of the tasks (Project and Association Managers) has been noticed again and place has been emphasized. 3.6 Research Hypotheses Hypothesis I H0: There is relationship between organizational factors and management decision-making styles. H1: There is relationship between the position of managers in organizational hierarchy and decision making styles. Hypothesis II H0: There is relationship between organization size and the style of decision making. H1: There is difference between managers and staff perceptions of decision-making styles 4. Empirical Results According to chi-square test (Table 1) statistics and P-value = 0.015 which α = 0.05 is smaller, assumption of zero meaning the independent position of managers and the tendency the type of decision making styles rejected and meaningful correlation between these two will be accepted. Considering the above table it is observed that most managers who are employed in the Governor-General (nearly 50 percent) use rational style. It is seen that the dominant style in the governor's management style used is intuitive. In the county it
  • 6. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 6 | P a g e www.iiste.org is also observed that the dominant style used by managers is dependent style Links to organization size Table-1: Adaptive table and chi-square test to evaluate relationship of the position of managers and decision-making style TotalCountyGovernorGovernor-GeneralManager’s Position Decision making Style 41.7202050.0Rational 36.72553.644.1Intuitive 21.75016.45.9Dependent 100100200200Sum 12.327 df = 4 P =0.017 Chi-Square results TotalCountyGovernorGovernor-GeneralManager’s Position Decision making Style 41.7202050.0Rational 36.72553.644.1Intuitive 21.75016.45.9Dependent 100100200200Sum 12.327 df = 4 P =0.017 Chi-Square results
  • 7. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 7 | P a g e www.iiste.org Table-2: Descriptive Statistics; Effect of Size of Organization on Decision Making Styles Table 2 indicates descriptive statistics based on the organization. It can be seen for each style based on organizations means are not equal and a difference between them is observed. According to Table 2 it can be seen that the rational style scores is greater for Governor-General, therefore it is said that Governor-general Managers have greater tendency to use a rational style. For intuitive style mean scores is greater for governor office, consequently it is said that governor managers have greater tendency to use intuitive style. For dependent style mean scores for the county is larger, therefore it is said that county managers have greater tendency to use the dependent style. For two style of avoidant and instantaneous we can’t say which organizations uses this kind of style more because approximately they have equal means. Table 3 show the homogeneity of variance tests indicated that homogeneity of variance test here will be accepted with regard to Sig = 0.142. Most often this test is rejected, in which the statistical population is non-normal; but data in this study is normal. Two indexes of Pillai's Trace and Wilks' Lambda are used to show this matter that weather the mean for the group offered are equal or not. Most social science studies use Wilks' Lambda index. The Pillai's Trace is also a good substitute for this. Organization Mean Standard Deviation Intuitive Governor-General 2.71 0.64 Governor 3.30 0.63 County 2.58 0.70 Total Sum 2.86 0.68 Dependency Governor-General 2.84 0.69 Governor 2.93 0.83 County 3.55 0.69 Total Sum 3.53 0.71 Rational Governor-General 3.46 0.76 Governor 2.24 0.98 County 2.11 0.94 Total Sum 2.26 0.84 Instant Governor-General 2.29 1.08 Governor 2.31 1.02 County 2.17 0.72 Total Sum 2.38 1.00 Avoidant Governor-General 1.65 0.77 Governor 1.76 1.03 County 1.50 0.52 Total Sum 1.67 0.80
  • 8. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 8 | P a g e www.iiste.org Table-3: Homogeneous variance test 53.769Box's M 1.490F 30df1 3658.630df2 .142Sig Table-4: Multivariate analysis of one way variance to evaluate the relationship between the kind of management decisions style and size of organization In this section it can be seen that the Wilks' Lambda is equal to 1.802 and Sig = 0.006 showing that this test is statistically meaningful. (F (10, 106) = 7.24, P <0.05) shows that the hypothesis of equality between the average of three organizations for the styles used by managers can be rejected and it can be shown that in any organization of which style is used more. Also according to the last column of Table 4 (the relationship between two factors) can be seen this ratio is equal to 0.405 which show a good relationship between organization size and type of style management use. Hypothesis II: There is difference between managers and employees perception in the organization decision-making styles. To investigate this hypothesis, we first check it completely to decide if there is difference between manager’s and the style of its managers told by the employees that there is a difference or not? If the difference was meaningful we would use Friedman test and the gaps would be identified. If in this test α = 0.05 P-value < the assumption of equal means is rejected and the assumption of existing differences is accepted. Coefficients Coefficients F Valence Degree Sig. Coefficient of relationship between two factors Consta nt Amoun t Pillai's Trace .987 811.083a 5.000 .000 .987 Wilks' Lambda .013 811.083a 5.000 .000 .987 Age Pillai's Trace 1.202 8.212 10.000 .002 .401 Wilks' Lambda 1.802 7.238a 10.000 .006 .405
  • 9. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 9 | P a g e www.iiste.org Table-5: Two sample T test to evaluate homogeneity of style used by managers and the style diagnosed by the employees for the managers According to Table 5 and test results it can be seen that according to values for t = 3.32 and P-value = 0.001 and the value of the mean difference equaled to 0.21 the result is a meaningful difference between the style used by managers and the type style used by Managers from employees viewpoint. As it is observed, the style managers have offered about their decisions is different from the employees recognize for their managers. To show this difference it was acted as follows: Table-6: Friedman test ratings of decision-making styles from the viewpoint of managers and employees Table-7: Friedman test as a meaningful one on prioritizing the style used by managers and the style used by managers through employee’s viewpoint p-value T Valence Degree Mean differences and confidence interval Standard Deviation Mean Number Group Title 0.001 3.32 384 .21, (.086 , 0.34) .69786 3.24 100 Managers Homogeneity of Style used by managers and the distinguished style used by Employees for managers .38379 3.03 500 Employees Decision making Style Style Used with managersStyle Used with Managers from Employees Perspective CoefficientRankCoefficientRank Rational3.9812.993 Intuitive3.8423.971 Dependent2.9833.522 Instant2.1342.704 A2.0751.835 Style Used by managersStyle Used by Managers from Employees Viewpoint Number60290 102.385319.291 Valence Degree44 .000.000
  • 10. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 10 | P a g e www.iiste.org The test results used for the styles of managers with value of chi-square = 102.385 and on the two-star level (sig = 0.000) is meaningful. Also test to see the style used by managers from employees viewpoint were checked. The test result value chi-square = 319.29 and with the value of 0.001 at the two stars level is meaningful. According to the coefficient table of Friedman test we can show the gap in the T-Test as indicated. Considering the table it can be concluded that the rational style is of the first priority or the dominant style used by the managers. So it is observed regarding the employees opinion that is given if the test result in the desired employee is observed that this style is located in the third rank. Intuitive style is ranked second in place by manager’s opinion but it is in the first place by employee’s. Also it can be seen that the directors have declared that their third priority in the decision making process is the dependency style, while according to employees in management decision making process this style is in the second priority. For instant and avoidance style managers and employees ideas are the same, and they are given the same rank. Now that the overall gap and the difference between the viewpoints of employees were identified in this section we investigate the difference and gap between the viewpoints of staff and managers in different organizations separately. In this test if α = 0.05 >P-value supposing equal means is rejected and the assumption of existing data is accepted. According to Table 8 and the test results, it is observed for the Governor-general according to t = 4.9 and P-value = 0.000 and mean difference in the amount equal to 0.46, we can conclude that there is a meaningful differences between the mean type of model used by managers and the average type of model Used by managers from employees viewpoint. A model that managers offer for their decision making process is different from what employees distinguished for their managers. To show this gap and difference as before we use Friedman test as follow Table-8: The two-sample T test to evaluate the homogeneity of style of manager’s used and distinguished style used by employees for managers of Governor-General Decision making Style used by Governor-General managers Decision making Style used by Governor-General managers through Employee’s Viewpoint Number34144 63.130141.945 Valence Degree44 .000.000
  • 11. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 11 | P a g e www.iiste.org Table-9: Friedman rank test, decision styles from the viewpoint of managers and employees of the Governor-General Table-10: Meaningfulness of Friedman test on prioritizing the style used by managers and the style offered for manager’s from employee’s viewpoint The test results used for the styles of managers with much chi-square = 63.13 and at the two-star level (sig = 0.000) is meaningful. Also test for the style used by managers from employees viewpoint were checked. The test result value chi-square = 141.95 and 0.001 at the two star level is meaningful. According to the coefficient table of Friedman test we can show the gap that was offered in the difference of T-Test indicated. By viewing the table it is concluded that the prevailing style of management used and to have the first priority allocated to is the rational style. As with the following test result about the employee’s opinion, it can be seen that the rational style for managers from employee’s viewpoint is located in the third place. From manager’s viewpoint dependency style have the third place in their decision making process; which employees in this process are putting priority on dependency style for their managers. Intuitive style of the managers in their decision making process and from the viewpoint of employees in the process of decisions is in second place. There is no difference of opinion between managers and employees in both style avoidance and instantaneous one and both groups have put them in the fourth and fifth priority. In this test if α = 0.05> P-value, the assumption of equal means is rejected and the assumption of existing differences will be accepted Governor-General Decision making Style Style used by managersStyle used by managers From Employees perspective CoefficientRankCoefficientRank Rational4.3412.923 Intuitive3.7123.482 Dependent2.7533.971 Instant2.6542.694 Avoidant1.5651.945 Decision making Style used by Governor-General managers Decision making Style used by Governor-General managers through Employee’s Viewpoint Number34144 e63.130141.945 Valence Degree44 .000.000
  • 12. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 12 | P a g e www.iiste.org Table-11: Two sample T test to evaluate homogeneity of style used by managers and the style diagnosed to be used by employees for their managers in the governorship According to Table 11 and test results, it can be seen that the results for governorship according to t = 2.99 P-value = 0.003 and mean difference equal to 0.288, we can conclude that there is a meaningful difference between the mean type of model used by managers and the average type style used by managers through the employees viewpoint. To show this gap and difference like the previous part we use Friedman test as follows. Table-12: Friedman test for the ranking of the decision styles of managers and employees in the governorship Table-13: Meaningfulness of Friedman test on prioritizing style intended for managers; the intended style for managers by the employee’s viewpoint Styles used by managers through employees viewpoint (Governor-General) Styles used by managers (Governor-General) 11514Number 158.01918.964 44V .000.001 p-value t Valence Degree Mean differences and confidence interval Standard Deviation mean Number Group Title .003 2.99 127 .288, (0.097, 0.48) .35 3.2857 14 Managers Homogeneity of Style used by managers and the distinguished style used by Employees for managers in the County .34 2.9974 115 Employees Decision making Style Governor Styles used by managersStyles used by managers through employees viewpoint CoefficientRankCoefficientRank Rational2.5433.063 Intuitive4.0713.612 Dependent3.8624.021 Instant2.3441.665 Avoidant2.0052.654
  • 13. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 13 | P a g e www.iiste.org The test results used for the styles of managers with value of chi-square = 18.96 and two-star level (Sig = 0.000) is meaningful. Also the test used for managers model used from the viewpoint of employees was checked. The test result value is meaningful for chi-square = 158.019 0.001 in the two stars. According to Table 13 Friedman coefficients test gap that has been indicated in T-Test exists a difference. With observing table 12 we can conclude that the dominant style used by managers with the first priority is the intuitive style. While by considering the outcome of this test about the opinion of the employees it can be seen that employee’s intuitive style of the managers from employee’s viewpoint is ranked second. On the other hand stuff believes dependence style to be in the first place, while the managers own opinion saw the dependency style in the second place. Managers have placed rational decision making style in the third priority and this is the same for employees. Managers in their process of decision making have placed instant style in the fourth place and the avoidance style in the last. In this test if α = 0.05> P-value the assumption of equal means is rejected and the one related to existing differences will be accepted. Table-14: The two sample T test to evaluate homogeneity of style used by managers and the style distinguished by the employees for managers in the county p-value t Valence Degree Mean differences and confidence interval Standard Deviatio n Mean Num ber Group Title .013 2.58- 41 -.36, (.064-, -.07) .57 2.7 12 managers Homogeneity of style used by managers and styles diagnosed by employees for managers in the county .33 3.03 31 Employees According to the above table 14 and test results we can observe that for the county according to t =- 2.58, and P-value = 0.013 and mean difference in the amount equal to 0.36-the result is a meaningful difference between the mean type of model used by managers and mean type of model used by managers through employee’s point of view. To show this gap and difference as part of the Friedman test like before we act as follow
  • 14. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 14 | P a g e www.iiste.org Table-15: Meaningfulness of Friedman test on prioritizing the style used by managers and the style used by managers from employee’s point of view Table-16: Friedman test for ranking decision making styles from the view point of managers and employees in the county Styles Used by Managers Styles Used by Managers from the view point of Employees (Governor General) Number1231 28.15723.747 Valence Degree44 .000.000 The results of this test is meaningful for the styles used by managers with value of chi-square = 28.16 and two-star level (sig = 0.000). Also the test was checked for the model used by managers through employee’s viewpoint. The test result is meaningful with the value chi-square = 23.75 and 0.001 in the two star model. According to the Friedman coefficient table test we can show the gap that exists in different outcomes of T-Test. By observing this table we can conclude that most important and the first style in managers claimed to be important in their decision making style is the dependency one. While this styles enjoys the second place in the decision making process of the employees. Managers have stated that using intuitive style is in the second priority in which employees have given it the first priority. At the county managers and staff have placed the rational style in the third priority and in this case there is no difference of opinion between managers and employees. Managers have placed the instant style in the fourth priority but employees claim that managers use the as their last priority. Also managers have placed the avoidance style in the last place but employee stated that they use this style as their fourth priority. 5. Discussion and Conclusion The purpose of the present research is to investigate the impact of organizational factors on the styles of manager’s decision makings and the difference between the perception of managers and employees of the styles used by managers in the Governor-General Office in India. Finding this research indicate there are relationship between position of managers in organizational hierarchy and decision-making style. The following research results indicated that organizational factors such as size of the organization and position of County’s Decision making Styles Styles used by managersStyles used by Managers through Employees Perspective CoefficientRankCoefficientRank Rational2.7933.023 Intuitive3.5023.761 Dependent4.6713.392 Instant2.5841.975 Avoidant1.4652.874
  • 15. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 15 | P a g e www.iiste.org director of the organization in organization’s hierarchy influence the style of overall decision makings by the manager. Also there is a meaningful difference between the perception of managers and staff about the style of manager’s decisions. To testing the hypothesis, both Chi Square and one sample t is checked and is used in the status of each organization. Results of Chi Square test both with ((017 / 0 = P and 72 3 / 12 = X_14 ^ 2) showed that there is meaningful relationship between the position of managers in organizational hierarchy and decision models. According to the table of results it can be seen the largest percentage of managers in the Governorate-general use rational style (50 percent) and the largest percentage of managers in the governor's use intuitive style (6 / 53) and the highest percentage for styles used by the managers in the county is the dependent style .(50 percent). The t test results for each organization confirmed the chi-square test results. The average scores for the Governor-General has the highest mean, which shows that in the governor-general rational style is used which is the prevailing style. For the governor in the second row it shows that the majority of managers use intuitive style. Also for the county it can be seen that the mean of opinion offered was less than average which shows the usage of managers from the next style or the dependent one. We survey relationship between the size of the organization (Governor – General, Governor and county) and decision making styles. We used multivariate analysis of variance or MANOVA and due to this case that the seen meaningful is smaller than acceptable meaningful level of value (005 / 0). Therefore supposing equal means for all styles in any organization is rejected. So according to table results we can conclude that for the rational style the highest mean is in the governor-general and for the governor the highest mean belong to intuitive style and for dependent style the highest mean can be seen in the county section of the study. But for two style of instantaneous and avoidant the meaningful difference between the organizations is not found. In this regard, I couldn’t find a research to compare the finding with. Also this research indicates there is difference between managers and the staff perception of decision-making models in different organizations. To testing the above hypothesis in general the two-sample independent t-test and Freidman test was used. Then these tests were repeated separately to incorporate organizational hierarchy to identify different perspectives of each organization and the following results be obtained. In the overall test the difference between the perception of management and staff from decision making style with values (001 / 0 = p and 32 / 3 = (348) t) were meaningful. Friedman test result showed that from manager’s viewpoint the rational style has the highest priority, intuitive style second priority and the third priority belongs to dependent style. While from staff viewpoint intuitive style highest priority, dependent style second priority and rational style is in the third priority. From the viewpoint of managers and employees instantaneous and avoidant style are in the fourth and fifth place respectively. Test results for the Governor-General with values (001 / 0> p and 9 / 4 = (76 / 0) t) has shown a meaningful difference for management and staff perception. Friedman test results indicated in this regard, rational style for managers in the highest priority, intuitive style in the second place and the dependence style on the third priority. While from employee’s perspective dependent style in the highest priority, intuitive one in the second and rational is placed in the third priority. In instantaneous and avoidant style from the perspective of managers and employees are in the fourth and fifth place respectively.
  • 16. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol 3, No.7, 2011 16 | P a g e www.iiste.org The test for governor with a value of (003 / 0 = P and 99 / 2 = t127) show a meaningful difference between management and staff perceptions of the decision model. Freidman test result in this case shows from manager’s perspective intuitive style has the highest priority, second priority belongs to dependent style, the third priority goes to rational style and instantaneous and avoidance styles have the fourth and fifth priorities respectively. While the results of this test from the perspective of employees showed that; dependent style in the highest priority, intuitive style in the second priority, rational style in the third, avoidant fourth and instantaneous style is in the fifth priority. The results showed that the in the governor, from the perspective of both managers and employees the dominant style (rational) is in the third priority. Test results for the county with values (05 / 0 = α> 013 / 0 = P and 58 / 2 - = t41 showed that there is meaningful relationship between manager’s and staff perceptions of the managers decision models. Freidman test results in this regard showed that from the perspective of managers in the county dependency style has the highest priority, intuitive style in the second priority, rational style in the third priority, fourth priority goes to instantaneous style and the fifth priority belongs to avoidance style. While from the perspective of employees, the intuitive style has the highest priority, dependence one second, rational style third, avoidance fourth and instantaneous style has the fifth place. The results showed that in the county like governor, the dominant style used from the viewpoint of both staff and managers is in the third priority. References Atayi, M. (2010). Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Shahrood, Deghat printing Company. Organizational behavior, Grid Publishing, Columbus, OH. Behling, o, Gifford, W.E, & Tlliver, J. M. (1980). Effects of Grouping Formation on Decision Making under Risk. Decision Sciences, 11, pp. 272-283. Driver, M.J. (1979). Individual Decision Making and Creativity, in Kerr, S. (Ed.), Harper Collins, pp. 61-62. Driver, M.J., Brousseau, K.E. and Hunsaker, P.L. (1990). The Dynamic Decision-maker, Harper Collins, pp. 9-11. Falop.janos, David, Roth, Sehweik, Charles (2006). What is Mean Decision Making in the Content of Eco – Infarmatic, www. Google.com Gholipoor Rahmatullah, (2008). Organizational Decision-Making and General Policy, Tehran, publisher Samt. Harren, V.A. (1979). A Model of Career Decision Making for College Students, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 14, pp. 119-33. Harn, Michael and M. Ramesh (2002). The Study of Public Policy Translated by Mansourian, Abbas and Ebrahim Golshan Tehran, Government publications Education Center., pp. 76-81. Hadyzadeh Moghaddam, Akram and Tehrani, Maryam (2008). Studying the Relationship between General Decision Making Style in Governmental Organizations. Public Research Office, Pub 1, No. 1, Autumn and Winter, From Page 123 to 138 Hatch, Mary Joe, Organization theory (2006). Translated by Danaifard Hassan, Termeh Publishing Company,
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