Transcript of "11.predicting job satisfaction among the academicians of universities in kpk, pakistan"
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012Predicting Job-Satisfaction among the Academicians of Universities in Kpk, Pakistan 1 Saifuddin Khan Saif Allah Nawaz2 Farzand Ali Jan3 1. Management Sciences Qurtuba University D.I.Khan, KPK, Pakistan 2. Department of Public Administration Gomal University D.I.Khan 3. IBMS Peshawar University, KPK, Pakistan *E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgAbstractMeasurement of job satisfaction or otherwise is a commonplace practice in all the organizations to periodicallyunderstand the attitudinal dimensions of the employees and plan the remedies in accordance with the findings ofthese studies. In analyzing the results, prediction of job satisfaction (involvement & commitment) as well as jobdissatisfaction (absenteeism & turnover) is mostly founded on the ‘Factors of job satisfaction attitude like pay, work,supervision, promotion, co-workers and environment. This study also uses the data on the factors for regression onthe employee attitudes of both positive and negative consequences. A sample of 218 university teachers from theprovince of Khyber Pakhtun khwa has been used to record their satisfaction from different factors of satisfaction.Multiple regression procedure was then applied to compute ‘how far positive and negative outcomes are explainedor determined by the factors of job satisfaction.Key Words: Predictors of Job Satisfaction, Involvement and commitment, and Absenteeism and Turnover.INTRODUCTIONJob satisfaction is of major interest of the researchers in the field of organizational behavior and human resourcemanagement. An array of research has been focused by the researchers to identify the predictors of job satisfactionparticularly pay, work, promotion, supervision co-workers and environment, no matter which theoretical modelshave been used by the researchers but majority of them pin point two broader groups of predictors i.e. environmentaland personal (Sokoya, 2000; Ellickson & Logsdon, 2001; Luthans, 2005:212). Similarly, researchers are exploringthe outputs of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction through measuring the variables of involvement and commitment(positive-outcomes) and absenteeism and turnover (negative results) to show different work related attitudes whichemerge from job satisfaction and dissatisfaction (Chughtai & Zafar, 2006).Job satisfaction has received a considerable attention by the researchers in the field of academic and non academicsof all work related attitudes. Satisfaction is considered as contentment felt after a need is fulfilled (Robins, 1998:170). It is a general attitude which is determined by the job predictors (i.e. pay, job, superior behavior andenvironment etc.) and the personal attitude (demographics) and other social and group factors (Shajahan &Shajahan, 2004:116). People working in the private or government organization bring with them certain drives andneeds that strike their performance at the work place therefore, understanding how these needs fuel performance andhow rewards on such performance lead to the job-satisfaction which is crucial for the workers and managers at theirwork place (Newstrom, 2007:123).Given that an employee’s job satisfaction depends on several personal, job-related and environmental factors,managers make all out efforts to use these factors as the predictors of employees’ attitudes. Several studies havebeen conducted to measure the demographic attributes of the employees on their attitudes of satisfaction ordissatisfaction through tests of significance (See for example, Bas & Ardic, 2002; Shah & Jalees, 2004; Ololube,2007). Similarly, ‘regression tools’ have been used to predict worker behavior wherein both demographics andfactors of job satisfaction has been used as predictors (Santhapparaj & Alam, 2005; Chughtai & Zafar, 2006; Beyth- 34
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012Marom et al., 2006; Karimi, 2007; Eker et al., 2007). It is highly important that university understands the needs ofemployees, introduce a constant appraisal system, and appreciation should be given to motivate the people at workplace because motivation is a key factor which reduce job stress and results high performance and productivity(Ahsan, Abdullah, Fie, & Alam, 2009).Thus, a stream of studies (on university-teachers attitude) uses ‘Factors of job satisfaction’ as the predictors ofemployee’s positive and negative attitudes through ‘Regression analysis.’ For example, a researcher (in Malaysia)found that pay, promotion, working condition and support of research have positive and significant effect on jobsatisfaction of the university teachers (Santhapparaj & Alam, 2005). Shah, & Jalees (2004), used work, paysupervision, coworkers and promotion to explain the dependent variable of ‘satisfaction level,’ while Chughtai &Zafar, (2006) applied facets of job satisfaction to regress on ‘organizational commitment’ in teachers. Anotherresearcher found that just work (single facet of job satisfaction) accounted for 62% of the variance in the level ofoverall job satisfaction (Karimi, 2007). Similarly, other researchers revealed that there was a meaningful relationshipbetween the level of job satisfaction, work environment and academic workload factors (Eker, Anbar, & Dirbiyik.,2007).This study explores the problem of job satisfaction among the academicians in the public and private sectoruniversities of KPK, Pakistan to empirically record the attitudes of respondents. The data has been collected aboutthe satisfaction of academicians on six ‘Factors of job satisfaction, which have then been used to predict the positiveand/or negative consequences.2. LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Job SatisfactionJob satisfaction of teachers has long been focused by an educational researcher because of the strong correlationbetween the job satisfaction and organizational behavior issues for example commitment, absenteeism, turnover,efficiencies and productivity (DeNobile & McCormick, 2006). Job satisfaction is a general attitude toward the joband the degree to which the people like their job and show the positive and negative behavior in actual workenvironment. It is a general attitude in three areas for example job factors, personal attributes and the other socialand group relationship in the society, a person with a high level of job satisfaction contribute positively, while aperson who is dissatisfied will holds negative attitude about the job. To identify job satisfaction and dissatisfactionmost of the researchers have used the facet approach. (Shajahan & Shajahan, 2004:116; Rocca & Kostanski, 2001).Job satisfaction has been studied widely and received a considerable amount of attention of all work related attitudedue to strong and positive relationship with productivity and organization commitment which is progressivelyrecognized by the organizational behavior literature (Locke & Latham, 2000:249-250; Gliem & Gliem 2001). Jobsatisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation, which is determine by how well outcomes meet or exceedexpectations, if fair HR policies are adopted by the organization and treat their employees fairly they are more likelyto have a positive attitude towards the job. If employees are treated unfairly they will have a negative attitude towardtheir working environment and will negatively affect the organization productivity. Similarly Bhatti & Quereshi in2007 identified that Job Satisfaction is positively correlated with employee participation, Employee Productivity,and Employee Commitment level. Thus, “job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job(Luthans, 2005:212; Wikipedia, 2009).2.2 Predictors of Job-SatisfactionAcross the literature, most frequently used constructs as predictors of job-satisfaction are work, pay, work-environment promotion, supervision, and co-workers (Sokoya, 2000). Irrespective of the theoretical approach to thestudy of job satisfaction, most of the research identifies at least two categories of predictor variables: environmentalfactors and personal characteristics (Ellickson & Logsdon, 2001). While for the measurement of outputs or results ofjob-satisfaction and dissatisfaction, employees’ involvement and commitment (positive-outcomes) and absenteeism 35
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012and turnover (negative results) are used as measures. An extensive studies in the organization behavior literatureshows that the most important factors of job satisfaction are pay, work, environment and cow-workers, similarlyother factors i.e. adequate working equipment and other resources, training opportunities and procedural justice alsopositively and significantly effects the job satisfaction of the employees (Robbins, 1998:152; Ellickson & Logsdon,2001).Given that, other researchers determine job satisfaction on the basis of positive and negative attitude to the job inrelations with the fellow workers, company policies, pay, advancement, promotion and customers (DeVane &Sandy, 2003). Similarly Luthans (2005:212) strongly identify work, pay, promotion, co-workers, and supervision asthe main factors of job satisfaction which is also supported by Shah and Jalees, (2004) that job-dimensions like,work, pay, supervision, promotion, co-workers relationship and the demographic features of the employeesdetermine the job satisfaction. In addition to this age, gender, education level, compensation and benefits, work,advancement opportunities, excellent working conditions, management policy, gaining respect, the size oforganization and achievements through talents have also significant effedt on the job satisfaction level of theemployees (Sokoya, 2000; Ellickson & Logsdon, 2001; DeVane & Sandy, 2003; Tella, Ayeni, & Popoola, 2007). • Pay: Wages are a significant factor in job satisfaction and help the employees to attain their basic and upper level needs satisfaction (Luthans, 1993:121). Pay is the first and important primary determinant of satisfaction for almost every employee working in public, private, small, medium and large organization. “Fair policies regarding to pay system are linked with job satisfaction and in turn positively affect the organizational productivity (Naval & Srivastava, 2004).” The pay refers to “the amount of financial remuneration that is received and the degree to which this is viewed as equitable vis-à-vis that of others in the organization (Luthans, 2005:212).” Thus pay is the prime predictor of job satisfaction and the amount of financial remuneration that is received by the employees in connection with the services provided to the organization. • Work/Job: Research shows that feedback from the job itself and autonomy are two major job related motivational factors. Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of responsibilities, self-determination, and feedback on how well they are doing. Jobs that have too little challenge create dullness, but too much challenge create frustration and a feeling of failure. Under conditions of moderate challenge, work that is not boring and a job that provide status, most people will experience pleasure and satisfaction from their job. (Luthans, 1993:121, Naval & Srivastava, 2004). Work plays a fundamental role in people life, according to employees’ context it should be attractive and contribute to job satisfaction of employees (Tsigilis, Zachopoulou, & Grammatikopoulos., 2006). So it will be a great opportunity for the organization to retaining their employees if they offer them jobs that are interesting, challenging and give them a chance of development and the sense of fulfillment of their personal needs (Chughtai & Zafar, 2006). • Supervision: Supervision is one of another important factor of job satisfaction which refers to the function of leading, coordinating and directing the work of others to accomplish and achieve the predetermine goals & objectives. A supervisor guides their subordinates so that they produce the desired quantity and quality of work within the desired time period. In short, a supervisor seeks to have the group accomplish the required work and likewise seeks to promote need satisfaction and high morale among the employees by using different supervisory style that affect job satisfaction for instance employees–centeredness and participation or influence style (Luthans, 1993:121; Beach, 1998:341). The group having democratic style is more satisfied than group of autocratic leadership or influential style (Naval & Srivastava, 2004). Chughtai & Zafar (2006) identify that satisfaction with supervision is an important predictor of organizational commitment among the university teachers. • Promotion: Promotion is one of another most important determinant of job satisfaction seems to have a varying effect of job satisfaction (Luthans, 1993:121). The research in public and private sectors shows that “job satisfaction of the employees is significantly influenced” by their perceptions of the promotional 36
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012 opportunities, most of the organization desire that their employees to be satisfied to become more productive and efficient, promotional opportunities in public sector organization based on seniority instead of performance and ability (Ellickson & Logsdon, 2001; Shah & Jalees, 2004; Robbins & Coulter, 2005; Tsigilis et al., 2006). Luthans (1993:121) identify that individual who are promoted on the basis of performance are more satisfy then those who are promoted on the basis of seniority. Fair promotion policies provide opportunities for personal growth, more responsibility and increase social status which increases satisfaction and intern enhances organizational commitment (David & Wesson, 2001; Naval & Srivastava, 2004) • Work-Environment: Organizational climate is a powerful determinant of both productivity and employee satisfaction. Its influence is so strong that it can outweigh the impact of the quality of frontline leadership (Beach, 1998). In a research, it was found that poor working conditions (hot, noisy surroundings) effect job satisfaction negatively (Tsigilis et al., 2006). Satisfactions with good Working Conditions (clean, attractive surroundings) enable employees to perform their work efficiently and thus are likely to have a positive impact on organizational commitment (Chughtai & Zafar, 2006). Thus Physical conditions/Working facilities aids, position that make working or doing things easier (Bas & Ardic 2002). • Co-Workers: Social environment of the organization can significantly affect employee job satisfaction especially co-workers interaction because cooperative coworkers are modest source of job satisfaction to individual employees. It is evidenced that a good and supportive co-workers and interpersonal relationship makes the job easier and enjoyable which intern increase the level of job satisfaction (Luthans 1993:122; Ellickson & Logsdon, 2001). Some of the researchers views that open communication, task independence, feeling of belongingness and coordination among employees increase the degree of job satisfaction (Naval & Srivastava, 2004). Research shows that ‘Relation with colleagues/co-workers’ is the largest predictor of intention to leave among the academicians (Hiroyuki, Kato & Ohashi 2007; Karimi, 2007). Chughtai & Zafar, 2006 assert that satisfaction with co-workers is an indicator of how highly the university academicians value the nature of working relationship with co-workers.2.3 Criterion Variable (Consequences)Involvement & CommitmentJob-involvement: It is the physical, emotional and mental involvement of people in an activity which provide asound base for decision making, so employees with high level of job involvement strongly identify with and reallycare about the job they are actually engaged (Beach, 1998:311; Robbins, 1998:142; Robbins & Coulter, 2005:375).In the same line other researchers identify that both Job-involvement and commitment are the positive consequencesof job satisfaction, which naturally increase the organizational productivity because it refers to the physical,emotional and mental involvement of people in their work (Beach, 1998:311).Organizational Commitment: Organization commitment has been extensively studied by different researchers andidentifies its antecedents and outcomes. It is a psychological state that binds the individual to the organization, astrong desire to remain a member of a particular organization, a person willingness to exert a high level of effortsand a strong belief and acceptance of, the values and goals of the organization (Luthans 1993:124; Bashir & Ramay2008; Tella et al. 2007). Commitment thus refers to an employees accepts the organization and wants to remain withit (Robbins, 1998:142). Most of the studies results show that organization commitment interlinked lower levels ofboth absenteeism and turnover (negative effects) and in fact, consider a better indicator of turnover then jobsatisfaction (Robbins & Coulter, 2005:3750). Thus, organization commitment is partly the result of inherentindividual attributes and partly the result of how employees perceive the organization and their immediate work role(Moynihan & Pandey 2007). All these makes employees to be committed to the organization and chances of quittingare minimal which in turn increase organizational productivity (Ongori, 2007). Therefore, Commitment is becomingprogressively important issue in competitive business environment because of its positive outcomes like lowturnover rates and absenteeism, improvement in customer satisfaction, higher work motivation, greater 37
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012organizational citizenship behavior, higher job performance, and indicator of the effectiveness of an organization(Bakan, Büyükbeşe, & Erşahan 2011; Dale & Fox, 2008)Absenteeism & TurnoverAbsenteeism: It is one of the most serious problems of the organization and most of the researchers have identifiedthat absenteeism reduce organizational effectiveness and efficiency and the higher absenteeism result lowersatisfaction (Marion, 2001; Verma, 2004:194). Similarly most of the research reveals that employees who aresatisfied from their job having a lower level of absenteeism then do dissatisfied and they are most likely to poorerperformance (Robbins & Coulter, 2005:375). Abeles (2009) pointed out that high teacher absenteeism lead to highstudent absenteeism and will negatively effect the students’ achievement.Turnover: Job dissatisfaction can de-motivate employees and result to quit their organization for the search of someother better jobs opportunities. Research shows a strong relationship between satisfaction and turnover, ‘employeeshave lower level of turnover if they are satisfied’ (Robins & Coulter, 2005:375). In two investigations of the effectsof unemployment, it was found that labor market factors interact with job satisfaction in prediction of quittingintention (Marion, 2001). Therefore, those who are dissatisfied in their job become less committed or give up theprofession altogether (Rocca & Kostanski, 2001). Given these facts, the job dissatisfaction is a reason for burnoutsand ultimately increases the turnover rate in the organization (Shah, S. & Jalees, 2004). Research on the relationshipbetween satisfaction and turnover is that much stronger that satisfied employees have lower levels of turnover whiledissatisfied employees have higher intentions to leave (Ziauddin, 2010).Table 2.1 Demographic Variables Variable Attributes Code 1 Designation Lecturer, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor DSG 2 Qualification Masters, Mphil/MS, PhD QUA 3 Length of Service 1-5, 6-10, 11-Above LOS 4 Age 20-30, 31-40, 41-Above AGE 5 Department/Subject Sciences and Non-Sciences DPT 6 Marital Status Married, Un-Married MS 7 Sector Public, Private PPR 8 Gender Male, Female GNDTable 2.2 List of the Research Variables Variables Code Predictors 1 Pay PAY (Independent Variables) 2 Work WRK 3 Supervision SUP 4 Promotion PRO 5 Work Environment WE 6 Co Workers CW Criterion 1 Involvement and Commitment IC (Dependent-variables) 2 Absenteeism and Turnover AT2.4 Theoretical frameworkThe dependent (criterion) variables of satisfaction level (Positive and negative consequences) are the primaryinterest in this study. Six commonly predictors such work, pay, working environment, supervision, coworkers andpromotion have measured this dependent variable. All these factors have positive influence on job satisfaction(involvement and commitment) if the respondents are satisfied from these factors and negatively predicting jobsatisfaction (absenteeism and turnover) if the respondents are dissatisfied. 38
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012Figure 2.1 Schematic Diagram of the Theoretical Framework on the basis of above cited literature.2.5 List of HypothesesHypothesis 1: Predictors and criterion variables are correlated.Hypothesis 2: Job satisfaction (Involvement & Commitment) is explained by the predictors if academicians aresatisfied.Hypothesis 3: Job dissatisfaction (absenteeism & turnover) is explained by the predictors if academicians aredissatisfied.2.6 Regression model for testing hypothesis 2 & 3. Model 1: YJS(IC) = β0+β1P+β2W+β3S+β4PR+β5E+β6C+µ Model 2: YJDS (AT) = β0+β1P+β2W+β3S+β4PR+β5E+β6C+µ Where, YJS(IC) = Job satisfaction (involvement & commitment) JDS (AT) =Job dissatisfaction (absenteeism & involvement); & β1P = Pay β2W = Work β3S = Supervision β4PR = Promotion β5E = Environment β6C = Co-Workers & µ= Error term 1. RESEARCH DESIGNJob satisfaction is an important issue for every organization public or private including the higher learninginstitutions around the world therefore several studies are being conducted to explore the problem from all possibledimensions. Several studies are available about different organizations and different aspects of job satisfactionincluding to identify the positive and negative outcomes predicted by the predictors variables i.e. involvement andcommitment and absenteeism and turnover for example “Analyzing job satisfaction of a teacher in institution” inIndia by (Khanale & Vaingankar 2006), “Job satisfaction among academic staff in private universities in Malaysia(Santhaparaj & Alam, 2005)’ Job satisfaction and burnout among the Greek educators in public and private sectoremployees (Tsigilis et al., 2006) and ‘antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment among PakistaniUniversity teachers (Chughtai & Zafar, 2006). “Identifying the job-satisfaction of Tutors in an Open University” 39
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012(Beyth-Marom et al., 2006) and the job satisfaction of the academicians in turkey by Eker et al in 2007. Similarlythere is study by Bas & Ardic (2002) on “A comparison of job satisfaction between public and private universityacademicians in Turkey”.3.1 Data collection: Survey approach has been applied in this study through a structured questionnairedistributed among 260 academicians in the Universities of NWFP, Pakistan. 218 completed survey instruments werereturned giving 83.84% of return rate. The questionnaire included questions about 9-demographic and 8-researchvariables: Predictors = (pay, work, supervision, promotion, environment, co-workers and Criterion Variables =involvement & commitment and absenteeism & turnover (see Tables 2.1 and 2.2 for details).3.2 Data analysis: The collected data were graded on 7-point Likert scale where 1 = strongly disagree, 2 =disagree, 3 = mildly dis agree, 4 = neutral, 5 = mildly agree, 6 = agree and 7 = strongly agree. All the primary datawas inserted into SPSS 12.0 to create a database for analysis. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance or 95% certainty of prediction & the correlation analysis were made in addition to check the correlationbetween predictors and criterion variables. The Reliability-analysis of the study gave Cronbach’ Alpha of 0.904 for55 items.4. EMPIRICAL RESULTS4.1 Descriptive FindingsTable 4.1 Cross-tabulation across Sector, Gender and Designation Designation Total Lecturer Assistant Associate Sector Gender Professor Professor Public Male 72 34 16 122 Female 36 11 0 47 Total 108 45 16 169 Private Male 9 8 5 22 Female 17 10 0 27 Total 26 18 5 49Table 4.2 Descriptive Statistics on Research Variables (n=218) Min Max Mean Std. Deviation 1 Pay 1.33 5.83 3.9381 .86926 2 Job/Work 2.60 6.80 4.5394 .81229 3 Supervision 2.00 6.00 3.8997 .89133 4 Promotion 2.00 6.60 4.3294 .94199 5 Environment 2.73 6.73 4.6530 .85652 6 Co-workers 2.40 7.00 4.6798 1.02416 7 Involvement & Commitment 1.50 7.00 4.2362 1.29441 8 Absenteeism & Turnover 1.83 7.00 4.9106 1.196314.2 Testing of HypothesesHypothesis 1: Predictors and criterion variables are significantly correlated.Table 4.3 Correlations between the Variables (Predictors and Criterion) n = 218 PAY JOB SUP PRO ENV COW Average I&C R .418 .599 .678 .513 .524 .696 0.5713 40
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012 P .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 A&T R .116 .286 .372 .467 .407 .543 0.3651 P .087 .000 .000 .000 .000 .000 Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). (I& C=involvement and commitment;A&T=absenteeism & Turnover)The correlation between the predictors and the dependents Hypothesis 1 comes up with striking results, for example: 2. There is higher average score of correlation between the predictors and the dependent variable of ‘involvement and commitment’ (r=0.5713) which shows a strong correlation b/w predictors and criterion variables. 3. Average correlation of predictors with ‘absenteeism and turnover’ is comparatively weaker (r=0.3651). 4. Both I&C and A&T are very significantly correlated with the predictor variable of ‘Co-workers’ with highest scores of (r=0.696, p<.001) and (r=0.543, p<.001) respectively. 5. PAY (r=.116, p>.05) and JOB (r=.286, p>.05) are not correlated with ‘A&T’ because they score below 0.3.Hypothesis 2: Job-Satisfaction (Involvement & Commitment – I&C) is predicted by the Predictors. (Model 1)Table 4.4 Prediction of Involvement & Commitment R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of F Sig. Square the Estimate .816(a) .666 .656 .75897 70.030 .000(a) Un standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients B Std. Error Beta t Sig. (Constant) -1.372 .339 -4.051 .000 Pay .929 .162 .624 5.734 .000 Job/Work -1.355 .261 -.850 -5.198 .000 Supervision 1.064 .121 .733 8.765 .000 Promotion .255 .096 .186 2.660 .008 Environment .064 .086 .043 .747 .456 Coworkers .544 .077 .430 7.099 .000 a. Predictors: (Constant), PAY, JOB, SUP, PRO, ENV, COW b. Dependent Variable: Involvement & Commitment (I&C)Multiple regression analysis have been used to test the Hypothesis 2 about the prediction of ‘involvement &commitment’ by the predictors. The results are extensively significant because all the predictors explaining 67% (R2= 0.666) changes in criterion variables. Furthermore, the overall correlation is also significantly scored, R = 0.816.All the predictor variables are significantly explaining the variations in the dependent variable except ‘environment– ENV’ which gives p-value of 0.456 that is well beyond the acceptable threshold of sigma (β=.043, p>0.05) foranalysis. However, all rest of the five variables has acceptable value and highly significant, Pay (β=.624, p<0.05),Job (β=-.850, p<0.05), Supervision (β=-.733, p<0.05), promotion (β=.186, p<0.05), Coworkers (β=-.430, p<0.05).Hypothesis 3: Job-Dissatisfaction (Absenteeism & Turnover – A&T) is explained by the Predictors. (Model 2)Table 4.5 Prediction of Absenteeism & Turnover by the Independent-Variables R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of F Sig. Square the Estimate .608(a) .370 .352 .96305 20.641 .000(a) Un standardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients B Std. Error Beta t Sig. (Constant) 1.724 .430 4.010 .000 Pay .525 .206 .381 2.554 .011 41
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012 Job/Work -1.170 .331 -.794 -3.538 .000 Supervision .532 .154 .397 3.454 .001 Promotion .471 .122 .371 3.867 .000 Environment -.010 .110 -.007 -.088 .930 Coworkers .504 .097 .432 5.190 .000 a. Predictors: (Constant), PAY, JOB, SUP, PRO, ENV, COW a. Dependent Variable: ABSENTEEISM & TURNOVER (A&T)The prediction of ‘absenteeism and turnover’ is comparatively weak because only 37% (R2 = 0.370) of thedependent variable is explained by the predictors. However, the overall correlation, R = 0.608 showing theassociation of the variables. Furthermore, the scores of the coefficients of regression are significantly effects thedependent variable except environment–ENV’ which gives the p-value higher then the acceptable score (β=-.007,p>0.05). However, all the rest of five variables have p-value in acceptable position, Pay, (β=.381, p<0.05), Job, (β=-.794, p<0.05), Supervision, (β=.397, p<0.05), promotion, (β=.379, p<0.05), Coworkers, (β=.432, p<0.05). 6. DISCUSSIONRegression procedure have commonly been used by researchers to predict the impacts of the factors of jobsatisfaction on the variables of involvement, commitment, absenteeism and turnover (see for example, Munyae, &Mulinge, 2000; Santhapparaj & Alam, 2005; Beyth-Marom et al., 2006; Tsigilis et al., 2006; Chughtai & Zafar,2006). Similarly, the purpose of this study was to measure the relationship between the predictors and criterionvariables by predicting the consequences (positive & negative) of the factors of job satisfaction through regressionanalysis. Hypothesis 1: The Correlation between Predictors and Criterion-variables.The results demonstrate that a strong correlation exist between the predictors (independent variables) i.e. Pay, job,supervision, promotion, and environment and criterion (dependent variables) i.e. involvement and commitment withthe average value of 0.57 (see Table 4.3) which shows a strong correlation b/w these two variables. However,surprisingly, the relationship b/w dependent (predictors) and criterion (absenteeism and turnover) is weaker i.e. r=0.37. Since both the averages are bigger than r=0.3 therefore Hypothesis 1 is accepted. This provide a usefulinformation to the researchers to understand that satisfaction from the pay, job itself, supervisory behavior,promotion opportunity, and job context (environment) having it meaningful relation with the positive outcomes ofjob satisfaction (involvement and commitment). Hypothesis 2: Prediction of ‘Involvement & Commitment’ by Predictors.The multivariate regression of the job satisfaction of academicians shows that predictors of job satisfaction are thesignificant determinants of employees’ satisfaction (involvement and commitment) with R2 of 0.665 or 67%. Thesefindings also support the study of Santhapparaj & Alam (2005) in Malaysia. Therefore, it is found that all thepredictors are playing significant role in the prediction process excluding ‘Environment’ with p-value of 0.456. (Seetable 4.4). Hence the Hypothesis 2 is substantiated establishing that in this study positive consequences are predictedby the academics satisfaction from all the factors of job satisfaction excluding environment. Hypothesis 3: Prediction of ‘Absenteeism & Turnover’ by PredictorsThe results of regression on negative consequences of job satisfaction are surprising in the sense that only 37% (R2 =0.37) of the dependant variable is explained by the predictors, while five out of six variables are playing significantrole in the variation process except one of environment which did not exerted its significant influence on thenegative consequences of job satisfaction. So rest of the change is due to some other factors like demographicattributes of the academicians. 7. CONCLUSIONS 42
Industrial Engineering Letters www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-6096 (print) ISSN 2225-0581 (online)Vol 2, No.2, 2012Data on the ‘Factors of job satisfaction’ have proven to be the best predictors of either positive or negativeconsequences for the organizations. Regression analysis provides enough data to understand the kind and power ofrelationships between the predictor and criterion variables. In this study the positive consequences (involvement &commitment) have successfully been predicted by the satisfaction from the factors of pay, work, supervision,promotion, co-workers and environment. However, negative impacts of the factors of job satisfaction are weaker inthe sense that their role determining the negative consequences are limited. The absenteeism and turnover is notsignificantly explained or determined by these factors rather some other exogenous factors. Furthermore, the‘satisfaction from environment’ not related with either positive or negative consequences at all.Given these results it can be recommended that if policies and plans are sorted out to increase the satisfaction ofacademicians from all the factors of job satisfaction, the positive consequences are definite to increase in theirintensity which would be helpful for the universities to improve the performance of the academicians. Furthermore,since the relationship between the factors and negative consequences have been established as weaker therefore apositive change in the level of satisfaction from different factors will make less addition to the negativeconsequences and more to the involvement and commitment.References: 1. Abeles, L.R., (2009). Absenteeism Among Teachers – Excused Absence and Unexcused Absence. International Journal of Educational Administration, 1(1):31-49. 2. Ahsan N., Abdullah Z., Fie, D.Y.G, and Alam, S.S. (2009). A Study of Job Stress on Job Satisfaction among University Staff in Malaysia: (Empirical Study), European Journal of Social Sciences, 8(1):121- 131. 3. Bakan I., Büyükbeşe T., Erşahan B., (2011). An Investigation of Organizational Commitment and Education Level among Employees, Internation Journal of Emerg. Sciences, 1(3):231-245. 4. Bas, T. & Ardic, K. (2002) A comparison of job satisfaction between public and private university academicians in Turkey. METU studies in Development, 29 (1-2): 27-46. 5. Bashir, S. & Ramay, M.I. (2008). Determinants of Organizational Commitment A Study of Information Technology Professionals in Pakistan. Institute of behavioral and applied management. Retrieved 25th March 2011: http://www.ibam.com/pubs/jbam/articles/Vol9/no2/JBAM_9_2_7.pdf 6. Beach, D. (1998). Personnel. The Management of people at work. Macmillan publishing company New York, USA. 7. Beyth-Marom, R., Harpaz-Gorodeisky, G., Bar-Haim,A. & Godder, E. (2006). Identification of Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation among Tutors at the Open University of Israel, The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 7(2). 8. Chughtai, A.A., & Zafar, S. (2006). Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Commitment among Pakistani University Teachers, Applied H.R.M. Research, 11(1), 39-64. 9. David, B. & Wesson, T. (2001). A comparative analysis among public versus private sector professionals, The Innovation Journal (The Public sector innovation journals). Ontario, Canada. 10. Dale, K. and Fox, M. (2008). Leadership style and organizational commitment: mediating effect of role stress, Journal of Managerial Issues, 20(1). 11. De Nobile, J.J., & McCormick, D.J. (2006). Biographical Differences and Job Satisfaction of Catholic Primary School Staff. A paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Adelaide, November, 26-30. 12. DeVane, S. A., & Sandy, Z. (2003). Job satisfaction of recent graduates in financial services, Chen Pirdu University US Department of Labor, Bureau of statistics, Available at: WWW. bls.gov. 13. Eker, M., Anbar, A., & Dirbiyik, L. (2007). Job satisfaction of academicians in Turkey and the factors affecting, The Journal of Industrial Relations and Human Resources, 9(4). 14. Ellickson, M. C., & Logsdon, K. (2001). Determinants of job satisfaction of Municipal Government employees. State and Local Government Review, 33(3):173-184. 43
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