Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5790 (Print) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online)Vol 1, No.1, 2011 Effects of Bad Drainage on Roads Patil Abhijit (Corresponding author) D.Y.Patil Prathisthan’s Y.B.Patil Polytechnic, Akurdi, Pune-411044, Maharashtra, India. Tel: +91- 9561840297 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Patil Jalindar Dr.D.Y.Patil Institute of Engineering & Technology, Ambi, Talegaon Dabhade, Pune- 410506, Maharashtra, India. Tel: +91-9923870356 E-mail: email@example.comAbstractDrainage is an important feature in determining the ability of given pavement to withstand the effects oftraffic and environment. While planning and executing the work the contractor shall take all adequateprecautions against drainage system to keep the road free from water. Even though many roads are of poorconditions due to different reasons .Poor drainage is one of those reasons. An increase in moisture contentdecreases the strength of the pavement. Bad drainage causes the premature failure of the pavement. Thepaper discusses the various effects of bad drainage on road conditions.Keywords: Surface Drainage, Sub surface Drainage, Blockage of drains, Moisture content, Water table,Capillary rise.1. IntroductionDuring the rains part of the rain water flows on surface and part of it percolates through the soil mass asgravitational water until it reaches to the ground water. Some water is retained in the pores of the soil massand on the surface of soil particles which cannot be drained by normal gravitational methods and this wateris termed as held water. It is required that the surface water from the carriageway and shoulder shouldeffectively be drained off without allowing it to percolate to subgrade. The surface water from adjoiningland should be prevented from entering the roadway. The side drains should have sufficient capacity andlongitudinal slopes to carry away all the surface water collected. Also in waterlogged areas specialprecautions should be taken. There are many such roads which are not having the proper drainage system.This causes the failure of the roads due to many reasons like increase in moisture content, decrease instrength, mud pumping, formation of waves and corrugations, Stripping of bitumen, cutting of edges ofpavement, frost action etc.2. Types of Drainage SystemThis work shall consist of constructing surface or sub-surface drains in accordance with the requirements ofthese Specifications and to the lines, grades, dimensions and other particulars shown on the drawings or asdirected by the Engineer.2.1 Surface Drainage1|Pagewww.iiste.org
Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5790 (Print) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online)Vol 1, No.1, 2011The surface water is collected and disposed off. The water is first collected in the longitudinal drains,generally in the side drains and then it is disposed off at the nearest stream, valley or water course. Crossdrainage structure like culverts and small bridges may be necessary for the disposal of the surface waterfrom the road side drains.2.2 Sub Surface DrainageChanges in the moisture content of sub grade are caused by fluctuations in ground water table, seepage flow,percolation of rain water, movement of capillary water and even water vapour. In sub surface drainage ofhighways, it is attempted to keep the variation of moisture in sub grade soil to a minimum. However onlygravitational water is drained by usual drainage system.3. Effects of Poor Drainage on RoadsAn appropriate understanding of the dynamics of water flow in roads is important for many reasons. Roadengineers, geotechnical engineers and environmental scientists are three groups of professionals that have anatural interest for moisture related questions. It is well known that the rate of road deterioration increasesif the water content of the granular material increases. Diefenderfer et al. (2001) presents no less than sixadverse effects related to excess water: reduction of shear strength of unbound materials, differentialswelling on expansive sub grade soils, movement of unbound fines in flexible pavement base and sub baselayers, pumping of fines and durability cracking in rigid pavements, frost-heave and thaw weakening, andstripping of asphalt in flexible pavements. In a recently performed accelerated load test, Erlingsson (2009)used a Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) to show that the rate of rutting increased in all layers of a flexibleconstruction when the ground water table was raised. On the positive side, ensuring proper (optimal) watercontent greatly improves packing of the road during construction, and may also increase its resilience whentrafficked, even though this effect is often neglected. In conclusion, initially maintaining adequate watercontents in granular road materials is beneficial but if the water content increases with time, negativeeffects will most likely emerge. It is generally desired to keep the road as close to or less than optimumwater content as possible over time. As stated by Dawson (2008): ‘Water and road construction do notmake for a harmonious couple!’ From this it can be seen that there is a very serious effect of poor drainageon the condition of roads. The different effects of water on roads which are supplemented with the casestudies are given below.3.1 Service road to Mumbai Pune ExpresswayThe construction of Mumbai Pune Expressway was carried out in 2004. The drainage conditions of this roadare getting damaged by the passage of time. The service road provided to this Expressway is mainly gettingaffected by the poor drainage conditions. The blockage of drainage by derbies and vegetation causes the drainwater to flow on the surface of the road (Fig.1 and Fig. 2).The condition remains same throughout the year.This causes the failure of pavement due to stripping of bitumen from aggregates. Fig. 3 and fig. 4 shows thedetachment of bituminous pavement layer due to continuous contact of water. The pattern of failure is gettingrepeated at every 200 m distance on the service road.3.2 Walhekarwadi Chowk roadThis location contains the presence of black cotton soil and water logged area around the road. Theswelling Index of soil is more than 50 % which indicates that the soil is highly expansive. As it seen thatvariation in the moisture content causes considerable variation in Volume of sub grade, this contributes tothe pavement failure (Fig.4). One of the most important causes of failure in this area is formation of wavesand corrugations due to poor drainage (Fig.5 and Fig.6). Also excess moisture causes increase in weight andthus increases the stress causing the simultaneous reduction in strength of soil mass.2|Pagewww.iiste.org
Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5790 (Print) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online)Vol 1, No.1, 20113.3 Nehru nagar Road, PimpriAt this location the removal of bitumen has taken place which is followed by the loosening of aggregates.There are two reasons for this. The location is having water logged area on one side and other reason isimproper provision of drainage of road. Some of the water is flowing away due to gravity but large amountof water is getting collected on the road surface and then getting penetrates into the road. This causes theincrease in moisture content of the sub grade and hence the potholes are getting developed. Also the porepressure causes the removal of aggregates from its place and accumulates on road sides (Fig.7).3.4 Holkar Bridge Chowk, KhadakiThe present area is badly affected by the presence of water surrounding the road. The highest level of watertable should be fairly below the level of sub grade in order that the sub grade and pavement layer are notsubjected to excessive moisture. From practical consideration it is suggested that the water table should bekept at least 1.0 to 1.2 m below the sub grade. But at this location the water table is very high and hence thecapillary rise through sub grade is taking place. This causes the water to come out on road surface (Fig.8).When vehicles are passing on this road, because of its load water is getting emerged from the road whichalso brings the clay particles on the surface .This causes the formation of potholes and the pavement is alsobecomes weak.3.5 Akurdi Railway Station RoadThe road is having a nala parallel to it which is running full of water almost throughout year. The nala isalso getting flooded due to the drainage water of surrounding houses. The result of this is increase inmoisture content of the area. Secondly the sub grade soil is highly expansive clayey soil results information of potholes (Fig.9).3.6 Approach Road to railway tunnel near Akurdi Railway StationThe major failure at this location of road is due improper drainage of water. The road is flooded underwater due to rainwater in rainy season and the drainage water from the surrounding houses in other seasons.The roads at this location are completely cut of due to the flow of water. (Fig.10 and Fig.11)5. ConclusionThe effect of poor drainage condition on road is very adverse. It causes the failure of road in different ways.Proper drainage system provided to the road increases the life of roads. But the improper drainage systemcauses the failure of the road at its early edge.ReferencesPunmia, B.C.(1989) “Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering”(12th ed.)Madras:A SourabhandCo.(Chapter 3).Khanna,S.K.,Justo, C.E.G.(2001) “Highway Engineering”(5th ed.)roorkee:Nemchandandbro.(Chapter1,8,10&11)Mina, H.L., Sethi, N.K.(2007) “Road Maintenance of Drainage,Shoulders and Slopes”Journal of IndianHighways, 37(6),35-38.MORTH specifications(2001), published by Indian road Congress on behalf of Ministry of Transport and3|Pagewww.iiste.org
Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5790 (Print) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online)Vol 1, No.1, 2011Highways. .Code of practice (1982) for ‘Maintenance of Bituminous surfaces of highways ’by Indian Road Congress,New Delhi.News papers like Deink sakal, Times of India, Pune Mirror. Figure 1: Road under water near Punawale village Figure 2: Cuts in road due to water4|Pagewww.iiste.org
Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5790 (Print) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online)Vol 1, No.1, 2011 Figure 3: Stripping of bitumen Figure 4: Cuts in road due to Water Figure 5: Expulsion of water from road5|Pagewww.iiste.org
Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5790 (Print) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online)Vol 1, No.1, 2011 Figure 6: Formation of waves and corrugations Figure 7: Formation of potholes due to Poor Drainage Figure 8: Expulsion of water due to Capillary action6|Pagewww.iiste.org
Civil and Environmental Research www.iiste.orgISSN 2224-5790 (Print) ISSN 2225-0514 (Online)Vol 1, No.1, 2011 Figure 9: Formation of potholes due settlement of sub grade Figure 10: Road affected by flow of water Figure 11: Cuts in roads due to the flow of water7|Pagewww.iiste.org
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