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11.development and modification of curriculum for excellence in teacher education

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IISTE international journals call for paper http://www.iiste.org/Journals

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11.development and modification of curriculum for excellence in teacher education 11.development and modification of curriculum for excellence in teacher education Document Transcript

  • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 9, 2011Development and Modification of Curriculum for Excellence in Teacher Education Bandhana, Sr.Lecturer, KCS College of Education (Women), Jammu E-mail:bandhana1@gmail.comAbstract:Today’s competitive world demands quality education. Therefore Quality teachereducation has become an enduring theme as we have to strive for better teachers forbetter education of children. The quality of school education has direct links to theknowledge, competence and skills of teachers and their initial training preparations. Thequality and coverage of any system of teacher education is always decided by the contentof teacher education curriculum and the operational modes used for its delivery by thesystem. Curriculum cannot be stagnant or once for all process of education. It is anevolutionary phase of education phase at all levels from KG to PG. It has to be in linewith the changing goals of education from time to time and therefore meet the needs ofthe changing environment in which we have to live in future and compete for survivaland success. Curriculum development and modification has to be rational but notemotional. Hence, for achieving excellence, it has to be in line with modern principlesand practices in education.Keywords: Curriculum development, curriculum modification, excellence in educationIntroductionThe quality and coverage of any system of teacher education will be decided by thecontent of the teacher education curriculum and the operational modes used for itsdelivery by the system. For determining the quality of teacher education curriculum, wedepend upon the general theories of curriculum development. We have to take note of thefact that curriculum of an academic or professional programme developed a point of timeis likely to get outdated within a short period of time .Several new concepts and practicescome into the field. The existing literature on curriculum development mostly concerns the principlesand practices relating to the school curriculum. The principle of governing curriculumdevelopment for teacher education is an area which has not been properly studied.Historically speaking the credit for determining the nature of curriculum for educating achild goes to Rousseau, more than 200 years ago. Later on, Pestalozzi, Froebel andFrancis Parker set new traditions in curriculum theory .However, it was only at thebeginning of the last century 1902, and i.e. John Dewey in the USA theorized the issue ofcurriculum in his treatise “The child and his curriculum”. There has been a long historyof experimentation, development and research in curriculum since then across the worldwith the result the teachers now require definite answers to several questions beforeplanning a curriculum. The latest one has been the emergence of Modular Curriculum(Pratt, 1980) and Local Specific Form of Curriculum (James Diaz, 1980).9|Pagewww.iiste.org
  • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 9, 2011 The curriculum, even the best available, will not be able to define all the expectedlearning experiences, assuming that curriculum itself stands for a document which helpsan educational system to understand the different forms of learning experiences to beprovided to the learners for achieving all the expected educational outcomes .Weare forced to squeeze everything in a one year B.Ed course. The models used for definingthe curriculum of the conventional academic year will not work for teacher educationespecially when we note that the main intension of the course is to develop teachingcompetencies in a wide range of instructional solution.The issue: how comprehensive is a curriculum remains mostly unanswered? What are thecomponents of modern teacher education curriculum? What are the core areas? Whichare the specialization areas to be included? Should there be a separate training incommunication? How can we accommodate all these to do full justice to them withoutincreasing the duration of course? All these questions have to be answered within the newframework of educational expectations for the 21st Century Knowledge Society.Vast changes are occurring in the concept of curriculum development .One such is theuse of Local Specific Curriculum and another well known work of Ivan Illich –the“De-schooling society-exemplifies this new approach. He suggested popular theatre,puppetry or mural newspapers and local radio broadcasts for communication especiallyfor communicating the the social messages.In the history of curriculum-movement at least six different types of curriculumorganization content have been identified by experts viz., (i) curriculum based onsocial content (ii)curriculum based on psychological content (iii)curriculum based onvocational work (iv)curriculum based on disciplinary work (v) curriculum based onenvironmental content and, (vi)curriculum based on the integrated or interdisciplinarycontent.Till now, the country followed independent programmes of teacher education whichvaried from one system to another or from one university to the other university. Theadvent of certain national open bodies for controlling the teacher education has helped toachieve a certain degree of homogeneity. The NCERT, the NCTE, the UGC and thegeneral policy formulation on education system have contributed to the evolution of ageneral consensus about objectives of teacher education.Waters (2007) stresses that the curriculum should be treasured. There should be realpride in curriculum-the learning that the nation has decided should set before its youth amarvelous future. Teachers, parents, the wider education community, the media and thepublic at large should all see the curriculum as something they embrace, support andcelebrate. Most of all young people should relish the opportunity for discovering andachievement that curriculum offers to them.Teacher education and school education have a symbiotic relationship. Developments inboth these sectors mutually reinforce the concerns for the qualitative improvement of theentire spectrum of education.The teacher must now be equipped not only to teach but also to understand the studentand the community so that children are regular in schools and interested to learn. TheNCF 2005 requires a teacher to be facilitator for children’s learning in a manner that childis helped to construct his knowledge. The launch of the massive Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaanin 2002 and the recent financial commitment and education access to augment UEE10 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
  • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 9, 2011mission have underscored the need to adequately prepare teachers to address the growingdemand for quality education. Unprecedented expansion of teacher education institutionsand programmes during the past few years characterizes the teacher education scenario oftoday. The NCTE and NCERT over the past few decades have addressed the review ofteacher education curriculum in the light of changing educational scenario and broughtout a series of framework. These frameworks provide guidelines on the development ofteacher education programmes incorporating current concerns as well as national andglobal developments. The pioneering effort of designing a curriculum framework forteacher education was made by NCTE in 1978. This was reviewed in 1988, subsequentlyit was followed by the development of a model curriculum by University GrantsCommission’s Curriculum Development Centre in 1990.When NCTE became a statutorybody in 1995,it brought out curriculum framework for quality teacher educationin1998.Another framework ,teacher education for future was brought out by NCERTto support the NCF for school education (2000). Two attempts have been made by NCTEto develop draft curriculum framework, the first in 2005 and the second in 2006 and twomore draft frameworks, one in 2007 and other in 2008 have since been added. Several initiatives have been taken in the country during the recent past to enhance thequality of teacher education curriculum for excellence .In the content of teacher educationa quality curriculum stands for its ability to develop professionally competent teacherswithin the assigned time of its operation .The primary purpose of teachereducation curriculum in the country is to prepare teachers for the different levels.A teacher working in a school has to perform a variety of roles .The “teacher role” shouldbe one of the bases for the development of teacher education curriculum.The curriculum of different teacher education programmes are generally conceived interms of the broad components like, (i) Theory courses (ii) Content cum Methodologycourses (iii) Practical work (practice teaching) (iv) Practical work other than practicetraining. Relevance and responsiveness are essential characteristics of a quality teachereducation curriculum. It is now widely recognized that teacher should pay greaterattention to the development of self learning skills rather than on the transmission ofinformation and memorization of facts. This shift has to be reflected in the teachereducation curriculum. UNESCO report called as Delars Commission (1996) haselaborated the new perspectives for teachers are expected to function in the 21st centuryclassrooms. The four thrust areas of modern education spelt in report has to be reflectedin new teacher education curriculum learning to know, learning to do learning to live withothers, and to learning to be. Relevance and responsiveness are interrelated and inter-dependent concepts. Even with highly satisfactory curriculum, there is always a scope forimprovement. Therefore, appropriate policies are to put in one place for timely revisionof curriculum document to make it up-to-date and in conformity to emerging new needs.The changes have to be made on the basis of accepted professional practices i.e. (i)Critical Review of the Present Curriculum (ii)Review of Teacher Roles andCompetencies (iii)Pedagogical Analysis (iv)Updating the Knowledge Base of TeacherEducation(v) Culture Specific Pedagogies(vi) and New Evaluation Practices.Barnett, Parry and Coate (2001) propose a model of curriculum that involves threedomains- .knowledge, action and self. Parker (2003) argues for a transformationalcurriculum suggesting that the Barnett et al model be expanded and concentrates oninteraction of three domains. Such a curriculum which would engage the student’s love ofknowledge and re-inspire the teachers would ultimately develop a mature critical selfnature.11 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
  • Journal of Education and Practice www.iiste.orgISSN 2222-1735 (Paper) ISSN 2222-288X (Online)Vol 2, No 9, 2011ConclusionFrom the above discussion it is clear that change is the law of life and those who lookonly to the past or to the present are likely to miss the future. Therefore, it is necessary tohandle the change due to globalization in a positive manner so that this change can beproductive agent in the developing countries. Hence, the creation of an educationalsystem capable of preparing people to live in the changing world is one of the crucialtasks of modern society.ReferencesBarnett, R., G. Parry, & K.Coate (2001),”Conceptualizing Curriculum Change, Teachingin Higher Education, 6(4), 435-449.Diaz, Jaimes (1986), “Learning Through Action in a Violent Environment”: In Educationand Task for Peace Education. WCCI monographHoward, J. (2007), “ Curriculum Development, Centre for the Advancement of Teachingand Learning”, Elon University.NCTE (2009), “National Curriculum for Teacher Education”, New DelhiPratt, David (1980), “Curriculum Design and Development”, London: HBJ.Parkar, J. (2003)’ “Reconceptualising the Curriculum: From Commodification toTransformation”, Teaching in Higher Education, 8 (4), 529-543.Saleem, K. (2010), “Dimensions of Curriculum Development in the Era of Globalisation,Journal of Research and Reflections in Education, 4(1), 1-13. UNESCO (1996), “Learning the Treasure Within”, Report to UNESCO of theInternational Commission on Education for Twenty First Century, Paris: UNESCO.Waters.(2007), “Shaping a Curriculum for the 21st Century, Curriculum Qualificationsand Curriculum Authority”, London: Croom Helm.12 | P a g ewww.iiste.org
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