CEREAL BASED CROPPING SYSTEMSIN INDIAALEX .K.GEORGEBSF-10-002Done by,
MAJOR CEREALS• Cereals are cultivated grasses(poaceae) withstarchy grains.• They are staple food to may areas.• Some of them are• rice Oryza sativa• Wheat Triticum aestievm• Maize Zeya mays
Cropping systems Cropping system is a critical aspect in developingan effective ecological farming system to manageand organize crops so that they best utilize theavailable resources.(soil, air, sunlight, water,labour, equipments) It represents cropping patterns used on a farmand their interaction with farm resources andfarm enterprises and available technology whichdetermine their makeup. It is executed in thefield level.
Basic principles of croppinsg systems Chose the crop that complement to each other. Choose crops and a cropping rotation which utilizeavailable resources efficiently. Choose crops and a cropping system that maintain andenhance soil fertility. Choose crops which have a diversity of growth cycles. Choose a diverse species of crops. Keep the soil covered. Strategically plan and modify cropping system asneeded.
Types of cropping systems Crop rotation:crops are changed in the field from yearto year according to a planned sequence rather thanthe sme crop being grown in the sme field. Multiple cropping:two or more crops grown in thesame field with in a given year with a defnite rowarrangement. Mixed cropping:two or more crops grown in the samefield with in a given year without a defnite rowarrangement. Strip-intercropping:two or more crops are planted inthe same field in alternate rows.
Efficient cropping systems• Cropping systems depends on farm resources, farm enterpriseand farm technology.• When land is limited, intensive cropping is adopted to fully utiliseavailable water and labour.• When sufficient and cheap labour is available, vegetable cropsare also included in the cropping system.• When capital is not a constraint, commercial crops likesugarcane, banana, turmeric etc can be fitted in cropping system.• Rainfall is <750 mm/annum, monocropping is followed.• Rainfall is > 750 mm/annum, intercropping is practiced.• When water is plenty, triple and quadrupe cropping is adopted.• Farm enterprises like dairying,poultry etc also influence the typeof cropping system.• When farm enterprises includes dairy, the cropping systemshould contain fodder crops as component crops.
Rice based cropping systemsIn rice growing areas several crop combinations(cropping systems) are in practiceI. Based on agro-ecological conditions,II.Market and domestic needs andIII.Facilities available with farmers.some of the rice based systems are,1.Mixed varietal cropping of rice.2.Inter cropping rice with other crops.3.Relay/paira/utera cropping.4.Sequential cropping in rice.
Mixed varietal cropping of rice• System of mixing seed of early rice (ahu) with late maturingdeep water rice (bao).• Mainly practiced in West Bengal.• Can avoid total crop loss at the event of flood.• The seed of both the types of mixed in 1:1 ratio and hasgiven higher yield than sole cropping of either type.• Growing of a mixture of autum and winter varieties in 3:1ratio in Tamil Nadu (known as udo) and Kerala (called askoottumundkan).• Under normal conditions it has created problems inperforming agricultural operations like harvesting, decidingfertilizer doses etc.
Intercropping rice with other crops• It is a common practice under uplandconditions in north and north-eastern part ofthe country• To grow rice intercropped with black gram,green gram, sesame, maize, finger millet orother miner millets.• The ratio of rice and inter crop is preferred tobe 3-4:1.
Relay/paira/utera cropping• The seed of succeeding crops like lentil, gram, pea, lathyrus, berseem, linseed etc. is sown broadcast in maturing rice crop.• This practice saves time; money (to be spent on land preparation etc.) utilizes residual fertility. • This practice is common in both upland and lowland rice culture. Sequential cropping in rice. Sequential cropping refers to the crops grown as preceding or succeeding with rice as shown below;• Irrigated conditions under upland• Rice-Rice-Rice Rice-Chickpea• Rice-Rice-Cereal Rice-Lentil• Rice-Rice-Pulses Rice-Mustard/Linseed• Rice-Wheat-Pulse Rice-Barley• Rice-Toria- Wheat Rice – Wheat• Rice – Wheat Rice – Wheat• Rice – Mustard Rice – Pea• Rice under integrated farming system• Rice-Fish-Poultry• Rice-Fish-Duckery
Major Rice Based croppingpattern• Rice -Rice- Rice -T.N. • Rice- Rice - Cereals other than rice • Rice -Rice pulses• Rice -Groundnut- A.P., T.N., Kerela • Rice - wheat • Rice -wheat - pulses • Rice- Toria-wheat
Maize based cropping systems• Maize has wide adaptability and compatibility under diverse soil and climatic conditions .• Hence it is cultivated in sequence with different crops under various agro-ecologies of the country• Among different maize based cropping systems, • maize-wheat ranks 1st having 1.8 m ha area mainly concentrated in rainfed ecologies. • Maize-wheat is the 3rd most important cropping systems (after rice-wheat and rice-rice that contributes about 3 % in the national food basket. )• The other major maize systems in India are o maize-mustard,o maize-chickpea, o maize-maize,o cotton-maize • rice-maize has emerged a potential maize based cropping system in peninsular and eastern India. • compared to existing cropping systems like rice-wheat and rice-rice, maize based cropping systems are better user of available resources and the water use efficiency of maize based cropping systems was about 100 to 200 % higher at different locations.
• Table 1. Maize based sequential cropping systems in different ago-climatic zones of India• Agro-climatic region Irrigated Rainfed• Western Himalayan Region maize-potato-wheat Maize-mustard• Eastern Himalayan Region Maize-maize sesame-rice+maize• Lower Gangetic Plain region Jute-rice-maize rice-maize• Middle Gangetic Plain region Maize-wheat Maize-wheat• Upper Gangetic Plain region Maize-wheat-mungbean Maize-wheat • Trans Gangetic Plain region Maize-wheat-mungbean Maize-wheat• Eastern plateau & hills region Maize-wheat-vegetables Rice-potato-maize• Southern plateau & hills region Maize-rice Sorghum-maize• East coast plain and hills region Maize-rice Rice-maize• West coast plain and hills region Rice-maize Rice-maize• Gujrat plains and hills region Rice-maize• Western dry region Maize-chickpea Maize+legumes• Island region Maize-rice Rice-maize + cowpea
Wheat based cropping system• One of the majoor cropping system in wheat based croppingsystem is wheat- rice cropping system.• the rice-wheat based cropping systems (RWCS) in India havesignificantly contributed in enhancing the foodgrain production andachieving the food self-sufficiency and food security• . Major rice-wheat growing states are Punjab, Haryana,UttarPradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal• rice-wheat growing agroclimatic zones1. Lower Gangetic Plain2. Middle Gangetic Plain3. UpperGangetic Plain4. Trans-Gangetic Plain.The average productivity is5–10 t/ha),
Wheat based cropping systems• Over mining of nutrients from soil,• Disturbed soil aggregates due to puddling in rice• Decreasing response to nutrients• Declining ground water table• Build up of diseases/pests• Build up of Phalaris minor• Low input use efficiency in north western plainsother wheat based systems• Wheat –chickpea• Wheat –fallow• wheat-rice-wheat• wheat-green manure-wheat• wheat-fallow-wheat.
Benefits of cropping systems• Maintain and enhance soil fertility.• Enhanced crop growth.• Minimize spread of diseases.• Control weeds.• Inhibit pest and insect growth.• Increase soil cover.• Use resources more effectively.• Reduce risk for crop failure.• Improved food and financial security.