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Photography Final Notes

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  • 1. Photography Final Notes<br />April 4, 2011<br />
    • Action Photography (Newhall, Ch. 8)
    • 2. Shift of still photography into motion pictures in the late 19th and early 20th century
    • 3. Photographers who are interested in movement such as Muybridge and Marey are connected to motion picture/movies
    • 4. Interest in grand scenes that had a combination of a totality of the whole, carried away to a distant place, but can also look at close up at details
    • 5. Not only technological but also different ways of seeing, and changes in what people want to see
    • 6. Eastman
    • 7. 1854-1932
    • 8. Kodak camera - 1888
    • 9. Allowed more people to make pictures
    • 10. Portable equipment
    • 11. Where the term “snapshot” originates
    • 12. Amateur path
    • 13. Earliest prints are circular format
    • 14. Church, George Eastman with a Kodak Camera on Board the “S.S. Gallia”, 1890
    • 15. Riis
    • 16. 1849-1914
    • 17. Sociological/social subjects/issues as well as documentation
    • 18. Police detective/reporter
    • 19. Began as documentation and publicized these photographs of social conditions
    • 20. Published How the Other Half Lives
    • 21. Used powder ignited flash
    • 22. Bandit’s Roost, New York, 1888
    • 23. Homeless immigrants crowded in crime-filled ghettos
    • 24. Home of an Italian Ragpicker, New York, 1888
    • 25. Photography vs. painting
    • 26. Painting
    • 27. can highlight, emphasize and extract things in highly realistic setting
    • 28. Photographer
    • 29. Same/similar subjects, takes what is there, more immediate, earthy and less fixed-up, and thus indicative of how things really were
    • 30. Pictorial Photography (Newhall, Ch. 9)
    • 31. begins in late 19th century
    • 32. pictorial vs. documentary
    • 33. Emerson
    • 34. 1856-1936
    • 35. Norfolk, England
    • 36. Against Art Photography of Robinson and felt it was unnatural to the medium of photography
    • 37. Liked the “natural” aspects of art
    • 38. Stay true to the medium
    • 39. Did not manipulate/retouch negatives
    • 40. Liked landscapes and the outdoors
    • 41. Specific titles
    • 42. Platinotypes
    • 43. Gathering Water Lilies, 1886
    • 44. Like Cameron - not concerned about the out-of-focus fuzzy/mellow/warm quality, thought that that reproduced how the eye saw things
    • 45. Not like Cameron - in that he is not concerned with creating a mythical setting, but rather interested in actual people
    • 46. Realism movement in French painting influence of artists like Millet who were interested in subjects of everyday workers/commoners
    • 47. Later claimed photography was not art!
    • 48. Art Photography becomes more popular in Europe in the 1890s
    • 49. Demachy
    • 50. Gum-bichromate process
    • 51. Creates textures of Degas
    • 52. Similar subjects, structure, strong silhouetted forms, shadows, still-life of the figure, painterly, pastel strokes
    • 53. Criticized as un-photographic and too manipulative (different than Robinson)
    • 54. Behind the Scenes, 1897’
    • 55. Frederick H. Evans
    • 56. Architectural photographs
    • 57. Emphasis on light
    • 58. Influenced by Impressionism
    • 59. Little or no manipulation of the negative
    • 60. Structure, symmetry, supporting elements
    • 61. Aubrey Beardsley, 1893
    • 62. Sea of Steps - Wells Cathedral, 1903
    • 63. Early Stieglitz
    • 64. 1864-1936
    • 65. American studied mechanical engineering in Germany
    • 66. Very similar to Steichen
    • 67. Important as a photographer, and in terms of his attitudes toward art in general, painting, sculpture, and photography
    • 68. European modernist ideas into New York
    • 69. Married to O’keffe
    • 70. Pictorial, not documentary
    • 71. Direct, honest and spontaneous
    • 72. Right moment at the right time quality, brief moments
    • 73. Still aware of the balance of atmosphere, composition, light and dark values
    • 74. Popular in Europe
    • 75. Degas lines that draw attention to the figure
    • 76. Textures in the clothing
    • 77. Paula or Sun Rays, 1889
    • 78. Captures lines through shutters creating a pattern on wall behind woman
    • 79. Extreme light and dark contrasts yet extreme detail
    • 80. Vermeer raking light from the left
    • 81. Director of Society of Amateur Photographers in America
    • 82. Through the journal and lectures which encouraged amateur photographers
    • 83. Exhibited high art of Cezanne, Picasso and Matisse as well as photography
    • 84. Didn’t do a high manipulating of textures (like Steichen)
    • 85. New York subjects
    • 86. Winter on Fifth Avenue, New York, 1893
    • 87. Notice large forms and shapes in the background
    • 88. Followers
    • 89. Coburn (1882-1966)
    • 90. Impressionist subjects
    • 91. Atmosphere and water reflections, etc..
    • 92. Kasebier
    • 93. Blessed Art Thou Among Women, 1900
    • 94. More of a Romantic quality w/ a hint of narrative
    • 95. Title - phrase from Annunciation in the Bible
    • 96. But maybe to reinterpret the biblical story in a modern way
    • 97. Could be a vague Impressionistic allegory
    • 98. similar to Cassat
    • 99. often beautiful repeated shapes and forms
    • 100. Cameron stagey qualities, and vagueness of subjects
    • 101. often Impressionistic shadows, dimensionality and flatness
    • 102. Early Steichen
    • 103. 1879-1973
    • 104. From Milwaukee
    • 105. Early career
    • 106. Moody landscapes and applied color in dark room
    • 107. Impressionist paintings of early Mondrian
    • 108. Studied in Paris in painting and photography
    • 109. Rodin and “The Thinker”, 1902
    • 110. 291 Gallery was first Steichen’s studio
    • 111. Graphic designer
    • 112. February 1902
    • 113. Stieglitz develops the Photo Secession
    • 114. Avant garde, cutting edge as opposed to ordinary
    • 115. Imitating the Vienna Secession group
    • 116. Independence from Academic art
    • 117. Stieglitz, Steichen Kasbier
    • 118. Goals/Ideals
    • 119. To advance photography as it applies to pictorial expression
    • 120. Draw together those practicing or interested in art
    • 121. To hold exhibitions
    • 122. Hartmann
    • 123. Wrote about two camps of Pictorial Photography
    • 124. 1) painterly (Steichen)
    • 125. 2) photographic themes and textures (Stieglitz)
    • 126. 1910
    • 127. 1st photographic art exhibit in Buffalo
    • 128. Helps legitimize photography as an art form to a wider audience/public
    April 11, 2011<br />
    • 1910
    • 129. Cubism, Fauvism, Futurism, birth of Dada and Surrealism, Kandinsky in Germany
    • 130. Later Stieglitz
    • 131. Primarily shown in New York
    • 132. Straight Photography, cropping is okay, but doesn’t manipulate in darkroom like Steichen
    • 133. Steerage, 1907
    • 134. Cubist painting influence
    • 135. Repeated shapes, flat space, forms and surfaces are very surface oriented
    • 136. City of Ambition, 1910
    • 137. Dominance of large repeating overlapping shapes and form
    • 138. Stage-set quality
    • 139. Georgia O’Keeffe, 1922
    • 140. Emphasis on shallow surface
    • 141. Closeup of woodgrain, structure and emphasis on texture
    • 142. Dramatic shadow around face
    • 143. Equivalent, 1927
    • 144. Cloud study
    • 145. Abstract/non-objective/non-representational
    • 146. Equivalent of moods and thoughts
    • 147. Emphasis on finding in nature organic qualities
    • 148. Often contrasts of nature and architecture
    • 149. Retains a tension in the depiction of space
    • 150. Most of the picture is surface oriented w/ little deep space
    • 151. Emphasis on forms and textures to create space
    April 18, 2011<br />
    • Straight Photography (Newhall, Ch.10)
    • 152. Strand
    • 153. 1890-1976
    • 154. New York street people portraits
    • 155. Figure in action
    • 156. Voyeuristic
    • 157. Moral issues of photographing blind person who couldn’t object unless you told them
    • 158. Emphasis on structure
    • 159. In terms of objects, rural settings and architecture
    • 160. Formalism
    • 161. Contructivist
    • 162. High vantage point with architecture creates interesting space
    • 163. Cubist collage
    • 164. Signs, words, text
    • 165. From Stieglitz and Gallery 291
    • 166. Porch Shadows, 1917
    • 167. Abstraction but still Straight Photography because very little manipulation
    • 168. Capturing in the world the sense of structure
    • 169. The White Fence, Port Kent, New York, 1916
    • 170. Ordinary scene but emphasizes form and design
    • 171. Interesting pattern and modeled, almost Impressionistic lighting
    • 172. Deep space and sense of distance but simultaneously very Cezanesque flatness due to light and darks push and pull
    • 173. Rock, Porte Lorne, Nova Scotia, 1919
    • 174. Ocean-side scenery
    • 175. Rock terrain
    • 176. Very close-up
    • 177. Close-ups of machinery and cityscapes
    • 178. Similar to Leger machine and city scenes, and the Purism movement which is an outgrowth of Cubism
    • 179. Literal machinery or forms that resemble machinery
    • 180. Signs of progress
    • 181. also O’Keeffe
    • 182. Town Hall, Vermont, 1946
    • 183. Sociopolitical issues of America
    • 184. Sheeler
    • 185. Constructivist, precisionist
    • 186. Bucks County Barn, 1916
    • 187. Patterns and textures in the boards
    • 188. Precision and organization
    • 189. Ford Plant, Detroit or Crosswalks, 1927
    • 190. Seen as positive progress and power of America
    • 191. Later Steichen
    • 192. Structured phase in 1910s and 20s
    • 193. Regularity, repetition
    April 25, 2011<br />
    • American Straight Photography
    • 194. Emphasis on shapes
    • 195. Reflects Modern Cubist painting at this time
    • 196. Not necessarily a narrative
    • 197. Outerbridge
    • 198. Geometry and structure in objects and shadows/silhouettes
    • 199. Flat cutout forms
    • 200. Cars/machinery (Sheeler, Leger paintings/Ballet Mechanique)
    • 201. Steiner
    • 202. Interest in the shadow of the form as well as the form itself
    • 203. Vernacular, everyday scenes
    • 204. America Rural Baroque, 1930
    • 205. Evoking an era of the past (Baroque)
    • 206. Curves in chair
    • 207. Shadows as well as object itself
    • 208. Siding on house
    • 209. Interesting shapes and textures
    • 210. Cubist influence
    • 211. Plays on/attention to surfaces to create space but still flat
    • 212. Weston
    • 213. Abstraction (handling of space, value shifts, variety of forms) as well as Realism (Documentary quality)
    • 214. Extended from Stieglitz and his circle
    • 215. Previsualization
    • 216. Little manipulation, finding the photo in nature
    • 217. Similar to biomorphic organic forms of Surrealism
    • 218. Goes out in nature and photograph things in a new context
    • 219. Clouds, Mexico, 1926
    • 220. Abstracting forms
    • 221. Less specific, focus on form and value
    • 222. Nude, 1925
    • 223. Interest in figure in an abstracted way
    • 224. Illusionistic texture, but lack of detail creates a lack of specificity/individuality
    • 225. Unique lighting
    • 226. Cropping of figure
    • 227. Lack of background
    • 228. Isolation (no Classical costume/drapery)
    • 229. However, hints of Classical (nude figure, sometimes contraposto, illusionistic idealism, etc.)
    • 230. Natural forms emphasized
    • 231. Mimics landscape/natural forms
    • 232. Artichoke Halved, 1930
    • 233. Sexual allusion
    • 234. Emphasizes natural forms
    • 235. Seeing nature differently (at a close range)
    • 236. White Dunes, Oceano, California, 1936
    • 237. Wind-blown sands
    • 238. Textured details
    • 239. Repeated forms
    • 240. Vast space
    • 241. But crisp details pull space forward
    • 242. Cunningham
    • 243. Leaf Pattern, 1929
    • 244. Closeup
    • 245. Pattern
    • 246. Lighting and dark contrasts
    • 247. Similar to Weston (and Adams)
    • 248. Straight Photography
    • 249. Adams
    • 250. Influenced by Weston and Strand
    • 251. Close-up Textures
    • 252. Descendant of Jackson
    • 253. Natural scenery
    • 254. Dramatic outdoor scenes with emphasis on textures which help push and pull space
    • 255. Zones of light and shade
    • 256. Yosemite National Park,
    • 257. love of natural scenery
    • 258. Mount Williamson - Clearing Storm or Sierra Navada, from Manzanar, 1945
    • 259. Pristine foreground rocks
    • 260. Raking light in background
    • 261. Dramatic nature
    • 262. Texture and precision
    • 263. Atget
    • 264. French
    • 265. Historic buildings for museums
    • 266. Documents Paris
    • 267. Casual quality
    • 268. Took outdoor photographs early in the morning
    • 269. Storefronts with interesting reflections
    • 270. Surrealist mix of things, but was not directly influenced by them
    • 271. Captures an era or way of life that does not exist anymore
    • 272. Formalism (Newhall, Ch. 11)
    • 273. Similar to experimental film
    • 274. Patterns
    • 275. Unusual technique
    • 276. Coburn
    • 277. Vortograph, 1917
    • 278. Three mirrors create hollow triangle and photographed through this lens
    • 279. Creates jewel-like forms
    • 280. Similar to Cubism, facets and kaleidoscopic effects and Experimental Films
    • 281. Schad
    • 282. Schadograph, 1918
    • 283. Laid cutouts and flat objects on light sensitive paper
    • 284. Similar to Cubist collage
    • 285. Moholy-Nagy
    • 286. Straightforward
    • 287. but irrational Dada found object quality
    • 288. but rational Cubist shadows that create repeated shapes
    • 289. From the Radio Tower, Berlin, 1928
    • 290. Aerial view looking down
    • 291. Photogram, 1925
    • 292. Similar to Schadogram and Rayographs
    • 293. Sensitized paper
    • 294. Forms, textures
    • 295. Letters
    • 296. Unstructured, unplanned Dada found objects
    • 297. But Cubist structure
    • 298. Surrealist automatic quality
    • 299. Heartfield and Hoch
    • 300. Photographic collage (Cubism) and found objects (Dada)
    • 301. Rodchenko
    • 302. Similar to Moholy-Nagy
    • 303. Formalism
    • 304. Celebrates technology
    • 305. Man Ray
    • 306. 1890-1976, American
    • 307. Settled in Paris
    • 308. Rayographs
    • 309. Similar to Photograms and Schadograms
    • 310. Expose sensitized paper with objects or other photographs layered and reexposed
    • 311. Chance results
    • 312. Similar to Surrealism and Cubism in painting
    • 313. Traditional structured technical composition but with the idea of chance
    • 314. Bruguiere
    • 315. Special processing
    • 316. Rich surfaces mimic drapery
    • 317. Instant Vision (Newhall, Ch.12)
    • 318. Portability of cameras
    • 319. Latrigue
    • 320. Small portable camera, snap-shot approach
    • 321. Interest in movement/moving objects/motion
    • 322. Grand Prix, 1912
    • 323. Salomon
    • 324. Journalistic photographer
    • 325. Famous people, current events
    • 326. No flash, existing light
    • 327. Candid quality
    • 328. Visit of German Statesmen to Rome, 1931
    • 329. Kertesz
    • 330. Instant moment, not interested in clarity of the whole or a classical timelessness
    • 331. Brandt
    • 332. Instant moment
    • 333. Parlor Maids, 1933
    • 334. Contrast btwn. humble maids w/ glamour/luxury
    • 335. Repetition of forms
    • 336. Organic contrasted with geometry
    • 337. Brassai
    • 338. Paris nightlife in 1930s
    • 339. Instant technique from Kertesz
    • 340. “Bijou”, 1933
    • 341. Alludes to woman looking for companionship
    • 342. Genderswitching/questioning
    • 343. Overdressed with excess
    • 344. Cartier-Bresson
    • 345. Seizes the moment/split second
    • 346. Accidental quality but sophisticated forms and composition
    • 347. Stieglitz, 1946
    • 348. Children Playing in Ruins, 1934
    • 349. During Spanish Civil War
    • 350. Middle of moment
    • 351. Social commentary
    • 352. Boy on crutches
    • 353. The ruins
    • 354. Cardinal Pacelli, 1938
    • 355. Hustle and bustle of a famous person
    • 356. Emotional quality of the faithful
    • 357. Weegee
    • 358. Newspaper photographer
    • 359. Social commentary on urban life
    • 360. Crashing-in on event, grabbing public’s attention
    • 361. Used a flash
    • 362. The Critic, 1943
    • 363. Overdressed old women juxtaposed with a woman asking for a handout
    • 364. Morgan
    • 365. Photographed dancers
    • 366. Martha Graham, 1941
    • 367. In a studio and carefully lit, therefore not documentary
    • 368. Documentary Photography (Newhall, Ch. 13)
    • 369. Documents some aspect of the world
    • 370. Mostly American
    • 371. Sander
    • 372. German
    • 373. Atlas of German “types”, professions and trades
    • 374. Full figure in their home or work setting
    • 375. Rural, urban, rich and poor
    • 376. Hine
    • 377. Ellis Island immigrant photos
    • 378. Workers/working class
    • 379. Trained as a sociologist, and the camera for him was a tool for research and communication
    • 380. ‘Photo-stories’ w/out text
    • 381. Similar to Riis
    • 382. Carolina Cotton Mill, 1908
    • 383. Helped educate the population about child labor situations which helped establish child labor laws
    • 384. Johnston
    • 385. Photos of the south black agricultural tradesworkers and black education
    • 386. Evans
    • 387. Depression era photographer
    • 388. 1930s (think 42nd St. references)
    • 389. Hired by US government to document the Depression conditions in the South
    • 390. Gas Station,1936
    • 391. Strong structure
    • 392. Instant moment/vision
    • 393. Very little manipulation
    • 394. Very careful to capture the scene of the place and what life was like
    • 395. Allie Mae Burroughs, 1936
    • 396. Washroom of the Burroughs’ Home, 1936
    • 397. Plain and ordinary
    • 398. Pleasing compositional and design elements
    • 399. Lange
    • 400. Portrait photographer and later documentary of migratory workers
    • 401. Time and place important
    • 402. Migrant Mother, 1936
    • 403. Captures the emotion of hardship
    • 404. Classic mother and child, almost religious
    • 405. Shahn
    • 406. 35mm w/ right angle viewfinder so he could photograph them without their knowledge
    • 407. Rehabilitation Client, 1935