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Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
Baroque art history final notes
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Baroque art history final notes

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  • 1. Baroque Art History Final Notes<br />March 15, 2011<br />Rembrandt<br />(1606-1609)<br />was not steeped in the Italianate Classical tradition, and does not fit the model of art evolving from the High Renaissance<br />many Self-portraits<br />born in Leiden and works in Amsterdam <br />Protestant culture; strong work ethic = blessings from God; desire for material wealth<br />Lived close to the Jewish Quarter and identified himself w/ the Jews<br />Hence Old Testament stories<br />A little formal education<br />300 paintings, 600 prints, 1000 drawings<br />Traveled very little<br />Learned Italian art through print collection<br />Art collector of prints, coins, and exotic costume<br />Financial problems due to buying up beautiful things <br />Domestic life<br />complex marital dowry issues’<br />moved a lot due to not being able to pay rent<br />rarely signed paintings; had students and active studio; and later artists started signing his name to increase profits<br />creates controversy of authenticity to some works<br />Rembrandt Research Project<br />1624<br />Age 18<br />Studies w/ Lastman (in Leiden?)<br />Large religious subjects, dramatic emotion (ex. Sacrifice of Isaac) <br />Lastman studied in Italy, influenced by Caravaggio and Utrecht artists<br />1631<br />Lived in the house of Uylenbourgh (in Amsterdam?)<br />Father of the daughter Saskia<br />1633<br />Marries Saskia<br />Her class was higher than his<br />Very good marriage<br />Moved to the Rembrandt House in the Jewish Quarter<br />Poses her as muse subjects (ex. as Flora)<br />Slight Classical suggestion<br />Printmaking<br />Very prolific and loved the possibilities of the medium<br />Can rework and reprint through different States<br />Etching and engraving<br />Metal plate<br />Helps to rework over and over again<br />Etching<br />Cover plate w/ asphaultum rubber which is cut into w/ a sharp tool to create the image, then dipped into acid. The acid cuts into the plate where the asphaultum is cut out<br />Engraving<br />Sharp instrument to cut right into the metal plate (no acid)<br />Drypoint<br />Similar to Engraving<br />Drypoint on metal plate<br />Often combined w/ Etching to create details<br />As small as 3” square prints, <br />1630’s and 1640’s spot-lighting details of costume w/ backlight glow behind figure in background<br />Seen in self-portraits of this time<br />Also large spaces w/ pools of light<br />Light and shadow<br />Caravagesque tenebrism - strong light and dark contrast (especially in 30’s and 40’s)<br />But also symbolical lighting <br />Ex. holy/spiritual figures; philosophers, and other important figures<br />shadows to suggest death<br />Self-portrait<br />1658, Frick Collection<br />As Old Testament king (David or Solomon)<br />As suggested by costume<br />Not interested in accurate Classical Greek and Roman antiquity, but rather Jewish Old Testament subjects<br />Later Self-portriat<br />Less of an external spotlight, less crisp and more of a sense of internal light emanating from the figure<br />Attention to color and fabric<br />Poor and elderly subjects<br />Popular amongst the Dutch culture’s pride in longevity<br />Often biblical narratives<br />Powerful figures in contemplation; history and passing of time<br />Start with specific narrative but not too specific time <br />1631-1636<br />Most prosperous time of his career<br />Group portraits <br />Similar to Hals<br />Natural movement and emotion through use of light<br />Blinding of Samson, 1636<br />Subject emphasizes light<br />Precision and clarity of early Rembrandt<br />Famous in his day<br />People collected his drawings<br />Starts tradition of trading prints with other artists<br />Drawings<br />Used as exercises<br />Outdoor sketching as leisure<br />100 Guilder Print, 1647-49<br />Bought it back from himself for 100 guilders to raise its value <br />Several states exist<br />Christ healing the sick<br />Individual ordinary figure ‘types’<br />Cross-hatching<br />How dark values are created in etching<br />Night Watch, 1642<br />Varnish has darkened it over time<br />Commissioned group portrait<br />Large size (not original, cut on one side to fit the location after it was moved)<br />11’ x 14’<br />Spot-lighting effect <br />March 31, 2011<br />1644<br />Mid-career<br />Biblical subjects <br />Fantastic setting and archetcture<br />Vision of antiquity<br />From Lastman<br />Bibilical figures w/ elaborate costume in elaborate spaces; heavy, rich tapestry costume<br />different than biblical scenes of the Italianate Classical tradition of togas and classical outfits/costumes<br />jewelry or metallic to reflect light<br />Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery, 1644<br />symbolic expressive glowing light to help define the form<br />light emanating/illuminating/originating from within figures themselves<br />difficult to pinpoint light source<br />Holy Family with Angels, 1645<br />Combines religious subject w/ contemporary domestic subject<br />Landscapes <br />The Mill, 1645-48<br />The Dutch in general are more literal and less concerned with traditional compositional elements of artists like Claude and Poussin. <br />Dutch conventions <br />horizon 1/3 up from the bottom<br />Aristotle contemplating the Bust of Homer, 1653<br />Many Dutch still interested in studying the Classics<br />Descent from the Cross by Torchlight, 1654<br />8”x6” print<br />Creates narrative and drama using ‘torchlight’to create extreme lights and darks<br />Expressive divine light<br />Ecce Homo (Christ before the People, 1655<br />Multiple states of the print<br />Bathsheba at her Bath, 1654<br />Used his wife as a model<br />Based on observation<br />not the Italianate form of Classical sculpture<br />voluminous tapestry garment <br />inner light glow<br />expression - sense of the unknown<br />Supper at Emmaus, 1629 & 1648<br />Biblical subject post-Resurrection<br />Both use expressive light<br />1629<br />Emphasis of the disciple’s response <br />Dramatic Baroque dramatic instant quality<br />1648<br />More symmetry, organization<br />Relationship between figures and setting<br />More sophisticated composition, light and details<br />More of a gradual moment <br />Peter Denouncing/Denying Christ, 1660<br />Peter - patriarchal figure w/ beard<br />Gestures help tell the story<br />Nightscene torchlight<br />Reflective metal<br />Syndics of the Drapers Guild, 1662<br />Group portrait of the businessmen of the guild<br />Guilds - set prices and had monopolies<br />Think Hals group portraits<br />As if the viewer has just interrupted their conversation<br />Scumbling flecks of light<br />Seen in Velazquez and Rubens<br />Moral issues from biblical or Classical sources<br />Dutch Baroque<br />Fabritius<br />Vermeer<br />1632-1675<br />Born in Delft<br />Married and entered painter’s guild in 1663<br />40 paintings extant works attributed to him<br />Debt, large family<br />May only had one patron<br />28 paintings in one auction<br />Most likely studied prints <br />Source of influence of the Italianate Classical tradition subjects<br />Combines domestic setting with Classical Italianate themes and gestures<br />Light and dark Caravagesque contrasts<br />Voluminous drapery<br />April 5, 2011<br />Used camera obscura<br />Due to depth of field issues<br />Flecks of light (circles of confusion)<br />Often dramatic spotlighting effect<br />Precise patterning and emphasis on texture in fabrics<br />Subjects and lessons of morality<br />Curtains - creates illusionism<br />Voyeuristic quality<br />Maps - social comment on Dutch trade<br />Focus on visible surface textures and reflections, not muscles and bones like the Classical tradition, or Rubens<br />View of Delft, 1660<br />Moved the buildings to balance composition<br />Combined important buildings to celebrate the town bouncing back from the disastrous explosion<br />Horizon - 1/3 of the way up<br />Milkmaid, 1658<br />Typical raking light usually from the upper left<br />Highlights on cloth and bread<br />Domestic scene celebrating middle class virtues<br />Homeliness, youthfulness, well-prepared food, clean interiors, working busily<br />Woman - substantial physical type<br />Foot-warmer <br />Gender assumption that women were cold, and men were hot<br />Eucharistic<br />Prominent bread<br />Milk could symbolize the wine<br />Woman with a Balance, 1664<br />Religious message<br />Woman weighing her jewelry<br />Focus on material possessions and oblivious to Last Judgement painting on the wall (the weighing of souls)<br />Girl with the Pearl Earring<br />Light reflection in the eye and earring<br />Hals quality of turning figure just about to speak<br />Art of Painting or Artist in his Studio, 1665-67<br />Typical Vermeer allegory<br />Rooted in reality - model dressed up<br />But also represents Fame or Muse of History<br />Trumpet, music, poetry<br />Focus on the wreath in the painting<br />Similar to Velazquez’s Las Meninas<br />Artist making statement about his place in history<br />Map - celebrates Holland<br />Curtain <br />Heavy drapery dividing a room<br />April 7, 2011 (Absent)<br />Hooch<br />A Courtyard of a House in Delft, 1658<br />Borch<br />Paternal Admonition, 1654<br />April 12, 2011<br />Ruisdael<br />Dutch Landscape painter<br />Often a human figure for scale doing ordinary/mundane tasks<br />Horizon 1/3 of the way up from bottom<br />Reddish brown tonality in clouds<br />Technically, the painting ground is a mid-value reddish brown<br />Jewish Cemetery, 1660<br />More obvious symbolism, complexity and Italianate sensibility than most of Dutch landscapes<br />Captures silhouettes<br />Darkened landscape - due to clouds<br />Windmill with village further behind<br />Bleaching Grounds Near Haarlem, 1670<br />Bleaching cloth<br />Local industry<br />Nationalistic trade<br />Church dominates the landscape behind<br />Windmill at Wijk, 1670<br />Clouds<br />Silhouette - strong windmill form silhouetted against the landscape<br />Hobemma<br />Less brooding than Ruisdael<br />Delicate handling of trees<br />Still strong silhouette<br />Popular amongst later Impressionists<br />Loves watermills<br />Cuyp<br />sea, river, marinescapes and ships<br />Claudian golden light<br />Cattle scenes<br />Potter<br />Cattle sub-genre within landscape painting<br />van de Velde<br />ship paintings<br />note: the Dutch ruled the seas in the later 17th cent and traded far and wide. Seascape paintings reminded them of the power of Dutch trade<br />Saenredam<br />Church interior architecture<br />Emphasized perspective which he adjusts for dramatic purposes<br />Heightened illusion of the real place<br />Shows more than what the eye can see<br />Sketch on site, large construction drawing, then the oil on canvas<br />Due to the Reformation<br />Protestant churchs had stark interiors, lack of sculpture, and no stain glass<br />Leads to a very analytical rendering <br />Figures for scale<br />Architectural painting has origins in Flemish painting<br />“first portraitist of architecture”<br />Very neat and precise<br />Dutch Still-Life<br />Disguised symbolism as well as merely beautiful description<br />Another level of meaning/symbolism<br />Holland in 1650s<br />Very wealthy society, though frugal<br />Still lives very popular<br />Used to brighten up the home in he winter<br />Orderliness virtues of Holland<br />Academic bias against still-life in France and England<br />Ranked low compared to any painting with a human figure<br />Not so much an issue in Holland<br />Has origins in Renaissance paintings with Virgin Mary with flowers, for ex.<br />Valuable objects within the painting<br />Imported objects and food such as lemons and seafood aphrodisiacs, as well as local common domestic products such as cheese and butter<br />mix of food not eaten, as well as food already cut into and eaten<br />unexplained sense someone has been interrupted from their meal<br />liquid, glass and metal reflections and textures<br />often objects like a knife or plate on edge of table to lead viewer’s eye into the composition through the picture plane <br />from Caravaggio and Italian sources<br />again suggests the idea of interruption<br />suggests the presence of people, as well as death<br />high degree of illusionism<br />van Schooten<br />Gillis<br />Claesz<br />Vanitas Still-life, 1630<br />Vanity <br />Self-absorbed with beauty, narcissism<br />Death will come whether you are ready or not, and there are more important things than material wealth<br />Over-turned glass<br />Suggests interruption<br />Skull<br />Somber and obvious<br />Resting on stack of manuscripts or prints<br />de Heem<br />flower still-lifes<br />sometimes bird’s nests<br />musical instruments<br />world and science exploration<br />Dutch imports<br />pulled-back table cloth<br />rare and unusual objects<br />butterflies<br />often a sense of crowdedness<br />suggests mid-17th century of later<br />some flowers are imported and some flowers depicted don’t bloom in the same time of the year<br />Flower Still-life with Crucifix and Scull<br />Obvious Vanitas theme<br />Heda<br />Breakfast still-lifes<br />Show meatpie breakfast meals<br />Objects entering viewer’s space<br />Vanitas themes<br />Overturned glasses, clocks/watches/timepieces<br />Hasty interruption<br />Overturned/broken glass, partially eaten food<br />Kalf<br />Very luxurious items<br />Drinking horns, silver objects, decorative vessels, nautilus chalices, collectibles, imported seafood, exotic imported carpets etc.<br />French Baroque Architecture<br />Mansart<br />Influenced by Italian Classicism through prints<br />Classical symmetry<br />Berniniesque paired columns<br />Curved Baroque shapes <br />Strong roof shapes<br />Balleroy Chateau, 1626<br />Style of Henry IV<br />Symmetry, quoins, tall ‘Mansart’ roofs,<br />More subdued than other Italian Baroque churches, for ex.<br />Le Vau<br />Great organizer, head of team of craftsman, landscapers, artists, sculptors and architects, father was a master mason<br />Designed ‘hotels’ - grand townhouses<br />Vaux-le-Viconte, 1657-61<br />Clear symmetry and proportions<br />Highly organized<br />Classical structure<br />Tower and oval dome<br />Garden view/façade/front<br />The back of the building<br />Le Notre<br />Gardens here and at Versailes<br />Louis XIV confiscated and gains property of the house and all the workers now became under his control/employment, including Le Vau who would later go on to work on Versailles Palace<br />Le Brun<br />Le Notre<br />April 14, 2011<br />Louis XIV<br />Bust by Bernini, 1665<br />Full length portrait by Rigaud, 1701<br />Surrounded himself with clever people with art interests<br />1661-83<br />Golden Age for France, unified, successes in War<br />Established Academy and Tapestry factory<br />Following the tradition of grand tapestries of the Renaissance<br />Colbert<br />arts and architect advisor for Louis XIV<br />Assisted by Le Brun<br />Le Brun<br />Dictator of the arts in France at this time<br />Organizer, designed tapestries, locks and sculpture<br />Ensemble decorations at Versailles<br />Institutions brought together the greatest thinkers, artists, writers and scientists <br />Endorsed their art through exhibitions and competitions<br />Conservative - no opportunities for young artists<br />Palace Versailles<br />Louis needed a palace to suite his aspirations, diversion for the nobles, and impressive to foreigners<br />Poussin as compositional influences<br />Gobelins Manufactory Academy<br />Tapestry and upholstery<br />Le Brun supervised 250 workmen<br />engravers, painters, dyers, goldsmiths, mosaics<br />school that replaced the old guild<br />had to master drawing fundamentals<br />French Academy for painting and sculpture began in 1648<br />Organized by Colbert and Le Brun<br />Hierarchy of students and teachers<br />Taught the arts by rational means, lectures and discussion<br />Influenced by Italian Baroque Classical tradition <br />The existing 1624 chateau was enlarged by Le Vau in 1669<br />Exterior <br />Statues on either side<br />Rusticated base, with more finished stone on top<br />Classical influence<br />First story has Ionic Order<br />Repetitive structure and symmetry<br />but this grand French Classicism is not as energetic and is more repetitive than the Italianate Classical tradition<br />Gardens<br />Planned by Le Notre in 1660s<br />Symmetry, order, geometry<br />grand fetes<br />theaters, suppers, fireworks displays<br />terraces give views of the landscape<br />water fountains<br />overall sense of symmetry, balance and organization<br />hand trimmed sculpted geometric hedges, plants organized to create patterns<br />imported plants<br />reflects colonial interest of around the world<br />Grotto of Apollo and the Nymphs<br />1670<br />Interior<br />Grand to suggest courtly power and the reception of nobility<br />Designed by Le Brun 1671-81<br />Decorated ceilings, illusionistic panels, marble floors<br />Trompe l’eoil effects<br />Apartments relate to the planets and Roman deities<br />Leads to the Hall of Mirrors<br />Added by Mansart<br />Stair of the Ambassadors<br />Designed by Le Vau<br />Long narrow form, marble panels, imitation tapestries with allegorical figures<br />Room of War and Room of Peace<br />Medallion forms with relief sculpture or painting relating to the theme<br />Mars Drawing Room<br />Ceiling paintings related to Mars<br />King’s Suite<br />Grand but private<br />King’s Bedroom<br />Rather plain wood structure but elaborate fabrics on bed<br />Railing - traditional, highly formalized, separates king from the people<br />Rank and statues determined how close you got to the king<br />Canopy over bed - suggests Roman canopy over a monarch’s throne<br />Hall of Mirrors<br />Late 1670s<br />Mansart and Le Brun<br />False windows with mirrored glass, and clear glass the gives a view of the garden<br />Gilded candleholders and chandeliers<br />Paintings by Le Brun the celebrates the glory of Louix XIV and France<br />Chapel Royal<br />1710<br />Classical style<br />Poussin<br />born in Normandy in 1594, Paris by age 18<br />studied Raphael prints, took in by a Medici court official and took him to Rome in April of 1623 where he settled<br />many French patrons<br />Landscape as well as historical and allegorical paintings<br />Classical antique sculpture, structure and order<br />Steeped in the arts and philosophy <br />Mythological, ancient literature subjects<br />Deep color highlights (though more somber/dull and unfinished figures who are less important, w/ more detailed drapery on the more important figures), similar sensual outdoor compositions, and voluptuous clouds, of Titian<br />Postures from Medici Tombs<br />Bernini influences<br />Mythological sources - ex. Ovid’s Metamorphosis<br />Often pairing with a moral lesson/theme to connect them<br />Every figure has different/variety of poses, responses, emotions, and hand and body gestures and unique personality<br />Very important in 17th century French art <br />Ex. Le Brun developed a tableau of human emotion<br />Often dramatic narratives<br />Triumph of Flora, 1631<br />Titianesque figures<br />Moving procession<br />Similar to Caracci’s Triumph of Bacchos on Farnese Ceiling<br />Ex. of Poussin’s early work of busy movement (not as busy or as fast and dramatic as Bernini or Caravaggio) (Poussin’s later work becomes simplified<br />April 19, 2011<br />Selene and Endymion, 1630<br />Selene - moon goddess<br />Curtain - drawn open<br />Arrival of dawn<br />Classical subject and figures<br />Love story btwn. a god and a mortal<br />Limited/somber palette<br />Reserved action<br />Architectural compositions<br />More figures, smaller figures<br />Buildings he would have seen in Rome<br />Technical, precise perspective <br />Similar to Palladio<br />Rape of the Sabine Women, 1635<br />Patriotic subject<br />To preserve Roman state, capture the women<br />Suggests the triumph of Rome<br />Precise architectural arrangement<br />Ancient statue influences<br />Individualized/different emotional responses and expressions<br />Compare with Cortona’s of 1629<br />Popular subject<br />Cortona is more Baroque energy and twists, contrasts/tenebrism of light and dark<br />Poussin not as interested in using this expressive light<br />Religious Subjects<br />Gathering of Manna, 1638<br />Israelites in desert<br />Organized grouping of masses<br />Emphasis on outlines<br />Groups easily identified<br />Outline of forms suggests study of Classical sculpture<br />Different/individualized emotional responses<br />Unity of Action<br />Starvation, Miracle, Conclusion (whole story)<br />Very Renaissance (as opposed to the Baroque moment)<br />Needed an informed/educated audience<br />Et in Arcadia Ego<br />1639-40<br />“Death is always present, even in Arcadia”<br />Shepherd figures visiting a tomb<br />Priestess - not as the same as the men<br />Muse or guide<br />Very simplified in terms of the # of figures<br />The Seasons series<br />1660-64<br />Represent seasons but also allegories of salvation/religious overlay<br />Spring<br />Adam and Eve in Paradise<br />Summer<br />Ruth and Boaz - marriage and fertility, Eucharistic bread<br />Autumn<br />Old testament of the promised land<br />Winter<br />Deluge/last judgment<br />Claude<br />1600-1682<br />Working in Rome<br />More stagey and artificial than Poussin<br />Greater influence of the Northern tradition due to teacher who was a Flemish painter working in Naples<br />Less interested in complex morality of Poussin<br />excited about landscape in and of itself<br />Liber Veritaties <br />a book of 195 prints of his work as a record<br />early example of an artist being conscious about documenting his work<br />helps scholars in dating and authenticity/connoisseurship issues<br />1000 documented Drawings<br />Landscapes/Seascapes<br />Pastoral Landscape, 1648<br />Mythological or religious subjects are not a part of the title<br />Composition - figure in foreground, boat, ruin architecture in mid-ground, deep space<br />Based imagery on prints, using artistic license using a particular place but shifts ruins, etc.<br />Zig-zag movement into space<br />Some narratives are more clearer than others<br />April 21, 2011 (Absent)<br />Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, 1648<br />La Tour<br /> St. Sebastian Attended by St. Irene, 1630<br />Le Nain<br />The Peasant Meal, 1642<br />The Forge or Blacksmith at his Forge, 1640<br />Champaigne<br />Ex Voto or The Two Nuns of Port Royal, 1662<br />April 28, 2011<br />Puget<br />French<br />Milo of Crotona, 1682<br />Dramatic Classical story<br />Le Brun-like expressions<br />Similar to Laocoon in facial expression, twists and drapery<br />Jones<br />Architect, stage designer, organizer<br />Replacing Medieval architecture in England with Renaissance Classicism<br />Admired Palladio and based his work on the Italian emphasis on perspective<br />Scenic court masque designs based on Medici Court entertainment of classical plays<br />Collected prints and sculpture<br />Traveled to Italy in 1613-14 where he studied Palladian architecture and bought four books on architecture by Palladio<br />Court official for Charles I<br />Elaborate costume designer<br />Queen’s House, 1616-17, 1630-40<br />Symmetrical Palladian qualities<br />Columns and balustrades<br />Classical fireplaces<br />Rich detail and color<br />Banqueting House, Whitehall Palace, 1619-22<br />Classical with red brick gothic irregularity<br />Performed masques<br />One large space<br />Began by James I and completed under Charles I<br />Interior<br />Rubens ceiling canvases <br />Apotheosis of James I, celebrates new monarchy<br />Wren<br />1632-1723<br />Taught astronomy and math at Oxford<br />Renaissance Man<br />Education, many connections to intellectuals and church officials<br />Studied Bernini architecture in Paris, but is more theory than practice<br />Town planner and architect after the London Great Fire in 1666<br />Rebuilt 51 or the 80 destroyed churches <br />Dense population where everyone went to a private parish church<br />Wren Tower<br />Mix of Gothic and Classical<br />Abandoned any stain glass<br />Rebuilds St. Paul’s Cathedral, 1675-1712<br />With the help of Protestant Hugonaut craftsmen<br />Classical front with portico <br />Dome <br />inspired by St. Peter’s and the Roman Pantheon<br />Interior<br />Vast space, paired columns <br />Similar to Bernini’s Louvre<br />Thick but classical segmented arches but with full arches above those to create symmetry<br />Emphasis on stonework and bright light<br />Long Medival choir<br />Creates great acoustics<br />Monuments in crypt where Wren was buried<br />Gibbs<br />1682-1754<br />Classical temple with a Medieval tower<br />Think the Pentecostal Church in N. Little Rock<br />Hampton Court Palace, 1689-1702<br />Versailles massiveness with 17th cent. Dutch red brick<br />Royal Naval College, 1696-1715<br />Similar to St. Paul’s<br />Paired columns and 2 domes<br />

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