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Ch9

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  • 1. Chapter 9   urinary system termsBy Alex Angelo
  • 2. Urinary  Tract  Infection  UTI    An  infection  that  affects   any  part  of  the  unary   tract.    Most  common  pathogen   is  E  Coli  accounting  for   80%-­‐85%    2nd  most    common  is   Staphylococcus   Saprophyticus  
  • 3. Symptoms of UTI"  Burning  during  Urination     lower abdomen (dysuria)   discomfort"  Frequency  to  urinate     low-grade fever"  Cloudy  or  foul  smelling     pelvic pressure" urine     Malaise"  Blood  in  urine   " (hematuria)   "
  • 4. Risk  Factors  for  UTI    Intercourse:  for  young     Urinary  Catheters:  An   women  sexual   unsterile  catheter  can   intercourse  accounts  for   cause  a  UTI   75%  to  90%  of  infections;     Others:    heredity  and    Gender:  Women  are  more   diabetes  can  also  cause   prone  to  UTI  due  to  the   close  proximity  of  the   UTI   urethra  to  the  anus.  
  • 5. Diagnosis  and  Treatment  of  UTI    In  most  case  a  diagnosis     Oral  antibiotics  are  used   can  be  made  by   and  clear  up  the  infection   symptoms  alone.   it  a  couple  of  days.    A  Urinalysis  is  used  in   more  complicated  cases.  
  • 6. Urine  Culture  UC    A  urine  culture  is  a     Urine  is  collected   laboratory  test  to  detect   midstream  into  a  into  a   the  presence  of  bacteria   container.    Usually  around   in  urine.   2  fl  oz    A  urine  culture  is  used  in   the  diagnosis  of  a  urinary   tract  infection.(UTI)  
  • 7. Results  of  a  UC    Normal:    No  presence  of     Abnormal:  Presence  of   bacteria  in  urine.    The   bacteria  in  urine.    A  count   culture  is  negative.   of  100,000  or  more   bacteria  per  a  milliliter  is   an  infection.    A  count  of   100,000  or  less  is  possibly   a  contamination  of  the   sample.  
  • 8. Retrograde  Pyelogram  RP    Retrograde  Pyelogram  is     A  retrograde  pyelogram  is   a  uretic  procedure  where   often  used  to  determine  if   a  physician  uses  dye  to   a  kidney  stone  is  blocking   visualize  the  urinary  tract.       the  urinary  tract.    
  • 9. Procedure  for  a  RP    Fist  a  local  or  regional   anesthetic  is  applied  to   numb  the  area.  Next   cytoscope  is  insertened  into   the  patients  urethra.  Then  a   catheter  is  inserted  through   the  cytoscope.    Finally  a    dye   is  injected  through  the   cytoscope  and  x-­‐rays  are   taken.    
  • 10. Results  of  a  RP    Normal:  Kidneys,  blotter     Abnormal:  The  flow  of   and  ureters  show  now   the  dye  is  blocked.     blockage  and  appear   Revealing  the  location  of   normal   a  stone.  
  • 11. Blood  Urea  Nitrogen  BUN    Blood  urea  nitrogen  is  a   A  BUN  is  done  to  test  the   measurement  of  the   function  of  the  kidneys.       amount  of  nitrogen  in  the   blood  stream  in  the  form   of  urea.    
  • 12. Procedure  of  a    BUN    First  an  elastic  band  is   wrapped  around  the   upper  arm  to  stop  the   flow  of  blood.    Next  a   sterile  needle  is  inserted   into  the  vain.    Blood  is   collected  through  the   needle  into  a  tube.    Then,   the  needle  is  removed   and  pressure  is  applied  to   the  site.      
  • 13. Results  of  a  BUN    Normal:  6-­‐20  milligrams     A  high  reading  may  be   per  deciliter  or  2.1-­‐7.1   caused  by  a  damaged  or   millimoles  per  liter   infected  kidney.     A  low  reading  may  be   caused  by  a  poor  diet  or  a   damaged  liver.  
  • 14. Results  of  a  BUN    Normal:  6-­‐20  milligrams     A  high  reading  may  be   per  deciliter  or  2.1-­‐7.1   caused  by  a  damaged  or   millimoles  per  liter   infected  kidney.     A  low  reading  may  be   caused  by  a  poor  diet  or  a   damaged  liver.  
  • 15. Acute  Renal  Failure  ARF    Acute  renal  failure  is  a   rapid  lose  of  kidney   function.  
  • 16. Symptoms  and  Causes  of  ARF    Fatigue     Perenal:  A  decrease  of    Headaches   blood  flow  to  the  kidney    Loose  of  appetite     Intrinsic:  Damage  to  the    Lower  back  pain   kidney  itself     Postrenal:    An  obstruction    Dehydration   of  the  tract    Irregular  heart  beat  
  • 17. Diagnosis  and  treatment  of  ARF    Can  be  detected  by  a     A  patient  my  never   decrease  in  urine  output.   recover  full  renal  function    Blood  can  be  tested  for   and  will  require  dialysis   presence  of  substances   that  are  eliminated  by  the   kidneys.